Published online by Cambridge University Press: 15 April 2021
The purpose of this chapter is to review some of the factors that influence laboratory and clinical outcomes, broadly under the heading of optimal handling techniques. Two principal environments are encountered – inside and outside the incubator. The chapter will address media buffers, gas atmosphere, timing and setting up culture or holding vessels, protection of medium performance, temperature relative to handling gametes and embryos, lighting, pH, incubation choices, and workflow. The importance of the interplay between these variables cannot be overlooked.