Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-7jw6s Total loading time: 0.933 Render date: 2022-12-01T15:02:52.583Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Book contents

Chapter 5 - Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

Optimizing Quality of Life and Long-Term Effects

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 June 2020

Nicholas Panay
Queen Charlotte's & Chelsea Hospital, London
Paula Briggs
Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust
Gabor T. Kovacs
Monash University, Victoria
Get access


Quality of life is defined as the psychological and physical well-being depending on influences of genetic and environmental factors.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Slijepcevic, D, Stozinic, S, Vujovic, S. Stres i somatizacija. In: Strucna knjiga. 1994. Ur Vlahovic Z. Beograd.Google Scholar
Vujovic, S, Brincat, M, Erel, T, et al. EMAS position statement: managing women with premature ovarian failure. Maturitas 2010;67:91–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
ESHRE guideline: management of women with premature ovarian insufficiency. Human Reprod Embriol 2016;5:926–37.Google Scholar
Bodnar, AG, Quekkette, M, Frolkis, AM, et al. Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. Science 1998;16:349–52.Google Scholar
Huang, Y, Hu, C, Yehaifeng, , et al. InflammAging: a new mechanism affecting premature ovarian insufficiency. J Immunol Res 2019;2019:8069898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Said, S, el-Demerdash, J, Tuohy, VK. Autoimmune targeting disruption of pituitary-ovarian axis causes premature ovarian insufficiency. J Immunol 2006;3:1988–98.Google Scholar
Tao, XY, Zuo, AZ, Wang, JQ, Tao, FB. Effects of primary ovarian insufficiency and early natural menopause on mortality: a meta analysis. Climacteric 2016;19:2736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lennep, JER, Heida, KV, Bots, ML, Hoek, A. Cardiovascular disease in women with premature ovarian insufficiency: a systematic review and meta analysis. Eur J Prevent Cardiol 2016;23:178–86.Google Scholar
Amagai, Y, Ishikawa, S, Gotoh, T, et al. Age at menopause and mortality in Japan: the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study. J Epidemiol 2006;16:161–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gallagher, LG, Davis, LB, Ray, RM, et al. Reproductive history and mortality from cardiovascular diseases among women textile workers in Shangai, China. Int J Epidemiol 2011;40:1510–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsen, BK, Heuch, I, Kvale, G, et al. Age at natural menopause and all-cause mortality: a 37 year follow up of 19 731 Norwegian women. Am J Epidemiol 2003;1(57):923–9.Google Scholar
Wu, X, Cai, H, Kallianpur, A. Impact of premature ovarian failure on mortality and morbidity among Chinese women. PloS ONE 2014;9:e89597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gianini, A, Genazzani, AR, Simoncini, T. The long-term risks of premature ovarian insufficiency. In: Genazzani, AR, Tarlatszis, B, Genazzani, AR, eds. Frontiers in Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 3, Ovarian Function and Reproduction – from Need to Possibilities. 2016. Springer pp. 61–6.Google Scholar
Gerval, MO, Stevenson, J. Establishing the risk related to hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease in women. Clin Pharm 2017;5:724.Google Scholar
Archer, DF, Thorneycroft, IH, Foegh, M. Long term safety of drospirenone – estradiol for hormone therapy: a randomized, double blind multicenter trial. Menopause 2005;12:716–27.Google Scholar
Canpolat, U. The association of premature ovarian insufficiency with ventricular repolatization dynamics by QT dynamicity. Europace 2013;15:1657–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuylaksizoglu, M, Ipeka, S, Kebapcilar, L, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in women with premature ovarian insufficiency. Biol Trace Elim Rep 2013;154:313–20.Google Scholar
Pernicova, I, Korbonis, M. Metforin – mode of action and clinical implications for Diabetes and cancer. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10:577–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, EL. Enhance CD-8 T-cell memory by modulating fatty acid metabolism. Nature 2009;460:103–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marina, LJ, Ivovic, M, Vujovic, S, et al. Luteinizing hormone and insulin resistance in menopausal patients with adrenal incidentalomas: the cause–effect relationship? Clin Endocrinol 2018;4:541–8.Google Scholar
Boyle, WJ, Simonet, WS, Lacey, DL. Osteoclast differentiation and activity. Nature 2003;423:337–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vega, EM, Egoa, MA, Mautalen, CA. Influence of menopausal age on the severity of osteoporosis in women with vertebral fractures. Maturitas 1994;19:117–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meczekalski, B, Podfigurna-Stopa, A, Genazzani, AR. Hypoestrogenism in young women and its influence on bone mineral density. Gynecol Endocrinol 2010;26:625–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Popat, VB, Calis, KA, Vanderhoot, VH. Bone mineral density in estrogen deficient young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;54:2777–83.Google Scholar
Luine, VN. Estradiol and cognitive function: past, present, future. Horm Behav 2014;66:602–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bove, R, Secor, E, Chibnik, LB. Age at surgical menopause influences cognitive decline and Alzheimer pathology in older women. Neurology 2014;82:222–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pacello, PC, Yelc, PA, Rabelo, C. Dyspareunia and lubrication in premature ovarian failure using hormone therapy and vaginal health. Clin Endocrinol 2014;17:342–7.Google Scholar
Nappi, RE, Cucinella, L, Martini, E, et al. Sexuality in premature ovarian insufficiency. Climacteric 2019;22:289–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Kesteren, YM, Schoemaher, J. Premature ovarian failure: a systematic review on therapeutic interventions to restoring ovarian function and achieve pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update 1999;5:483–92.Google Scholar
Letru-Kornish, H, Delaian, S. Successful pregnancy after combined pentoxyphilline tocopherole treatment in women with premature ovarian failure. Fertil Steril 2003;79:439–41.Google Scholar
Hubayler, ZR, Popat, V, Vanderhoof, VH, et al. A prospective evaluation of antral follicle function in women with 46,XX spontaneous premature ovarian insufficiency. Fertil Steril 2010;94:1769–74.Google Scholar
Vujovic, S, Ivovic, M, Tancic Gajic, M, Genazzani, AR, et al. Endometrium receptivity in premature ovarian insufficiency – how to improve fertility rate and predict diseases? Gynecol Endocrinol 2018;12:1011–15.Google Scholar
Hipp, HS, Claren, KH, Spencer, JF. Reproductive and gynecological care of women with fragile X premature ovarian insufficiency. Menopause 2010;23:993–9.Google Scholar
Baber, R, Pannay, N. Tenton and International menopause society writing group: IMS recommendations in women’s midlife health and hormone replacement therapy. Climacteric 2016;2:109–50.Google Scholar
Sullivan, SP, Sarrel, PM, Nelson, LM. Hormone replacement therapy in young women with premature ovarian insufficiency and early menopause. Fertil Steril 2016;100:1588–99.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats