Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T16:45:58.547Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Bibliography

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2018

James Loxton
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
Scott Mainwaring
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Life after Dictatorship
Authoritarian Successor Parties Worldwide
, pp. 360 - 397
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abegaz, Berhanu. 2013. “Political Parties in Business: Rent-seekers, Developmentalists, or Both?The Journal of Development Studies 49(11): 14671483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abente-Brun, Diego. 2009. “Paraguay: The Unraveling of One-Party Rule.” Journal of Democracy 20(1): 143156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ackerman, John M. 2012. “The Return of the Mexican Dinosaur.” Foreign Policy, July 2.Google Scholar
Adrogué, Gerardo. 1993. “Los ex militares en política. Bases sociales y cambios en los patrones de representación política.” Desarrollo Económico 33(131): 425442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ágh, Attila. 1995. “Partial Consolidation of the East-Central European Parties: The Case of the Hungarian Socialist Party.” Party Politics 1(4): 491514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agosto, Gabriela and Villamán, Francisco Cueto. 2001. “República Dominicana.” In Sáez, Manuel Alcántara and Freidenberg, Flavia, eds., Partidos Políticos de América Latina: Centroamérica, México y República Dominicana, pp. 615698. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.Google Scholar
Aguayo, Sergio and Serdán, Alberto. 2009. “Es Gordillo maestra del presupuesto.” Reforma, December 13, p. 6Google Scholar
Aibar, Julio. 2005. “El retorno del general. El bussismo, la otra cara de la democracia argentina.” Perfiles Latinoamericanos 26: 199226.Google Scholar
Alba Vega, Carlos. 2006. “Los empresarios y la democracia en México.” Foro Internacional 46(1): 122149.Google Scholar
Albertus, Michael. 2015. Autocracy and Redistribution: The Politics of Land Reform. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albertus, Michael and Menaldo, Victor. 2014. “Gaming Democracy: Elite Domination during Transition and the Prospects for Redistribution.” British Journal of Political Science 44(3): 575603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albertus, Michael and Menaldo, Victor.2017. Authoritarianism and the Elite Origins of Democracy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aldrich, John. 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, Gerard. 2002. The Sources of Democratic Consolidation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alidu, Seidu. 2010. “The National Reconciliation Commission and Reconciliation in Ghana.” Review of International Affairs (Belgrade) 61: 153177.Google Scholar
Almeida, Ludmila Chaves. 2004. “PPB: origem e trajetória de um partido de direita no Brasil.” MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of São Paulo.Google Scholar
Amsden, Alice. 1989. Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ansell, Ben and Samuels, David. 2014. Inequality and Democratization: A Contractarian Approach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansell, Christopher K. and Fish, M. Steven. 1999. “The Art of Being Indispensable: Noncharismatic Personalism in Contemporary Political Parties.” Comparative Political Studies 32(3): 283312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arriola, Leonardo. 2012. Multi-Ethnic Coalitions in Africa: Business Financing of Opposition Election Campaigns. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aspinall, Edward. 2010. “Indonesia: The Irony of Success.” Journal of Democracy 21(2): 2034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aspinall, Edward.2014. “Popular Agency and Interests in Indonesia’s Democratic Transition and Consolidation.” In Ford, Michele and Pepinsky, Thomas, eds., Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics, pp. 117138. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier. 2001. Poor People’s Politics: Peronist Survival Networks and the Legacy of Evita. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier.2007. Routine Politics and Collective Violence in Argentina. The Gray Zone of State Power. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avilés, Karla. 2012. “Al descubierto, plan del SNTE para captar 5 millones de votos.” La Jornada, June 25.Google Scholar
Ayee, Joseph. 2004. “Ghana: A Top-Down Initiative.” In Olowu, Dele and Wunsch, James, eds., Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization, pp. 125154. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Ayee, Joseph.2009. “The Evolution and Development of the New Patriotic Party in Ghana.” South African Institute of International Affairs, Political Party Systems in Africa Project. Occasional Paper #19.Google Scholar
Azevedo-Harman, Elisabete. 2015. “Patching Things Up in Mozambique.” Journal of Democracy 26(2): 139150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azpuru, Dinorah. 2003. “Democracy at Risk: Citizens’ Support for Undemocratic Options.” PhD dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
Babireski, Flávia Roberta. 2013. “As diferenças entre a direita do Brasil, Chile e Uruguai: análise dos programas e manifestos partidários.” Revista Paraná Eleitoral 3(1): 171198.Google Scholar
Bajrovic, Ivana Cvetkovic and Satter, Janet Rabin. 2014. “Albania: From Bunkers to Ballots.” Journal of Democracy 25(1): 142153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, Andy. 2009. “Regionalized Voting Behavior and Political Discussion in Mexico.” In Domínguez, Jorge, Lawson, Chappell, and Moreno, Alejandro, eds., Consolidating Mexico’s Democracy: The 2006 Presidential Campaign in Comparative Perspective, pp. 7188. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Bako-Arifari, Nassirou. 1998. “La Démocratie à Founougo (Borgou): Paysans et ‘Déscolarisés’ en Compétition Pour le Pouvoir Local.” In Bierschenk, Thomas and de Sardan, Jean-Pierre Olivier, eds., Les Pouvoirs au Village: le Bénin Rural entre Démocratisation et Décentralisation, pp. 57100. Paris: Editions Karthala.Google Scholar
Balfour, Sebastian. 2005. “The Reinvention of Spanish Conservatism: The Popular Party since 1989.” In Balfour, Sebastian, ed., The Politics of Contemporary Spain, pp. 146168. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banda, Darlington Amos. 1997. The Trade Union Situation in Zambia: An Overview of the Law, Practice and the Way Forward; a Monogram. Lusaka: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
Banegas, Richard. 2003. La Démocratie à Pas de Caméléon : Transition et Imaginaires Politiques au Bénin. Paris: Karthala.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baral, Lok Raj. 1995. “The 1994 Nepal Elections: Emerging Trends in Party Politics.” Asian Survey 35(5): 426440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkan, Joel. 2008. “Legislatures on the Rise?Journal of Democracy 19(2): 124137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkan, Joel,ed. 2009. Legislative Power in Emerging African Democracies. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkan, Joel and Okumu, John. 1978. “‘Semi-Competitive’ Elections, Clientelism, and Political Recruitment in a No-Party State: The Kenyan Experience.” In Hermet, Guy, Rose, Richard, and Rouquié, Alain, eds., Elections without Choice, pp. 88107. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bates, Robert. 1971. Unions, Parties, and Political Development: A Study of Mineworkers in Zambia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Béjar Alagazi, Luisa. 2014. “Cuando el ejecutivo es débil, ¿quién legisla en México?Política y Gobierno 21(2): 327349.Google Scholar
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. 1978. The Origins of the Second Republic in Spain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Benoit, Kenneth. 2004. “Models of Electoral System Change.” Electoral Studies 23(3): 363389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bensusán, Graciela and Middlebrook, Kevin. 2013. Sindicatos y política en México: Cambios, continuidades y contradicciones. Mexico: UAM, FLACSO, and CLACSO.Google Scholar
Bensusán, Graciela and Tapia, Luis Arturo. 2011. “El SNTE: Una experiencia singular en el sindicalismo mexicano.” El Cotidiano 168: 1732.Google Scholar
Berggren, Lena. 2002. “Swedish Fascism: Why Bother?Journal of Contemporary History 37(3): 395417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, Sheri. 1998. The Social Democratic Moment: Ideas and Politics in the Making of Interwar Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bermeo, Nancy. 2003. Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernhard, Michael H. 2005. Institutions and the Fate of Democracy: Germany and Poland in the Twentieth Century. Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Besley, Tim and Persson, Torsten. 2012. Pillars of Prosperity: The Political Economics of Development Clusters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Bierschenk, Thomas and de Sardan, Jean-Pierre Olivier, eds. 1998. Les Pouvoirs au Village: le Bénin Rural entre Démocratisation et Décentralisation. Paris: Editions Karthala.Google Scholar
Bíró-Nagy, András. 2013. “Hungary.” In de Waele, Jean-Michael, Escalona, Fabien, and Vieira, Mathieu, eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Social Democracy in the European Union, pp. 452269. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Blackbourn, David and Eley, Geoff. 1984. The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaževiè, Igor. 2016. “Burma Votes for Change: The Challenges Ahead.” Journal of Democracy 27(2): 101115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bleck, Jaimie and van de Walle, Nicolas. 2013. “Valence Issues in African Elections: Navigating Uncertainty and the Weight of the Past.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11): 13941421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boafo-Arthur, Kwame. 2003. “Political Parties and Democratic Sustainability in Ghana, 1992–2000.” In Mohamed Salih, M.A., ed., African Political Parties: Evolution, Institutionalisation and Governance, pp. 207238. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
Bob-Milliar, George. 2012. “Political Party Activism in Ghana: Factors Influencing the Decision of the Politically Active to Join a Political Party.” Democratization 19(4): 668689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bochsler, Daniel. 2010. “The Party System of Serbia.” In Stojarová, Vera and Emerson, Peter, eds., Party Politics in the Western Balkans, pp. 99118. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Boer, Remco. 2008. “The Anti-Revolutionary Vanguard: The Party Cadre of the Anti-Revolutionary Party in the Netherlands, 1869–1888.” MPhil, Leiden University.Google Scholar
Borges, André. 2011. “The Political Consequences of Center-Led Redistribution in Brazilian Federalism: The Fall of Subnational Party Machines.” Latin American Research Review 46(3): 2145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bormann, Nils-Christian and Golder, Matt. 2013. “Democratic Electoral Systems around the World, 1946–2011.” Electoral Studies 32(2): 360369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bozóki, András. 1997. “The Ideology of Modernization and the Policy of Materialism: The Day after the Socialists.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 13(3): 56102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bozóki, András and Ishiyama, John T., eds. 2002. The Communist Successor Parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
Brancati, Dawn. 2017. “Global Elections Database” [computer file]. New York: Global Elections Database. Available from: www.globalelectionsdatabase.com [Accessed January 20, 2017].Google Scholar
Bratton, Michael. 1980. The Local Politics of Rural Development: Peasant and Party-State in Zambia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
Bratton, Michael.1992. “Zambia Starts Over.” Journal of Democracy 3(2): 8194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bratton, Michael and van de Walle, Nicolas. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, Ryan C. 2012. “Electrifying the Base? Aid and Incumbent Advantage in Ghana.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 50(4): 603624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brownlee, Jason. 2007a. Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brownlee, Jason.2007b. “Hereditary Succession in Modern Autocracies.” World Politics 59(4): 595628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruce, Raphael and Rocha, Rudi. 2014. “A reação da elite política incumbente na abertura democrática brasileira.” Department of Economics, University of São Paulo. Working Paper # 9.Google Scholar
Burdette, Marcia M. 1988. Zambia: Between Two Worlds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Camp, Roderic Ai. 2005. Mexico’s Military on the Democratic Stage. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
Cannadine, David. 1999. The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
Cantanhêde, Eliane. 2001. O PFL. São Paulo: Publifolha.Google Scholar
Cantú, Francisco and Desposato, Scott. 2012. “The New Federalism of Mexico’s Party System.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 4(2): 338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantú, Jesús. 2009. “Los brazos del SNTE.” Proceso 1719, October 11.Google Scholar
Capoccia, Giovanni. 2005. Defending Democracy: Reactions to Extremism in Interwar Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, John and Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1995. “Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: A Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas.” Electoral Studies 14(4): 417439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlin, Ryan, Love, Gregory, and Martinez-Gallardo, Cecilia. 2014. “Cushioning the Fall: Scandals, Economic Conditions, and Executive Approval.” Political Behavior 37(1): 109130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, Edward Hallett. 1946. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. London: Macmillan & co. ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carrión, Julio F. 2006. “Public Opinion, Market Reforms, and Democracy in Fujimori’s Peru.” In Carrión, Julio F., ed., The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru, pp. 126149. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carvalho, Alessandra. 2008. “Elites políticas durante o regime militar: um estudo sobre os parlamentares da ARENA e do MDB.” PhD dissertation, Graduate Program in Sociology and Anthropology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
Castañeda, Jorge and Camín, Héctor Aguilar. 2009. “Un futuro para México.” Nexos, November 1.Google Scholar
Chabal, Patrick and Daloz, Jean-Pascal. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Chang, Alex, Chu, Yun-han, and Welsh, Bridget. 2013. “Southeast Asia: Sources of Regime Support.” Journal of Democracy 24(2): 150164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, Yu-tzung, Chu, Yun-han, and Park, Chong-Min. 2007. “Authoritarian Nostalgia in Asia.” Journal of Democracy 18(3): 6680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chao, Linda and Myers, Ramon. 1998. The First Chinese Democracy: Political Life in the Republic of China on Taiwan. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheibub, José Antonio, Gandhi, Jennifer, and Vreeland, James Raymond. 2010. “Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.” Public Choice 143(1/2): 67101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen. 1989. “Democratizing the Quasi-Leninist Regime in Taiwan.” World Politics 41(4): 471499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen.1990a. “Is The Dog Barking? The Middle Class and Democratization in the East Asian NICs.” International Studies Notes 15(1): 1016.Google Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen.1990b. “Political Regimes and Development Strategies: South Korea and Taiwan.” In Gereffi, Gary and Wyman, Donald, eds., Manufacturing Miracles: Patterns of Development in Latin American and East Asia, pp. 139178. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen.2006. “Strategizing Party Adaptation: The Case of the Kuomintang.” Party Politics 12(3): 367394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen.2008. “Embracing Defeat: the KMT and the PRI after 2000.” In Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, pp. 127147. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen and Kim, Eun Mee. 1994. “Making Democracy: Generalizing the South Korean Case.” In Friedman, Edward, ed., The Politics of Democratization: Generalizing East Asian Experiences, pp. 125147. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Cheng, Tun-jen and Hsu, Yung-ming. 2015. “Long in the Making: Taiwan’s Institutionalized Party System.” In Hicken, Allen and Kuhonta, Erik Martinez, eds., Party System Institutionalization in Asia, pp. 260279. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Chirambo, Reuben. 2004. “‘Operation Bwezani’: The Army, Political Change, and Dr. Banda’s Hegemony in Malawi.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 13(2): 146163.Google Scholar
Chu, Yun-han. 2012. “The Taiwan Factor.” Journal of Democracy 23(1): 4256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CIDE and COFETEL. 2011. Condiciones del mercado de televisión abierta en México. Mexico: CIDE.Google Scholar
Ciria, Alberto. 1983. Política y cultura popular: la Argentina peronista, 1946–1955. Buenos Aires: Ediciones de la Flor.Google Scholar
Clark, John. 1997. “Petro-Politics in Congo.” Journal of Democracy 8(3): 6276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Terry D. and Praneviciute, Jovita. 2008. “Perspectives on Communist Successor Parties: The Case of Lithuania.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41: 443464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, David and Collier, Ruth Berins. 1991. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Collier, David and Levitsky, Steven. 1997. “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research.” World Politics 49(3): 430451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Ruth Berins. 1982. Regimes in Tropical Africa: Changing Forms of Supremacy, 1945–1975. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conaghan, Catherine M. 2005. Fujimori’s Peru: Deception in the Public Sphere. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
Conaghan, Catherine M., Malloy, James M., and Abugattas, Luis A.. 1990. “Business and the ‘Boys’: The Politics of Neoliberalism in the Central Andes.” Latin American Research Review 25(2): 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, Maria. 1996. Organizing Dissent: Unions, the State, and the Democratic Teachers’ Movement in Mexico. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Cook, Maria.2007. The Politics of Labor Reform in Latin America: Between Flexibility and Rights. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Copeland, Nicholas Matthew. 2007. “Bitter Earth: Counterinsurgency Strategy and Roots of Mayan Neo-Authoritarianism in Guatemala.” PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
Copper, John F. 2013. The KMT Returns to Power: Elections in Taiwan 2008 to 2012. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Corbellini, Juliano. 2005. “O poder como vocação: o PFL na política brasileira (1984–2002).” PhD dissertation, Department of Political Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul.Google Scholar
Cornelius, Wayne. 1999. “Subnational Politics and Democratization: Tensions between Center and Periphery in the Mexican Political System.” In Cornelius, Wayne, Eisenstadt, Todd, and Hindley, Jane, eds., Subnational Politics and Democratization in Mexico, pp. 318. La Jolla, CA: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies and University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
Cornelius, Wayne.2000. “Blind Spots in Democratization: Sub-national Politics as a Constraint on Mexico’s Transition.” Democratization 7(3): 117132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornelius, Wayne.2002. “Mobilized Voting in the 2000 Elections: The Changing Efficacy of Vote Buying and Coercion in Mexican Electoral Politics.” In Domínguez, Jorge and Lawson, Chappell, eds., Mexico’s Pivotal Election: Candidates Voters and the Presidential Campaign of 2000, pp. 4765. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Corrales, Javier. 2013. “Venezuela’s Succession Crisis.” Current History 112(251): 5663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, Fred W. S. 1976. Electoral Facts, 1885–1975. London: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creevey, Lucy, Ngomo, Paul, and Vengroff, Richard. 2005. “Party Politics and Different Paths to Democratic Transitions: A Comparison of Benin and Senegal.” Party Politics 11(4): 471493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crenzel, Emilio. 1999. “Memorias de la dictadura: Los desaparecidos y el voto al general Bussi en Tucumán, Argentina.” Revista Internacional de Filosofía 14: 1529.Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel. 2002. “Electoral Politics in South Korea.” In Croissant, Aurel, Bruns, Gabriele, and John, Marei, eds., Electoral Politics in Southeast and East Asia, pp. 233276. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Press.Google Scholar
Crouch, Harold. 2010. Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto. Singapore: Singapore Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuenca, Alberto. 2010. “Investigan pagos a miembros del SNTE.” El Universal, March 31.Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Dahou, Tarik and Foucher, Vincent. 2004. “Le Sénégal, entre Changement Politique et Révolution Passive.” Politique Africaine 96: 521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darden, Keith and Grzymala-Busse, Anna. 2006. “The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse.” World Politics 59(1): 83115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dargent, Eduardo and Paula, Muñoz. 2016. “Peru: A Close Win for Continuity.” Journal of Democracy 27(4): 145158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dauderstädt, Michael. 2005. “The Communist Successor Parties of Eastern and Central Europe and European Integration.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 21(1): 4866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, John Colin C. 1969. Memoirs of a Conservative: J. C. C. Davidson’s Memoirs and Papers, 1910–37. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
De Córdoba, José. 2015. “Mexico Investigating Opposition Governor of Sonora.” Wall Street Journal, March 5.Google Scholar
De la Garza, Paul. 1998. “Banking Scandal Could Cost Mexico $65 Million.” Chicago Tribune, September 1.Google Scholar
Deming, Jonathan Mark. 2013. “Hewing to the Past: Why Unrepentant Authoritarian Parties Succeed in Democracy, Peru 2000–2011.” MA thesis, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Democratic Accountability and Linkages Project (DALP). Available from: http://sites.duke.edu/democracylinkage [Accessed November 2017].Google Scholar
de Silva, Kingsley M. 1997. “Sri Lanka: Surviving Ethnic Strife.” Journal of Democracy 8(1): 97111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeVotta, Neil. 2002. “Illiberalism and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka.” Journal of Democracy 13(1): 8498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diamond, Larry and Plattner, Marc F., eds. 2010. Democratization in Africa: Progress and Retreat, 2nd edn. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto. 2006. Federalism, Fiscal Authority, and Centralization in Latin America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, Estévez, Federico, and Magaloni, Beatriz. 2016. The Political Logic of Poverty Relief: Electoral Strategies and Social Policy in Mexico. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz Domínguez, Alejandro. 2015. “Confianza en las elecciones: México y América.” Nexos, June 4.Google Scholar
Díaz Jiménez, Oniel Francisco. 2014. “Party System Change in a New Democracy: The Case of Mexico.” The Copernicus Journal 1(5): 1134.Google Scholar
Dickson, Bruce. 1997. Democratization in China and Taiwan: The Adaptability of Leninist Parties. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Dimitrov, Martin K. 2009. “Popular Autocrats.” Journal of Democracy 20(1): 7881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dimitrov, Martin K. 2016. “Building Anticipatory Governance by Collecting Information on Levels of Popular Discontent in Autocracies.” Paper presented at the APSA Annual Meeting. Philadelphia, PA, September 1–4.Google Scholar
Diop, Momar-Coumba and Diouf, Mamadou. 2002a. “Léopold Ségar Senghor, Abdou Diouf, Abdoulaye Wade, et Après?” In O’Brien, Donal Cruise, Diop, Momar-Coumba, and Diouf, Mamadou, eds., La Construction de l’État au Sénégal, pp. 101141. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Diop, Momar-Coumba and Diouf, Mamadou.2002b. “L’administration, les Confréries Religieuses et les Paysanneries. ” In O’Brien, Donal Cruise, Diop, Momar-Coumba, and Diouf, Mamadou, eds., La Construction de l’État au Sénégal, pp. 2947. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Di Tella, Guido. 1983. Perón-Perón, 1973–1976. Buenos Aires: Hyspamérica.Google Scholar
Di Tella, Torcuato S. 1971/1972. “La búsqueda de la fórmula política argentina.” Desarrollo Económico 11(42/44): 317325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dix, Robert H. 1978. “The Varieties of Populism: The Case of Colombia.” The Western Political Quarterly 31(3): 334351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobry, Michel. 2000. “France: An Ambiguous Survival.” In Berg-Schlosser, Dirk and Mitchell, Jeremy, eds., Conditions of Democracy in Europe: Systematic Case Studies, pp. 157183. Basingstone, Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Doerschler, Peter and Banaszak, Lee Ann. 2007. “Voter Support for the German PDS over Time: Dissatisfaction, Ideology, Losers and East Identity.” Electoral Studies 26(2): 359370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domínguez, Jorge I. and James, A. McCann. 1996. Democratizing Mexico: Public Opinion and Electoral Choices. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Doner, Richard, Ritchie, Brian K., and Slater, Dan. 2005. “Systemic Vulnerability and the Origins of Developmental States: Northeast and Southeast Asia in Comparative Perspective.” International Organization 59(2): 327361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doorenspleet, Renske and Nijzink, Lia, eds. 2013. One-Party Dominance in African Democracies. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doorenspleet, Renske and Nijzink, Lia,eds. 2014. Party Systems and Democracy in Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dossou, Robert. 2000. “L’Expérience Béninoise de la Conférence Nationale.” Paper presented at the Conférence sur le Bilan des Conférences Nationales et Autres Processus de Transitions Démocratiques. Cotonou, Benin, February 19–23.Google Scholar
Do Vale, Helder Ferreira. 2016. “Federal Political Fragmentation in Mexico’s 2015 Election.” Regional and Federal Studies 26(2): 121138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Dunkerley, James. 1984. Rebellion in the Veins: Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952–82. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Durazo Herrmann, Julián. 2014. “Reflections on Regime Change and Democracy in Bahia, Brazil.” Latin American Research Review 49(3): 2344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eley, Geoff. 2002. Forging Democracy: The History of the Left in Europe, 1850–2000. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elischer, Sebastian. 2008. “Do African Parties Contribute to Democracy? Some Findings from Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria.” Afrika Spectrum 43(2): 175201.Google Scholar
Encarnación, Omar G. 2008. “Reconciliation after Democratization: Coping with the Past in Spain.” Political Science Quarterly 123(3): 435459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englebert, Pierre and Ron, James. 2004. “Primary Commodities and War: Congo-Brazzaville’s Ambivalent Resource Curse.” Comparative Politics 37(1): 6181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enyedi, Zsolt. 2006. “The Survival of the Fittest: Party System Concentration in Hungary.” In Jungerstam-Mulders, Susanne, ed., Post-Communist EU Member States: Parties and Party Systems, pp. 177202. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Ertman, Thomas. 1998. “Democracy and Dictatorship in Interwar Western Europe Revisited.” World Politics 50(3): 475505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Estévez, Federico, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, and Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. “A House Divided Against itself: The PRI’s Survival Strategy after Hegemony.” In Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, pp. 4256. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Evans, Geoffrey and Whitefield, Stephen. 1995. “Economic Ideology and Political Success: Communist-Successor Parties in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary Compared.” Party Politics 1(4): 565578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Peter. 1995. Embedded Autonomy. States and Industrial Transformations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanthorpe, Richard. 2006. “On the Limits of Liberal Peace: Chiefs and Democratic Decentralization in Post-War Sierra Leone.” African Affairs 105(418): 2749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fatton, Robert. 1987. The Making of a Liberal Democracy: Senegal’s Passive Revolution, 1975–1985. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Feldman, Gerald D. 1971. “Big Business and the Kapp Putsch.” Central European History 4(2): 99130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández Jilberto, Alex and Hogenbooom, Barbara. 2007. “Latin American Conglomerates in the Neoliberal Era: The Politics of Economic Concentration in Chile and Mexico.” In Jilberto, Alex Fernández and Hogenboom, Barbara, eds., Big Business and Economic Development, pp. 135166. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ferree, Karen and Horowitz, Jeremy. 2010. “Ties That Bind? The Rise and Decline of Ethno-Regional Partisanship in Malawi, 1994–2009.” Democratization 17(3): 534563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink-Hafner, Danica. 2006. “Slovenia: Between Bipolarity and Broad Coalition-Building.” In Jungerstam-Mulders, Susanne, ed., Post-Communist EU Member States: Parties and Party Systems, pp. 203232. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
Fish, M. Steven. 1998a. “Mongolia: Democracy without Prerequisites.” Journal of Democracy 9(3): 127141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fish, M. Steven.1998b. “Democratization’s Requisites: The Postcommunist Experience.” Post-Soviet Affairs 14(3): 212247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores-Macías, Gustavo. 2013. “Mexico’s 2012 Elections: The Return of the PRI.” Journal of Democracy 24(1): 128141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores-Macías, Gustavo.2016. “Mexico’s Stalled Reforms.” Journal of Democracy 27(2): 6678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, Michele and Caraway, Teri. 2014. “Labor and Politics under Oligarchy.” In Ford, Michele and Pepinsky, Thomas, eds., Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics, pp. 139155. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford González, Jaime. 2009. Un hombre, un partido. Panama: Imprenta Articsa.Google Scholar
Fowler, Brigid. 2003. “The Parliamentary Elections in Hungary, April 2002.” Electoral Studies 22: 765807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franck, Raphael and Rainer, Ilia. 2012. “Does the Leader’s Ethnicity Matter? Ethnic Favoritism, Education, and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.” American Political Science Review 106(2): 294325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds. 2008. Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Fritz, Verena. 2008. “Mongolia: The Rise and Travails of a Deviant Democracy.” Democratization 15(4): 766788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gamarra, Eduardo A. and Malloy, James M.. 1995. “The Patrimonial Dynamics of Party Politics in Bolivia.” In Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R., eds., Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, pp. 399433. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions under Dictatorship. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García Díez, Fátima. 2001. “Panamá.” In Sáez, Manuel Alcántara and Freidenberg, Flavia, eds., Partidos Políticos de América Latina: Centroamérica, México y República Dominicana, pp. 527614. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.Google Scholar
Garrard-Burnett, Virginia. 2010. Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit: Guatemala under General Efraín Ríos Montt, 1982–1983. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Garretón, Manuel Antonio. 2003. Incomplete Democracy: Political Democratization in Chile and Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Garst, J. Daniel. 1998. “From Factor Endowments to Class Struggle: Pre-World War I Germany and Rogowski’s Theory of Trade and Political Cleavages.” Comparative Political Studies 31(1): 2244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gay, Robert. 1994. Popular Organization and Democracy in Rio de Janeiro: A Tale of Two Favelas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geddes, Barbara, Wright, Joseph, and Frantz, Erica. 2014a. “Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set.” Perspectives on Politics 12(2): 313331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geddes, Barbara, Wright, Joseph, and Frantz, Erica.2014b. Autocratic Regimes Code Book. Version 1.2. Available from: https://journals.cambridge.org/action/displaySuppMaterial?cupCode=1&type=4&jid=PPS&volumeId=12&issueId=02&aid=9297187 [Accessed November 12, 2015].Google Scholar
Gerring, John, Bond, Philip, Barndt, William, and Moreno, Carola. 2005. “Democracy and Growth: A Historical Perspective.” World Politics 57(3): 323364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerschenkron, Alexander. 1948. Bread and Democracy in Germany. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
GfK. 2013. “Evaluación de la gestión pública. Indulto a Fujimori.” National Urban Survey, June. Available from: http://gfk.pe/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/GfK_Pulso_Peru_Junio_2013-Evaluacion_del_gobierno5.pdf [Accessed September 22, 2016].Google Scholar
Gibson, Edward. 1996. Class and Conservative Parties: Argentina in Comparative Perspective. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Gibson, Edward.2012. Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Federal Democracies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gilbert, Leah and Mohseni, Payam. 2011. “Beyond Authoritarianism: The Conceptualization of Hybrid Regimes.” Studies in Comparative International Development 46: 270297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina. 2015. Democrats and Autocrats: Pathways of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Continuity within Democratic Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glennerster, Rachel, Miguel, Edward, and Rothenberg, Alexander D.. 2013. “Collective Action in Diverse Sierra Leone Communities.” The Economic Journal 123(568): 285316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass. 2006. Popular Injustice: Violence, Community and Law in Latin America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goemans, H. E. 2000. War and Punishment: The Causes of War Termination and the First World War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González, Francisco. 2008. Dual Transitions in Authoritarian Rule: Institutionalized Regimes in Chile and Mexico, 1970–2000. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González, Francisco.2015. “The Role of Shocks and Social Pressures in the Development of Citizenship Rights: Great Britain and Mexico’s Divergent Paths.” Mexican Law Review 7(2): 3761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González Amador, Roberto. 1998. “El exbanquero y su familia llevan por lo menos tres lustros envueltos en escándalos.” La Jornada, June 6.Google Scholar
González Amador, Roberto.2004. “El fraude de Cabal con sus bancos costo 28 mil millones en dos años.” La Jornada, May 20.Google Scholar
González-Enríquez, Carmen. 2001. “De-Communization and Political Justice in Central and Eastern Europe.” In de Brito, Alexandra Barahona, González-Enríquez, Carmen, and Aguilar, Paloma, eds., The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies, pp. 218247. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
González Oropeza, Manuel. 1983. La intervención federal en la desaparición de poderes. Mexico: UNAM.Google Scholar
Gould, Andrew. 1999. Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth Century Europe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gourevitch, Peter Alexis. 1986. Politics in Hard Times: Comparative Responses to International Economic Crises. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Greene, Kenneth. 2007. Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico’s Democratization in Comparative Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene, Kenneth.2015. “Campaign Effects since Mexico’s Democratization.” In Domínguez, Jorge, Greene, Kenneth, Lawson, Chappell, and Moreno, Alejandro, eds., Mexico’s Evolving Democracy: A Comparative Study of the 2012 Elections, pp. 128152. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Grinberg, Lucia. 2009. Partido político ou bode expiatório: um estudo sobre a Aliança Renovadora Nacional (ARENA), 1965–1979. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Mauad X.Google Scholar
Grugel, Jean. 1992. “Populism and the Political System in Chile: Ibañismo (1952–1958).” Bulletin of Latin American Research 11(2): 169186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna M. 1998. “Reform Efforts in the Czech and Slovak Communist Parties and Their Successors, 1988–1993.” East European Politics and Societies 12(3): 442471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna M. 2002. Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna M. 2006. “Authoritarian Determinants of Democratic Party Competition: The Communist Successor Parties in East Central Europe.” Party Politics 12: 415436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna M. 2007. Rebuilding Leviathan: Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guevara Mann, Carlos. 1996. Panamanian Militarism: A Historical Interpretation. Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies.Google Scholar
Gulhati, Ravi. 1989. Impasse in Zambia: The Economics and Politics of Reform. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Guzmán, Jaime. 2008. Escritos Personales, 4th edn. Santiago: Fundación Jaime Guzmán.Google Scholar
Gwiazda, Anna. 2008. “Party Patronage in Poland: The Democratic Left Alliance and Law and Justice Compared.” East European Politics and Societies 22(4): 802827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gyimah-Boadi, Emmanuel. 1993. Ghana under PNDC Rule. Dakar: Codesria.Google Scholar
Haggard, Stephan. 1990. Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert R.. 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert R..2008. Development, Democracy, and Welfare States: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hagopian, Frances. 1990. “‘Democracy by Undemocratic Means’? Elites, Political Pacts, and Regime Transition in Brazil.” Comparative Political Studies 23(2): 147170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagopian, Frances.1996. Traditional Politics and Regime Change in Brazil. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagopian, Frances, Gervasoni, Carlos, and Moraes, Juan Andrés. 2008. “From Patronage to Program. The Emergence of Party-Oriented Legislatures in Brazil.” Comparative Political Studies 42(3): 360391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, Henry E. 2004. “Yabloko and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia.” Europe-Asia Studies 56(7): 9931020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handy, Jim. 1984. Gift of the Devil: A History of Guatemala. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
Hanson, Stephen. 2010. Post-Imperial Democracies: Ideology and Party Formation in Third Republic France, Weimar Germany, and Post-Soviet Russia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harbers, Imke. 2014. “States and Strategy in New Federal Democracies: Competitiveness and Intra-Party Resource Allocation in Mexico.” Party Politics 20(6): 823835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harding, Robert Claude. 2001. Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Harmel, Robert and Janda, Kenneth. 1982. Parties and Their Environments: The Limits to Reform. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Hartlyn, Jonathan. 1998. The Struggle for Democratic Politics in the Dominican Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Hartmann, Christof. 2010. “Senegal’s Party System: The Limits of Formal Regulation.” Democratization 17(4): 769786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haughton, Tim. 2004. “Explaining the Limited Success of the Communist-Successor Left in Slovakia: The Case of the Party of the Democratic Left (SDL).” Party Politics 10(2): 177191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haughton, Tim and Rybar, Marek. 2008. “A Change of Direction: The 2006 Parliamentary Elections and Party Politics in Slovakia.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 24(2): 232255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, William. 1982. The Background and Passage of the Third Reform Act. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
Hayward, Fred M. and Grovogui, Siba N.. 1987. “Persistence and Change in Senegalese Electoral Processes.” In Hayward, Fred M., ed., Elections in Independent Africa, pp. 239270. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Hellmann, Olli. 2011. Political Parties and Electoral Strategy: The Development of Party Organization in East Asia. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helmke, Gretchen. 2005. Courts under Constraints: Judges, Generals, and Presidents in Argentina. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Herbst, Jeffrey. 1993. The Politics of Reform in Ghana, 1982–1991. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hermens, Ferdinand A. 1936. “Proportional Representation and the Breakdown of German Democracy.” Social Research 3(4): 411433.Google Scholar
Hernández-Rodríguez, Rogelio. 2003. “The Renovation of Old Institutions: State Governors and the Political Transition in Mexico.” Latin American Politics and Society 45(4): 97127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertzman, Lewis. 1958. “The Founding of the German National People’s Party (DNVP), November 1918–January 1919.” The Journal of Modern History 30(1): 2436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicken, Allen. 2011. “Clientelism.” Annual Review of Political Science 14: 289310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicken, Allen.2015. “Party and Party System Institutionalization in the Philippines.” In Hicken, Allen and Kuhonta, Erik Martinez, eds., Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadows of the Past, pp. 307327. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hicken, Allen and Kuhonta, Erik Martinez. 2011. “Shadows from the Past: Party System Institutionalization in Asia.” Comparative Political Studies 44(5): 572597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicken, Allen and Kuhonta, Erik Martinez,eds. 2015. Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadows of the Past. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Higley, John, Kullberg, Judith, and Pakulski, Jan. 1996. “The Persistence of Postcommunist Elites.” Journal of Democracy 7(2): 133147.Google Scholar
Hoffman, Barak and Robinson, Lindsay. 2009. “Tanzania’s Missing Opposition.” Journal of Democracy 20(4): 123136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha. 2013. “Right on Crime? Conservative Party Politics and Mano Dura Policies in El Salvador.” Latin American Research Review 48(1): 4467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha and Palmer-Rubin, Brian. 2015. “Beyond the Machine: Clientelist Brokers and Interest Organizations in Latin America.” Comparative Political Studies 48(9): 11861223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hooven, Marcel ten and de Jong, Ron. 2008. Geschiedenis Van De Christelijk-Historische Unie 1908–1980. Meppel: Boom Distributie Centrum.Google Scholar
Hopkin, Jonathan. 1999. Party Formation and Democratic Transition in Spain: The Creation and Collapse of the Union of the Democratic Centre. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, Donald L. 2013. Constitutional Change and Democracy in Indonesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hossain, Golam. 2004. “Bangladesh Nationalist Party: From Military Rule to the Champion of Democracy.” In Mitra, Subrata K., Enskat, Mike, and Spiess, Clemens, eds., Political Parties in South Asia, pp. 196215. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
Hough, Dan and Michael, Koß. 2009. “Populism Personified or Reinvigorated Reformers? The German Left Party in 2009 and Beyond.” German Politics and Society 27(2): 7691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houngnikpo, Mathurin C. and Decalo, Samuel. 2013. Historical Dictionary of Benin, 4th edn. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
Howard, Marc Morjé and Roessler, Philip G.. 2006. “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes.” American Political Science Review 50(2): 365381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu, Nai-fu. 1992. “Na hsieh shih yi shih Kuomintang te chin mu chi ?” [What are the golden hens of Kuomintang’s business?] Ch’ai-hsun [Wealth Magazine], November.Google Scholar
Hu, Fu. 1993. “The Electoral Mechanism and Political Change in Taiwan.” In Tsang, Steve, ed., In the Shadow of China: Political Developments in Taiwan Since 1949, pp. 134168. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Huang, Teh-fu. 1996. “Elections and the Evolution of the Kuomintang.” In Tien, Hung-mao, ed., Taiwan’s Electoral Politics and Democratic Transition, pp. 105136. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique and Gómez García, Rodrigo. 2013. “Concentración y diversidad de los medios de comunicación y las telecomunicaciones en México.” Comunicación y Sociedad 19: 113152.Google Scholar
Hughes, Sally and Lawson, Chappell. 2004. “Propaganda and Crony Capitalism: Partisan Bias in Mexican Television News.” Latin American Research Review 39(3): 81105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2017. World Report 2017. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
Hunter, Wendy. 2010. The Transformation of the Brazilian Workers’ Party, 1989–2009. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, Wendy and Power, Timothy J.. 2007. “Rewarding Lula: Executive Power, Social Policy, and the Brazilian Elections of 2006.” Latin American Politics and Society 49(1): 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. “Democracy for the Long Haul.” Journal of Democracy 7(2): 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ibrahim, Jibrin and Souley, Abdoulaye Niandou. 1998. “The Rise to Power of an Opposition Party: The MNSD in Niger Republic.” In Olukoshi, Adebayo O., ed., The Politics of Opposition in Contemporary Africa, pp. 144170. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
Ichino, Nahomi and Nathan, Noah L.. 2012. “Primaries on Demand? Intra-Party Politics and Nominations in Ghana.” British Journal of Political Science 42(4): 769791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ichino, Nahomi and Nathan, Noah L..2013. “Do Primaries Improve Electoral Performance? Clientelism and Intra‐Party Conflict in Ghana.” American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 428441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Im, Hyug Baeg. 1987. “The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea.” World Politics 39(2): 231257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Instituto de Defensa Legal. 2015. “Balance del gobierno de Ollanta Humala: Un quinquenio sin cambios sustanciales.” Seguridad Ciudadana, Informe Anual. Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, e Informática (INEGI). 2016. Estadística de defunciones [online resource]. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, e Informática.Google Scholar
Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, e Informática (INEGI). 2017. Serie histórica censal e intercensal. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, e Informática.Google Scholar
Instituto Nacional Electoral (INE). 2016. Atlas de Resultados de las Elecciones Federales 1991–2015. Mexico: INE.Google Scholar
Ipsos, Apoyo. 2006. “La elección se polariza.” Resumen de Encuestas a la Opinión Pública 6(65). Lima: Ipsos Perú.Google Scholar
Ipsos, Apoyo.2011. “Avanza Keiko.” Resumen de Encuestas a la Opinión Pública 11(140). Lima: Ipsos Perú.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 1995. “Communist Parties in Transition: Structures, Leaders and Processes of Democratization in Eastern Europe.” Comparative Politics 27(2): 147166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 1997. “The Sickle or the Rose? Previous Regime Types and the Evolution of the Ex-Communist Parties in Post-Communist Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 30(3): 299330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 1998. “Strange Bedfellows: Explaining Political Cooperation between Communist Successor Parties and Nationalists in Eastern Europe.” Nations and Nationalism 4(1): 6185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T.,ed. 1999a. Communist Successor Parties in Post-Communist Politics. Carmack, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 1999b. “The Communist Successor Parties and Organizational Development in Post-Communist Politics.” Political Research Quarterly 52(1): 87112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 1999c. “Sickles into Roses: The Communist Successor Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Comparative Perspective.” Democratization 6(4): 5273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 2000. “Candidate Recruitment, Party Organisation and the Communist Successor Parties: The Case of the MSzP, the KPRF, and the LDDP.” Europe-Asia Studies 52(5): 875896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 2001a. “Party Organization and the Political Success of the Communist Successor Parties.” Political Science Quarterly 82(4): 844864.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 2001b. “Sickles into Roses: Successor Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Post-Communist Politics.” In Lewis, Paul, ed., Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe, pp. 3254. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. 2006. “Europeanization and the Communist Successor Parties in Post-Communist Politics.” Politics and Society 34(1): 329.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John.2008Learning to Lose (and Sometimes Win): The Neocommunist Parties in Post-Soviet Politics.” In Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, Ch. 9. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. and Bozóki, András. 2001. “Adaptation and Change: Characterizing the Survival Strategies of the Communist Successor Parties.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 17(3): 3251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. and Quinn, John James. 2006. “African Phoenix? Explaining the Electoral Performance of the Formerly Dominant Parties in Africa.” Party Politics 12(3): 317340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishiyama, John T. and Shafqat, Sahar. 2000. “Party Identity Change in Post-Communist Politics: The Cases of the Successor Parties in Hungary, Poland and Russia.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 33: 439455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackisch, Barry A. 2012. The Pan-German League and Radical Nationalist Politics in Interwar Germany, 1918–39. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
James, Daniel. 1988. Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946–1976. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Janda, Kenneth. 1980. Political Parties. A Cross-National Survey. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Janda, Kenneth.2009. “Laws against Party Switching, Defecting, or Floor-Crossing in National Parliaments.” Paper presented at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association. Santiago, Chile, July 12–16.Google Scholar
Janicki, Mariusz. 2002. “Duża partia, duży kłopot.” Polityka, September 14: 2426.Google Scholar
Jenks, Margaret Sarles. 1979. “Political Parties in Authoritarian Brazil.” PhD dissertation, Department of Political Science, Duke University.Google Scholar
Jetté, Christian, Foronda, Carmiña, and López, Miriam. 1997. “La renovación de Acción Democrática Nacionalista: ¿hasta dónde se puede ser liberal y fiel al jefe?” In Arauco, Isabel, ed., Gobernabilidad y partidos políticos, pp. 4563. La Paz: CIDES-PNUD.Google Scholar
Jhee, Byong-Kuen. 2008. “Economic Origins of Electoral Support for Authoritarian Successors: A Cross-National Analysis of Economic Voting in New Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 41(3): 362388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Chalmers. 1982. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joignant, Alfredo and Navia, Patricio. 2003. “De la política de individuos a los hombres del partido: Socialización, competencia política y penetración electoral de la UDI(1989–2001).” Estudios Públicos 89: 129171.Google Scholar
Jones, Larry Eugene. 2009. “German Conservatism at the Crossroads: Count Kuno Von Westarp and the Struggle for Control of the DNVP, 1928–30.” Contemporary European History 18(2): 147177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalaycioglu, Ersin. 2002. “The Motherland Party: The Challenge of Institutionalization in a Charismatic Leader Party.” Turkish Studies 3(1): 4161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamwenda, Gregory. 1997. “Language Rights in the Dictatorship: The Case of Malawi During Dr Banda’s Rule.” Language Matters 28(1): 3650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kandeh, Jimmy D. 2003. “Sierra Leone’s Post-Conflict Elections of 2002.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 41(2): 189216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanté, Babacar. 1994. “Senegal’s Empty Elections.” Journal of Democracy 5(1): 96108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karl, Terry Lynn. 1990. “Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 23(1): 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasfir, Nelson. 1974. “Departicipation and Political Development in Black African Politics.” Studies in Comparative International Development 9(3): 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaspin, Deborah. 1995. “The Politics of Ethnicity in Malawi’s Democratic Transition.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 33(4): 595620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keefer, Philip. 2007. “Clientelism, Credibility and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 51(4): 804821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, Catherine Lena. 2013. “The 2012 Legislative Election in Senegal.” Electoral Studies 32(4): 905908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, Catherine.2014. “Why (So Many) Parties? The Logic of Party Formation in Senegal.” PhD dissertation, Department of Government, Harvard University.Google Scholar
Kim, Byung-kook. 2008. “Defeat in Victory, Victory in Defeat: The Korean Conservative in Democratic Defeat.” In Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, pp. 169187. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyejin. 2014. “A Link to the Authoritarian Past? Older Voters as a Force in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 10(2): 4971.Google Scholar
Kim, Youngmi. 2011. The Politics of Coalition in Korea: Between Institutions and Culture. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimmo, Elo. 2008. “The Left Party and the Long-Term Developments of the German Party System.” German Politics and Society 26(3): 5068.Google Scholar
Kinnear, Michael. 1968. The British Voter: An Atlas and Survey since 1885. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
Kinnear, Michael.1973. The Fall of Lloyd George: The Political Crisis of 1922. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinzo, Maria D’Alva Gil. 1988. Legal Opposition Politics under Authoritarian Rule in Brazil. New York: St. Martin’s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirchick, James. 2012. “Return of the Czech Communists.” Foreign Policy, October 12.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1992. “Political Regime Change: Structure and Process-Driven Explanations.” American Political Science Review 86(4): 10281034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2000. “Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities.” Comparative Political Studies 33(6–7): 845879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2007. “The Demise of Clientelism in Affluent Capitalist Democracies.” In Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds., Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Competition, pp. 298321. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2011a. “Do Institutions Matter for Parties’ Political Linkage Strategies?” Paper presented at the APSA Annual Meeting. Seattle, September 1–4.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2011b. “Clientelistic Linkage Strategies. A Descriptive Exploration.” Paper presented at the Workshop on Democratic Accountability Strategies. Duke University, May 18–19.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2012. “Research and Dialogue on Programmatic Parties and Party Systems. Main Report.” January 8. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert.2013. “Research and Dialogue on Programmatic Parties and Party Systems. Case Study Report.” Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Freeze, Kent. 2010. “Programmatic Party System Structuration: Developing and Comparing Cross-National and Cross-Party Measures with a New Global Data Set.” Paper presented at the APSA Annual Meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Kselman, Daniel M.. 2013. “Economic Development, Democratic Experience, and Political Linkage Strategies.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11): 14531484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Kselman, Daniel M..2014. “Clientelistic Party Organization. Brokerage and Centralization.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Political Science Association (EPSA). Edinburgh, Scotland, June 19–21.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Kselman, Daniel M..2015. Programmatic Partisan Accountability and Organizational Design. A Comparative Analysis. Unpublished manuscript. Duke University and IE Madrid.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Singer, Matthew. 2016. “Diversified Partisan Linkage Strategies. Comparative Argument and Post-Communist Evidence.” Paper presented at the 23rd Meeting of the Council for European Studies. Philadelphia, April 14–16.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Wang, Yi-Ting. 2014. “Programmatic Parties and Party Systems. Opportunities and Constraints.” In International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, ed., Politics Meets Policies. The Emergence of Programmatic Political Parties, pp. 4376. Stockholm: IDEA.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert, Mansfeldova, Zdenka, Markowski, Radoslow, and Gábor, Tóka. 1999. Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Competition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Herbert S. 2011. A Concise History of Bolivia. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Marcus. 2004. “The Unión Demócrata Independiente and the Poor (1983–1992): The Survival of Clientelistic Traditions in Chilean Politics.” Jahrbuch für Geschichte Lateinamerikas 41: 301324.Google Scholar
Klesner, Joseph. 1993. “Modernization, Economic Crisis, and Electoral Alignment in Mexico.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 9(2): 187223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klesner, Joseph.2005. “Electoral Competition and the New Party System in Mexico.” Latin American Politics and Society 47(2): 103142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohli, Atul. 2004. State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koivumaeki, Riita-Ilona. 2010. “Business, Economic Experts, and Conservative Party Building in Latin America: The Case of El Salvador.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 2(1): 79106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koivumaeki, Riita-Ilona.2014. “El Salvador: Societal Cleavages, Strategic Elites, and the Success of the Right.” In Luna, Juan Pablo and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira, eds., The Resilience of the Latin American Right, pp. 268293. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Kolev, Kiril and Wang, Yiting. 2010. “Ethnic Group Divisions and Clientelism.” Paper presented at the APSA Annual Meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Komar, Olivera and Živković, Slaven. 2016. “Montenegro: A Democracy without Alternations.” East European Politics and Societies 30(4): 785804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopeček, Michal. 2013. “The Stigma of the Past and the Bond of Belonging: Czech Communists in the First Decade after 1989.” Czech Journal of Contemporary History 1: 101130.Google Scholar
Kopeček, Lubomıír and Pseja, Pavel. 2008. “Czech Social Democracy and Its ‘Cohabitation’ with the Communist Party: The Story of a Neglected Affair.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41: 317338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kora, Sheriff and Darboe, Momodou N.. 2017. “The Gambia’s Electoral Earthquake.” Journal of Democracy 28(2): 147156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kostadinova, Tatiana and Levitt, Barry. 2014. “Toward a Theory of Personalist Parties: Concept Formation and Theory Building.” Politics & Policy 42(4): 490512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koter, Dominika. 2013. “King Makers: Local Leaders and Ethnic Politics in Africa.” World Politics 65(2): 187232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ku, Jae H. 2017. “Public Opinion, Regionalism and Foreign Policy Evaluation in South Korea.” In Cheng, Tun-jen and Lee, Wei-chin, ed., National Security, Public Opinion and Regime Asymmetry: A Six-Country Study, pp. 4977. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuran, Timur. 1987a. “Preference Falsification, Policy Continuity, and Collective Conservatism.” The Economic Journal 97(387): 642665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuran, Timur.1987b. Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kuran, Timur.1991. “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44(1): 748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuzio, Taras. 2008. “Comparative Perspectives on Communist Successor Parties in Central-Eastern Europe and Eurasia.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41(4): 397419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuzio, Taras.2015. Ukraine: Democratization, Corruption, and the New Russian Imperialism. Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kyle, Brett J. 2016. Recycling Dictators in Latin American Elections: Legacies of Military Rule. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laakso, Markku and Taagepera, Rein. 1979. “‘Effective’ Number of Parties: A Measure with Application to West Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 12(1): 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langston, Joy. 2006a. “The Changing Party of the Institutional Revolution.” Party Politics 12(3): 395413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langston, Joy.2006b. “The Birth and Transformation of the Dedazo in Mexico.” In Helmke, Gretchen and Levitsky, Steven, eds., Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America, pp. 143159. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Langston, Joy.2017. Democratization and Authoritarian Party Survival: Mexico’s PRI. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larmer, Miles. 2009. “Zambia since 1990: Paradoxes of Democratic Transition.” In Mustapha, Abdul Raufu and Whitfield, Lindsay, eds., Turning Points in African Democracy, pp. 114133. Suffolk, Rochester, NY: James Currey Press.Google Scholar
Larreguy, Horacio, Montiel, César, and Pablo, Querubín. 2016. “Political Brokers: Partisans or Agents? Evidence from the Mexican Teacher’s Union.” Department of Government, Harvard University, Working paper.Google Scholar
Latinobarómetro. 2016. Informe 2015. Chile: Corporación Latinobarómetro.Google Scholar
Lavareda, Antonio. 1985. “O Partido da Frente Liberal: o dissenso dos governadores pedessistas nordestinos e a busca de uma nova imagem.” In Falcão, Joaquim and de Sá, Constança Pereira, eds., Nordeste: Eleições, pp. 3960. Recife: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco.Google Scholar
Lawson, Chappell. 2000. “Mexico’s Unfinished Transition: Democratization and Authoritarian Enclaves.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 16(2): 267287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, Chappell.2002. Building the Fourth Estate: Democratization and the Rise of a Free Press in Mexico. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, Chappell.2008. “Election Coverage in Mexico: Regulation Meets Crony Capitalism.” In Stromback, Jesper and Kaid, Lynda Lee, eds., Handbook of Election News Coverage around the World, pp. 370384. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Leal, Victor Nunes. 1977. Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil (trans. Henfrey, June). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBas, Adrienne. 2006. “Polarization as Craft: Party Formation and State Violence in ZimbabweComparative Politics 38(4): 419438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBas, Adrienne.2011. From Protest to Parties: Party-Building and Democratization in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Namhee. 2007. The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Lefèvre, Raphaël. 2015. “Tunisia: A Fragile Political Transition.” The Journal of North African Studies 20(2): 307311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeoGrande, William M. 2015. “Cuba’s Perilous Political Transition to the Post-Castro Era.” Journal of Latin American Studies 47(2): 377405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levine, Robert M. 1998. Father of the Poor? Vargas and His Era. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Levitsky, Steven. 2003. Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven.2018. “Peru: The Institutionalization of Politics without Parties.” In Mainwaring, Scott, ed., Party Systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, Decay, and Collapse, pp. 326355. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, and Van Dyck, Brandon. 2016. “Introduction: Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America.” In Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, Van Dyck, Brandon, and Domínguez, Jorge I., eds., Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America, pp. 148. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A..2012. “Beyond Patronage: Violent Struggle, Ruling Party Cohesion, and Authoritarian Durability.” Perspectives on Politics 10(4): 869889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Zavaleta, Mauricio. 2016. “Why No Party-Building in Peru?” In Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, Van Dyck, Brandon, and Domínguez, Jorge I., eds., Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America, pp. 412439. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewin, Leif. 1988. Ideology and Strategy: A Century of Swedish Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, Paul G., ed. 2001. Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Portland, OR: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Society: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Limongi, Fernando and Cortez, Rafael. 2010. “As eleições de 2010 e o quadro partidário.” Novos Estudos Cebrap 88: 2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Teh-Rui. 2014. “Zhong-guo guomindang dang-chan bao-gau” [Report on KMT Party-Owned Assets]. By vice secretary-general and chair of administrative management committee, December 31.Google Scholar
Lin, Tse-min and Yen-pin, Su. 2015. “Taiwan kwai-shan zhengzhi” [Flash-Mob Politics in Taiwan]. Taiwan Democracy Quarterly 12(2): 123147.Google Scholar
Lindberg, Staffan. 2003. “‘It’s Our Time to “Chop”’: Do Elections in Africa Feed Neo-Patrimonialism rather than Counter-Act It?” Democratization 10(2): 121140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindberg, Staffan and Morrison, Minion K. C.. 2005. “Exploring Voter Alignments in Africa: Core and Swing Voters in Ghana.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 43(4): 565586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linz, Juan J., 1978. The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Crisis, Breakdown, and Reequilibration. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Linz, Juan J. 2000. Totalitarianism and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives. International Yearbook of Political Behavior Research. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Loaeza, Soledad. 1999. El Partido Acción Nacional: la larga marcha, 1939–1994. México, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
Long, James D., Kanyinga, Karuti, Ferree, Karen E., and Gibson, Clark. 2013. “Kenya’s 2013 Elections: Choosing Peace over Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 24(3): 140155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
López Nieto, Lourdes. 1998. “The Organizational Dynamics of AP/PP.” In Ignazi, Piero and Ysmal, Colette, eds., The Organization of Political Parties in Southern Europe, pp. 254269. London: Praeger.Google Scholar
López Villaverde, Ángel Luis. 1997. Cuenca durante la II República: Elecciones, partidos y vida política, 1931–1936. Cuenca: Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.Google Scholar
Lowe, Sid. 2010. Catholicism, War and the Foundation of Francoism: The Juventud de Acción Popular in Spain, 1931–1939. Portland: Sussex Academic Press.Google Scholar
Loxton, James. 2014a. “Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America.” PhD dissertation, Department of Government, Harvard University.Google Scholar
Loxton, James.2014b. “The Authoritarian Roots of New Right Party Success in Latin America.” In Luna, Juan Pablo and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira, eds., The Resilience of the Latin American Right, pp. 117140. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Loxton, James.2015. “Authoritarian Successor Parties.” Journal of Democracy 26(3): 157170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loxton, James.2016. “Authoritarian Successor Parties and the Right in Latin America.” In Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, Van Dyck, Brandon, and Domínguez, Jorge I., eds., Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America, pp. 245272. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luebbert, Gregory M. 1991. Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo. 2010. “Segmented Party–Voter Linkages in Latin America: The Case of the UDI.” Journal of Latin American Studies 42: 325356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo.2014. Segmented Representation: Political Party Strategies in Unequal Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam. 2014. “Brand Dilution and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America.” World Politics 66(4): 561602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam.2016. Party Brands in Crisis: Partisanship, Brand Dilution, and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam and Riedl, Rachel Beatty. 2013. “Political Parties and Uncertainty in Developing Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11): 13391365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lwanda, John. 2006. “Kwacha: The Violence of Money in Malawi’s Politics, 1954–2004.” Journal of Southern African Studies 32(3): 525544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyne, Mona. 2007. “Rethinking Economics and Institutions: The Voter’s Dilemma and Democratic Accountability.” In Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds., Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, pp. 159182. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyne, Mona.2008. The Voter’s Dilemma and Democratic Accountability: Latin America and Beyond. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Madrid, Raúl L. 2003. “Labouring against Neoliberalism: Unions and Patterns of Reform in Latin America.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35(1): 5388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magalhães Ferreira, Patrícia. 2004. “Guinea-Bissau: Between Conflict and Democracy.” African Security Review 13(4): 4556.Google Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2005. “The Demise of Mexico’s One-Party Dominant Regime: Elite Choices and the Masses in the Establishment of Democracy.” In Hagopian, Frances and Mainwaring, Scott, eds., The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, pp. 121146. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz.2006. Voting For Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, and Estévez, Federico. 2007. “Clientelism and Portfolio Diversification. A Model of Electoral Investment with Applications to Mexico.” In Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds., Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, pp. 182205. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magar, Edgar. 2012. “Gubernatorial Coattails in Mexican Congressional Elections.” Journal of Politics 74(2): 383399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magnusson, Bruce A. 2001. “Democratization and Domestic Insecurity: Navigating the Transition in Benin.” Comparative Politics 33(2): 211230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahoney, James. 2003. “Knowledge Accumulation in Comparative Historical Research: The Case of Democracy and Authoritarianism.” In Mahoney, James and Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, eds., Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, pp. 131176. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahr, Alison and Nagle, John. 1995. “Resurrection of the Successor Parties and Democratization in East-Central Europe.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 28(4): 393409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, ed. 2018. Party Systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, Decay, and Collapse. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott and Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott and Zoco, Edurne. 2007. “Political Sequences and the Stabilization of Interparty Competition: Electoral Volatility in Old and New Democracies.” Party Politics 13(2): 155178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, Meneguello, Rachel, and Power, Timothy J.. 2000. Partidos conservadores no Brasil contemporâneo: quais são, o que defendem, quais são suas bases. São Paulo: Editora Paz e Terra.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, Power, Timothy J., and Bizzarro, Fernando. 2018. “The Uneven Institutionalization of a Party System: Brazil.” In Mainwaring, Scott, ed., Party Systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, Decay, and Collapse, pp. 164200. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R.. 1995. “Introduction: Party Systems in Latin America.” In Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R., eds., Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, pp. 134. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Makoa, Francis K. 1996. “Political Instability in Post-Military Lesotho: The Crisis of the Basotho Nation-State?African Security Review 5(3): 1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Makoa, Francis K. 2004. “Electoral Reform and Political Stability in Lesotho.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 4(2): 7996.Google Scholar
Malloy, James M. and Gamarra, Eduardo A.. 1988. Revolution and Reaction: Bolivia, 1964–1985. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
Marcelino, Daniel, Braga, Sérgio, and Domingos, Luiz. 2009. “Parlamentares na Constituinte de 1987/88: uma contribuição à solução do ‘enigma do Centrão’.” Revista Política Hoje 18(2): 239279.Google Scholar
March, Luke. 2005. “The Moldovan Communists: From Leninism to Democracy?Eurojournal.org – Journal of Foreign Policy of Moldova 9(September): 125.Google Scholar
March, Luke.2006. “Power and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union: The Communist Parties of Moldova and Russia.” Party Politics 12(3): 341365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchand, Iris. 2014. “Dogla Politics? Questioning Ethnic Consociationalism in Suriname’s National Elections of 25 May 2010.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 37(2): 342362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcus, Richard R. 2001. “Madagascar: Legitimizing Autocracy.” Current History 100(646): 226231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcus, Richard R. and Ratsimbaharison, Adrien M.. 2005. “Political Parties in Madagascar: Neopatrimonial Tools or Democratic Instruments?Party Politics 11(4): 495512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Monty, Gurr, Ted, and Jaggers, Keith. 2014. “Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2013.” Polity IV Project, Center for Systemic Peace. Available from: www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html [Accessed January 20, 2017].Google Scholar
Martí i Puig, Salvador. 2010. “The Adaptation of the FSLN: Daniel Ortega’s Leadership and Democracy in Nicaragua.” Latin American Politics and Society 52(4): 79106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martí i Puig, Salvador.2013. “Nicaragua: La consolidación de un régimen híbrido.” Revista de Ciencia Política 33(1): 269286.Google Scholar
Martz, John D. and Baloyra, Enrique A.. 1976. Electoral Mobilization and Public Opinion: The Venezuelan Campaign of 1973. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Masoud, Tarek. 2011. “The Upheavals in Egypt and Tunisia: The Road to (and from) Liberation Square.” Journal of Democracy 22(3): 2034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masoud, Tarek.2013. “How Morsy Could Have Saved Himself.” Foreign Policy, July 19.Google Scholar
Maurer, Noel and Yu, Carlos. 2011. The Big Ditch: How America Took, Built, Ran, and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mayer, Arno J. 1981. The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Mbodji, Mohamed. 1991. “The Politics of Independence: 1960–1986.” In Delgado, Christopher L. and Jammeh, Sidi C., eds., The Political Economy of Senegal Under Structural Adjustment, pp. 119126. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
McCann, James A. 2015. “Time to Turn Back the Clock? Retrospective Judgments of the Single-Party Era and Support for the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 2012.” In Domínguez, Jorge I., Greene, Kenneth F., Lawson, Chappell H., and Moreno, Alejandro, eds., Mexico’s Evolving Democracy: A Comparative Study of the 2012 Elections, pp. 86106. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
McCargo, Duncan. 1997. “Thailand’s Political Parties: Real, Authentic and Actual.” In Hewison, Kevin, ed., Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, pp. 114131. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
McCracken, John. 1998. “Democracy and Nationalism in Historical Perspective: The Case of Malawi.” African Affairs 97(387): 231249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuire, James W. 1995. “Political Parties and Democracy in Argentina.” In Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R., eds., Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, pp. 200246. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
McGuire, James W. 1997. Peronism without Perón: Unions, Parties, and Democracy in Argentina. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
McKibbin, Ross. 2010. Parties and People, England, 1914–1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vidal, Medina, Xavier, D., Ugues, Antonio Jr., Bowler, Shaun, and Hiskey, Jonathan. 2010. “Partisan Attachment and Democracy in Mexico: Some Cautionary Observations.” Latin American Politics and Society 52(1): 6387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mehler, Andreas. 2005. “The Shaky Foundations, Adverse Circumstances, and Limited Achievements of Democratic Transition in the Central African Republic.” In Villalón, Leonardo A. and VonDoepp, Peter, eds., The Fate of Africa’s Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions, pp. 126152. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Meléndez, Carlos. 2012. La soledad de la política: Transformaciones estructurales, intermediación política y conflictos sociales en el Perú (2000–2012). Lima: Mitin.Google Scholar
Meléndez, Carlos.2014. “Is There a Right Track in Post-Party System Collapse Scenarios? Comparing the Andean Countries.” In Luna, Juan Pablo and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira, eds., The Resilience of the Latin American Right, pp. 167193. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Mercado Gasca, Lauro. 2013. “Clientelismo electoral: Compra, coacción y otros mecanismos que limitan el voto libre y secreto en México.” In Ugalde, Luis Carlos and de Mola, Gustavo Rivera Loret, eds., Fortalezas y Debilidades del Sistema Electoral Mexicano (2000–2012), pp. 236275. Mexico, DF: Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesias.Google Scholar
Mergel, Thomas. 2003. “Das Scheitern Des Deutschen Tory-Konservatismus. Die Umformung Der DNVP Zu Einer Rechtsradikalen Partei 1928–1932.” Historische Zeitschrift 276: 323368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merino, Gustavo. 2001. “Federalismo fiscal: diagnóstico y propuestas.” Gaceta de Economía (ITAM) Special Issue: 145185.Google Scholar
Meyns, Peter. 2002. “Cape Verde: An African Exception.” Journal of Democracy 13(3): 153165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Middlebrook, Kevin. 1995. The Paradox of Revolution: Labor, the State, and Authoritarianism in Mexico. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Mietzner, Marcus. 2012. “Indonesia’s Democratic Stagnation: Anti-Reformist Elites and Resilient Civil Society.” Democratization 19(2): 209229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mietzner, Marcus.2015. “State Capacity in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: Securing Democracy’s Survival, Entrenching its Low Quality.” Working paper, Australia National University.Google Scholar
Mitchell, B. R. 2003. International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750–2000. 5th edn. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Møller, Jørgen, Schmotz, Alexander, and Skaaning, Svend-Erik. 2015. “Economic Crisis and Democratic Breakdown in the Interwar Years: A Reassessment.” Historical Social Research 40(2): 301318.Google Scholar
Momba, Jotham C. 2005. Political Parties and the Quest for Democratic Consolidation in Zambia. Johannesburg: EISA.Google Scholar
Mommsen, Hans. 1996. The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Montero, José Ramón. 1987. “Los fracasos políticos y electorales de la derecha española: Alianza Popular, 1976–1986.” Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas 39: 743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montero, Alfred P. 2012. “A Reversal of Political Fortune: The Transitional Dynamics of Conservative Rule in the Brazilian Northeast.” Latin American Politics and Society 54(1): 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moody, Peter. 1992. Political Change on Taiwan: A Study of Ruling Party Adaptability. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Moore, Barrington. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Moreno, Alejandro. 2015. “El elector mexicano frente al 2015.” ITAM keynote address, April 10, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Morgan, Jana. 2011. Bankrupt Representation and Party System Collapse. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Morrison, Minion K. C. and Woo Hong, Jae. 2006. “Ghana’s Political Parties: How Ethno/Regional Variations Sustain the National Two-Party System.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 44(4): 623647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murillo, Maria Victoria. 2001. Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions, and Market Reforms in Latin America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muyard, Frank. 2008. “Taiwan Elections 2008: Ma Ying-jeou’s Victory and the KMT’s Return to Power.” China Perspectives 1: 7994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mwanakatwe, John M. 1994. End of Kaunda Era. Lusaka, Zambia: Multimedia Publishers.Google Scholar
Mwanakatwe, John M. 2003. John M. Mwanakatwe: Teacher, Politician, Lawyer: My Autobiography. Lusaka, Zambia: Bookworld Publishers.Google Scholar
Nalepa, Monika. 2010. Skeletons in the Closet: Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Europe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Navarro, Melissa. 2011. “La organización partidaria fujimorista a 20 años de su origen.” BA thesis, Department of Social Science, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.Google Scholar
Nelson, Joan M. 2014. “Will Malaysia Follow the Path of Taiwan and Mexico?Journal of Democracy 25(3): 105119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichter, Simeon. 2014. “Conceptualizing Vote Buying.” Electoral Studies 35(3): 315327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nikolenyi, Csaba. 2011. “Constitutional Sources of Party Cohesion: Anti-Defection Laws Around the World.” Paper presented at the Oslo-Rome International Workshop on Democracy. Rome, Italy, November 7–9.Google Scholar
Ninsin, Kwame Akon and Drah, F. K., eds. 1987. The Search for Democracy in Ghana: A Case Study of Political Instability in Africa. Accra, Ghana: Asempa Publishers.Google Scholar
Ninsin, Kwame Akon and Drah, F. K..1991. “Ghana’s Transition to Constitutional Rule.” Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by the Department of Political Science, University of Ghana, Legon. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Universities Press.Google Scholar
Nohlen, Dieter and Philip, Stöver. 2010. Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nordsieck, Wolfram. “Parties and Elections in Europe.” Available from: parties-and-elections.eu [Accessed January 20, 2017].Google Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1992. “Transitions, Continuities, and Paradoxes.” In Mainwaring, Scott, O’Donnell, Guillermo, and Samuel Valenzuela, J., eds., Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective, pp. 1756. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo.1994. “Delegative Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 5(1): 5569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo and Schmitter, Philippe C.. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Oh, Chang Hun and Arrington, Celeste. 2007. “Democratization and Changing Anti-American Sentiments in South Korea.” Asian Survey 47(2): 327350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohnezeit, Maik. 2011. Zwischen “Schärfster Opposition” Und Dem “Willen Zur Macht”: Die Deutschnationale Volkspartei (DNVP) in Der Weimarer Republik 1918–1928. Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag.Google Scholar
Olmeda, Juan C. and Armesto, María Alejandra. 2013. “México: El regreso del PRI a la presidencia.” Revista de Ciencia Política 33(1): 247267.Google Scholar
Olsen, Jonathan. 2007. “The Merger of the PDS and WASG: From Eastern German Regional Party to National Radical Left Party?German Politics 16(2): 205221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsson, Stefan. 2000. “Den Svenska Hoegerns Anpassning Till Demokratin.” PhD dissertation, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
O’Neill, Kathleen. 2003. “Decentralization as an Electoral Strategy.” Comparative Political Studies 36(9): 10681091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oquaye, Mike. 2004. Politics in Ghana, 1982–1992: Rawlings, Revolution, and Populist Democracy. Osu, Accra, Ghana: Tornado Publications.Google Scholar
O’Regan, Davin. 2015. “Cycles of Regime Change in Guinea-Bissau.” In Metelits, Claire and Matti, Stephanie, eds., Democratic Contestation on the Margins: Regimes in Small African Countries, pp. 123148. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Orenstein, Michael. 1998. “A Genealogy of Communist Successor Parties in East Central Europe and the Determinants of Their Success.” East European Politics and Societies 12(3): 472499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orogváni, Andrej. 2006. “Strana Smer–pokus o novú definíciu slovenskej ľavice” [Smer Party – An Attempt to Reinvent the Slovak Left]. In Mesežnikov, Grigorij, Gyárfášová, Oľga, and Kollár, Miroslav, eds., Slovenské voľby ‘06. Výsledky, príčiny, súvislosti, pp. 95109. Bratislava: Inštitút pre verejné otázky.Google Scholar
Ortega Hegg, Manuel. 2007. “Nicaragua 2006: El regreso del FSLN al poder.” Revista de Ciencia Política 27: 205219.Google Scholar
Ortmann, Stephan. 2011. “Singapore: Authoritarian but Newly Competitive.” Journal of Democracy 22(4): 153164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ortmann, Stephan.2015. “Singapore: From Hegemonic to Competitive Authoritarianism.” In Case, William, ed., Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Democratization, pp. 384398. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ossou, François Gomlan. 1993. “Les Forces Armées dans la Vie Politique Béninoise sous le Régime de Mathieu Kérékou: 1972–1990.” Paper presented at the CODESRIA workshop Militaires et le Militarisme en Afrique. Accra, Ghana, April 21–23.Google Scholar
Ostiguy, Pierre. 2009a. “The High and Low in Politics: A Two-Dimensional Space for Comparative Analysis and Electoral Studies.” Kellogg Institute for International Studies. Working Paper #360.Google Scholar
Ostiguy, Pierre.2009b. “Argentina’s Double Political Spectrum: Party System, Political Identities, and Strategies, 1944–2007.” Kellogg Institute for International Studies. Working Paper #361.Google Scholar
Owusu, Maxwell. 1996. “Tradition and Transformation: Democracy and the Politics of Popular Power in Ghana.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 34(2): 307343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Page, Joseph A. 1983. Perón: A Biography. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Paiva, Denise Ferreira. 2002. PFL x PMDB: marchas e contramarchas (1982–2000). Goiânia: Editora Alternativa.Google Scholar
Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Paoli Bolio, Francisco. 2012. “Tiempo de coaliciones: cinco lustros de elecciones en México.” Revista IUS 6(30): 136148.Google Scholar
Paradowska, Janina. 2002. “Aparat na części.” Polityka, December 14: 2830.Google Scholar
Park, Kyungmee. 2010. “Party Mergers and Splits in New Democracies: The Case of South Korea (1987–2007).” Government and Opposition 45(4): 531552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pastor, Manuel and Wise, Carol. 2005. “The Lost Sexenio: Vicente Fox and the New Politics of Economic Reform in Mexico.” Latin American Politics and Society 47(4): 135160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patton, David F. 1998. “Germany’s Party of Democratic Socialism in Comparative Perspective.” East European Politics and Societies 12(3): 500526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patton, David F. 2011. Out of the East: From PDS to Left Party in Unified Germany. Albany: State University of New York Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, Stanley G. 1993. Spain’s First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931–1936. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Peng, Ito and Wong, Joseph. 2008. “Institutions and Institutional Purpose: Continuity and Change in East Asian Social Policy.” Politics and Society 36(1): 6188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peñaranda Bojanic, Martha. 2004. Vida, tiempos y ritmos de ADN (Acción Democrática Nacionalista): Historia de un partido. La Paz: Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas (UMSA).Google Scholar
Pepinsky, Thomas. 2017. “Southeast Asia: Voting Against Disorder.” Journal of Democracy 28(2): 120131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez, Andrés. 1992. “The FSLN after the Debacle: The Struggle for the Definition of Sandinismo.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 34(1): 111139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez, Orlando J. 2000. “The Past as Prologue? Political Parties in Post-Invasion Panama.” In Pérez, Orlando J., ed., Post-Invasion Panama: The Challenges of Democratization in the New World Order, pp. 125145. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Pérez, Orlando J. 2011. Political Culture in Panama: Democracy after Invasion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, Ann L. 1994. “Socialism with a New Face? The PDS in Search of Reform.” East European Politics and Societies 8(3): 495530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piattoni, Simona, ed. 2001. Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollack, Marcelo. 1999. The New Right in Chile, 1973–97. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Pop-Eleches, Grigore. 1999. “Separated at Birth or Separated by Birth? The Communist Successor Parties in Romania and Hungary.” East European Politics and Societies 13(1): 117147.Google Scholar
Pop-Eleches, Grigore.2007. “Historical Legacies and Post-Communist Regime Change.” The Journal of Politics 69(4): 908926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pop-Eleches, Grigore.2008. “A Party for All Seasons: Electoral Adaptation of Romanian Communist Successor Parties.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41(4): 465479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pop-Eleches, Grigore.2010. “Throwing Out the Bums: Protest Voting and Anti-Establishment Parties after Communism.” World Politics 62(2): 221260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, Daniel N. 1995. “Malawi’s New Dawn.” Journal of Democracy 6(1): 131145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, Daniel N. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Margaret. 2002. Right-Wing Women in Chile: Feminine Power and the Struggle Against Allende, 1964–1973. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Power, Timothy J. 2000. The Political Right in Postauthoritarian Brazil: Elites, Institutions, and Democratization. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Power, Timothy J. 2010. “Optimism, Pessimism, and Coalitional Presidentialism: Debating the Institutional Design of Brazilian Democracy.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 29(1): 1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Timothy J. 2016. “The Reduction of Poverty and Inequality in Brazil: Political Causes, Political Consequences.” In Schneider, Ben Ross, ed., New Order and Progress: Development and Democracy in Brazil, pp. 212237. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Timothy J. and Zucco, Cesar Jr. 2009. “Estimating Ideology of Brazilian Legislative Parties, 1990–2005.” Latin American Research Review 44(1): 218245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Timothy and Zucco, Cesar. 2014. “Brazilian Legislative Surveys (1990–2013).” Available from: hdl:1902.1/14970, Harvard Dataverse [Accessed July 31, 2017].Google Scholar
Preston, Paul. 1994. The Coming of the Spanish Civil War: Reform, Reaction and Revolution in the Second Republic. 2nd edn. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Pryce, Paul and Oidtmann, Raphael. 2014. “The 2012 General Election in Ghana.” Electoral Studies 34: 330334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putzel, James. 1995. “Democratization and Clan Politics: The 1992 Philippine Elections.” South East Asia Research 3(1): 1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pye, Oliver and Schaffar, Wolfram. 2008. “The 2006 Anti-Thaksin Movement in Thailand: An Analysis.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 38(1): 3861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Racz, Barnabas. 1993. “The Socialist Left Opposition in Post-Communist Hungary.” Europe-Asia Studies 45(4): 647670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raile, Eric, Pereira, Carlos, and Power, Timothy J.. 2011. “The Executive Toolbox: Building Legislative Support in a Multiparty Presidential Regime.” Political Research Quarterly 64(2): 323334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rakner, Lise, Svåsand, Lars, and Khembo, Nixon S.. 2007. “Fissions and Fusions, Foes and Friends: Party System Restructuring in Malawi in the 2004 General Elections.” Comparative Political Studies 40(9): 11121137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramos, Jorge. 2009. “Seis de cada 10 no cree en elecciones limpias.” El Universal, April 18.Google Scholar
Raphael, Ricardo. 2007. Los socios de Elba Esther. Mexico: Editorial Planeta.Google Scholar
Remmer, Karen L. 1989. Military Rule in Latin America. Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
Resnick, Danielle. 2013. “Continuity and Change in Senegalese Party Politics: Lessons from the 2012 Elections.” African Affairs 112(449): 623645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribeiro, Pedro Floriano. 2013. “Organização e poder nos partidos brasileiros; uma análise dos estatutos.” Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política 10(January): 225265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribeiro, Ricardo. 2014. “Decadência longe do poder: Refundação e crise do PFL.” Revista de Sociologia e Política 22(49): 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riedl, Rachel. 2014. Authoritarian Origins of Democratic Party Systems in Africa. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riedl, Rachel Beatty and Tyler Dickovick, J.. 2014. “Party Systems and Decentralization in Africa.” Studies in Comparative International Development 49(3): 321342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizova, Tatiana Petrova. 2008. “The Party Is Dead, Long Live the Party! Successor Party Adaptation to Democracy.” PhD dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Rizova, Tatiana Petrova.2012. “Communist Successor Party Adaptation in Candidate-Centered Systems: The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the Czech Social Democratic Party in the Czech Republic.” Journal of Politics and Law 5(2): 145161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. 2006. “Latin America’s Conservative Party Deficit.” Paper presented at the annual conference of the Latin American Studies Association. San Juan, Puerto Rico, March 15–18.Google Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. 2012. “Historical Timing, Political Cleavages, and Party Building in ‘Third Wave’ Democracies.” Paper presented at the conference Challenges of Party Building in Latin America. Harvard University, November 16–17.Google Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. 2015. Changing Course in Latin America: Party Systems in the Neoliberal Era. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. 2016. “Historical Timing, Political Cleavages, and Party-Building in Latin America.” In Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, Van Dyck, Brandon, and Domínguez, Jorge I., eds., Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America, pp. 5175. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, Matthew. 2006. “‘Villa Toryism’ and Popular Conservatism in Leeds, 1885–1902.” The Historical Journal 49(1): 217246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rock, David. 1985. Argentina, 1516–1982: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Rodrigues, Leôncio Martins. 2002. Partidos, ideologia e composição social: um estudo das bancadas partidárias na Câmara dos Deputados. São Paulo: Edusp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodrigues, Leôncio Martins.2014. Pobres e ricos na luta pelo poder: novas elites na política brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks.Google Scholar
Rodríguez Castañeda, Rafael. 1993. Prensa vendida. Mexico: Grijalbo.Google Scholar
Rodrik, Dani. 2011. The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Rogowski, Ronald. 1989. Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rokkan, Stein. 1999. State Formation, Nation-Building, and Mass Politics in Europe: The Theory of Stein Rokkan Based on His Collected Works. Edited by Flora, Peter, Kuhnle, Stein, and Urwin, Derek W.. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Romdhani, Oussama. 2014. “Embracing Enemies in Tunisia.” Foreign Policy, June 4.Google Scholar
Romero, Vidal, Magaloni, Beatriz, and Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto. 2016. “Presidential Approval and Public Security in Mexico’s War on Crime.” Latin American Politics and Society 58(2): 100123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ropp, Steve C. 1982. Panamanian Politics: From Guarded Nation to National Guard. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Rosas, Guillermo and Langston, Joy. 2011. “Gubernatorial Effects on the Voting Behavior of National Legislators.” Journal of Politics 73(2): 477493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rose, Richard and Mishler, William. 2002. “Comparing Regime Support in Non-Democratic and Democratic Countries.” Democratization 9(2): 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rose, Richard, Mishler, William, and Munro, Neil. 2006. Russia Transformed: Developing Popular Support for a New Regime. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rose, Richard, Mishler, William, and Munro, Neil.2011. Popular Support for an Undemocratic Regime: The Changing Views of Russians. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, Michael. 2006. “Is Democracy Good for the Poor?American Journal of Political Science 50(4): 860874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothchild, Donald and Foley, Michael. 1988. “African States and the Politics of Inclusive Coalitions.” In Chazan, Naomi and Rothchild, Donald, eds., The Precarious Balance: State and Society in Africa, pp. 149171. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Stephens, Evelyne Huber, and Stephens, John D.. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ruiz, José. 2015. “El impacto de los medios de comunicación sobre la definición del voto de los ciudadanos de Monterrey en las elecciones presidenciales del 2012.” Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales 60(225): 203226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rustow, Dankwart A. 1955. The Politics of Compromise: A Study of Parties and Cabinet Government in Sweden. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rybar, Marek and Deegan-Krause, Kevin. 2008. “Slovakia’s Communist Successor Parties in Comparative Perspective.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41: 497519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samuels, David J. 2004. “From Socialism to Social Democracy. Party Organization and the Transformation of the Workers’ Party in Brazil.” Comparative Political Studies 37(9): 9991024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samuels, David J. and Shugart, Matthew S.. 2010. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sánchez, Omar. 2008. “Guatemala’s Party Universe: A Case Study in Underinstitutionalization.” Latin American Politics and Society 50(1): 123151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, Robert. 1984. Real Old Tory Politics: The Political Diaries of Sir Robert Sanders, Lord Bayford, 1910–35. Edited by Ramsden, John. London: The Historians’ Press.Google Scholar
Sarti, Roland. 1990. “Italian Fascism: Radical Politics and Conservative Goals.” Blinkhorn, Martin, ed., Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in Twentieth Century Europe, pp. 1430. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Sartori, Giovanni. 1970. “Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics.” The American Political Science Review 64(4): 10331053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sartori, Giovanni.1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schatzl, Ludwig, Wessell, Karin, and Lee, Yong-woo. 2007. Regional Development and Decentralization Policy in South Korea. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
Schattschneider, Elmer Eric. 2004[1942]. Party Government: American Government in Action. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Schedler, Andreas. 2000. “The Democratic Revelation.” Journal of Democracy 11(4): 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schedler, Andreas.2002. “The Menu of Manipulation.” Journal of Democracy 13(2): 3650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schedler, Andreas.2013. The Politics of Uncertainty: Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schirmer, Jennifer. 1998. The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2005. “Top Down or Bottom Up? Nationalist Mobilization Reconsidered, with Special Reference to Guinea (French West Africa).” The American Historical Review 110(4): 9751014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, Steffen W., Guasti, Laura, Landé, Carl H., and Scott, James C., eds. 1977. Friends, Followers, and Factions. A Reader in Political Clientelism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Schneider, Ben Ross. 2002. “Why Is Mexican Business So Organized?Latin American Research Review 37(1): 77118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Ian. 1980. “Party and Administration under the One-Party State.” In Tordoff, William, ed., Administration in Zambia, pp. 139161. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Scranton, Margaret E. 1995. “Panama’s First Post-Transition Election.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 37(1): 69100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Šedo, Jakub. 2010a. “The Party System of Croatia.” In Stojarová, Vera and Emerson, Peter, eds., Party Politics in the Western Balkans, pp. 7384. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Šedo, Jakub.2010b. “The Party System of Macedonia.” In Stojarová, Vera and Emerson, Peter, eds., Party Politics in the Western Balkans, pp. 167179. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Seibert, Gerhard. 2006. Comrades, Clients and Cousins: Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in São Tomé and Príncipe. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serra, Gilles. 2013. “Research Note: Demise and Resurrection of a Dominant Party: Understanding the PRI’s Comeback in Mexico.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 5(3): 133154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seton-Watson, Christopher. 1981. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870–1925. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Shafquat, Sahar. 1999. “Adaptation and Change in Formerly Dominant Political Parties: Comparing Experiences in Hungary, Taiwan, and Tanzania.” In Ishiyama, John T., ed., Communist Successor Parties in Post-Communist Politics, pp. 1941. Carmack, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Share, Donald and Mainwaring, Scott. 1986. “Transitions through Transaction: Democratization in Brazil and Spain.” In Selcher, Wayne, ed., Political Liberalization in Brazil: Dynamics, Dilemmas, and Future Prospects, pp. 175215. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
Sharma, Bishnu, Stevens, Bronwyn, and Weller, Patrick. 2008. “Nepal – A Revolution through the Ballot Box.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 62(4): 513528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shefter, Martin. 1977. “Party and Patronage: Germany, England, and Italy.” Politics & Society 7(3): 403451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin, Doh Chull and Wells, Jason. 2005. “Is Democracy the Only Game in Town?Journal of Democracy 16(2): 88101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin, Gi-Wook and Moon, Rennie J.. 2017. “South Korea after Impeachment.” Journal of Democracy 28(4): 117131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siavelis, Peter. 2006. “Accommodating Informal Institutions and Chilean Democracy.” In Helmke, Gretchen and Levitsky, Stephen, eds., Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America, pp. 3355. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Siavelis, Peter.2008. “Chile: The End of the Unfinished Transition.” In Domínguez, Jorge I. and Shifter, Michael, eds., Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America, 3rd edn., pp. 177208. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Sikkink, Kathryn. 2011. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
Simmance, Alan J. 1973. Urbanization in Zambia. New York: Ford Foundation.Google Scholar
Simutanyi, Neo R. and Mate, Njekwa. 2006. “One-Party Dominance and Democracy in Zambia.” Paper prepared within the framework of the Fredriech Ebert Stiftung Mozambique Regional Study on Dominant Parties and Southern Africa.Google Scholar
Singer, Matthew. 2009. “Defendamos lo que hemos logrado: Economic Voting in the 2006 Mexican Presidential Election.” Política y gobierno 15: 199233.Google Scholar
Singer, Matthew.2011. “Buying Voters with Dirty Money: The Relationship between Clientelism and Corruption.” Workshop on Democratic Accountability Strategies, Duke University. May 18–19, 2011.Google Scholar
Singh, Chaitram. 2008. “Re-democratization in Guyana and Suriname: Critical Comparisons.” European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 84: 7185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sivak, Martín. 2001. El dictador elegido: Biografía no autorizada de Hugo Banzer Suárez. La Paz: Plural Editores.Google Scholar
Slater, Dan. 2004. “Indonesia’s Accountability Trap: Party Cartels and Presidential Power after Democratic Transition.” Indonesia 78(October): 6192.Google Scholar
Slater, Dan.2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan.2012. “Strong-State Democratization in Malaysia and Singapore.” Journal of Democracy 23(2): 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan.2013. “Democratic Careening.” World Politics 65(4): 729763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan.2014a. “The Elements of Surprise: Assessing Burma’s Double-Edged Détente.” South East Asia Research 22(2): 171182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan.2014b. “Unbuilding Blocs: Indonesia’s Accountability Deficit in Historical Perspective.” Critical Asian Studies 46(2): 287315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan and Simmons, Erica. 2013. “Coping by Colluding: Political Uncertainty and Promiscuous Powersharing in Indonesia and Bolivia.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11): 13661393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan and Wong, Joseph. 2013. “The Strength to Concede: Ruling Parties and Democratization in Developmental Asia.” Perspectives on Politics 11(3): 717733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slater, Dan and Smith, Nicholas Rush. 2016. “The Power of Counterrevolution: Elitist Origins of Political Order in Postcolonial Asia and Africa.” American Journal of Sociology 121(5): 14721516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Benjamin. 2005. “Life of the Party: The Origins of Regime Breakdown and Persistence under Single-Party Rule.” World Politics 57(3): 421451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Benjamin.2007. Hard Times in the Lands of Plenty: Oil Politics in Iran and Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Snyder, Richard. 1999. “After the State Withdraws: Neoliberalism and Subnational Authoritarian Regimes in Mexico.” In Cornelius, Wayne, Eisenstadt, Todd, and Hindley, Jane, eds., Subnational Politics and Democratization in Mexico, pp. 295341. La Jolla, CA: Center for US Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
Somfalvi, Attila. 2007. “Labor Party to Liquidate All of Its Assets.” Israel News, August 28.Google Scholar
Sosa Villagarcia, Paolo. 2016. “¿El despertar de la Fuerza Popular? Keiko Fujimori y el partido de las paradojas.” In Meléndez, Carlos, ed., Anti-candidatos. El thriller político de las elecciones 2016, pp. 1542. Lima: Editorial Planeta.Google Scholar
Souza, Celina. 2016. “The Rise and Fall of Illiberal Politics in the Brazilian State of Bahia.” In Behrend, Jacqueline and Whitehead, Laurence, eds., Illiberal Practices: Territorial Variance within Large Federal Democracies, pp. 197230. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Spirova, Maria. 2008. “The Bulgarian Socialist Party: The Long Road to Europe.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41: 481495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steenbergen, Marco R. and Jones, Bradford S.. 2002. “Modeling Multilevel Data Structures.” American Journal of Political Science 46(1): 218237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinberg, David I. 1998. “Korea: Triumph and Turmoil.” Journal of Democracy 9(2): 7690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stepan, Alfred. 1988. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stojarová, Vera and Emerson, Peter, eds. 2010. Party Politics in the Western Balkans. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stokes, Donald E. 1963. “Spatial Models of Party Competition.” The American Political Science Review 57(2): 368377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, Susan C. 2005. “Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics with Evidence from Argentina.” American Political Science Review 99(3): 315325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, Susan C., Dunning, Thad, Nazareno, Marcelo, and Brusco, Valeria. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoll, David. 1990/1991. “Guatemala: Why They Like Ríos Montt.” NACLA Report on the Americas 24(4): 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suh, Doowon. 2015. “Democracy Disenchanted and Autocracy Glamorized in Korea.” International Journal of Social Science Studies 3(6): 919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svolik, Milan W. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela. 2012. “Uncertainty, Political Clientelism, and Voter Turnout in Latin America: Why Parties Conduct Rallies in Argentina.” Comparative Politics 45(1): 88106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela.2013. “The Microfoundations of Political Clientelism: Lessons from the Argentine Case.” Latin American Research Review 48(2): 3254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela.2014. “Political Parties and Rallies in Latin America.” Party Politics 20(3): 456466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarouco, Gabriela da Silva. 1999. “O Partido da Frente Liberal: trajetória e papel no sistema político.” MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Campinas.Google Scholar
Tarouco, Gabriela da Silva and Madeira, Rafael Machado. 2013. “Partidos, programas e o debate sobre esquerda e direita no Brasil.” Revista de Sociologia e Política 21(45): 149165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tavits, Margit. 2013. Post-Communist Democracies and Party Organization. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tavits, Margit and Letki, Natalia. 2009. “When Left is Right: Party Ideology and Policy in Post-Communist Europe.” American Political Science Review 104(4): 555569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, Matthew M. 2017. “Corruption and Accountability in Brazil.” In Kingstone, Peter and Power, Timothy J., eds., Democratic Brazil Divided, pp. 7796. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thaler, Kai M. 2017. “Nicaragua: A Return to Caudillismo.” Journal of Democracy 28(2): 157169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thermænius, Edvard. 1935. Riksdagspartierna, Vol. 17. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag.Google Scholar
Thompson, Wayne C. 1996. “The Party of Democratic Socialism in the New Germany.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 29(4): 435452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomsa, Dirk. 2008. Party Politics and Democratization in Indonesia: Golkar in the Post-Suharto Era. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomsa, Dirk.2012. “Still the Natural Government Party? Challenges and Opportunities for Golkar ahead of the 2014 Election.” South East Asia Research 20(4): 491509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toole, James. 2003. “Straddling the East-West Divide: Party Organisation and Communist Legacies in East Central Europe.” Europe-Asia Studies 55(1): 101118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torre, Juan Carlos. 1990. La vieja guardia sindical y Perón: sobre los orígenes del peronismo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana-Instituto Torcuato Di Tella.Google Scholar
Treisman, Daniel. 2011. “Presidential Popularity in a Hybrid Regime: Russia under Yeltsin and Putin.” American Journal of Political Science 55(3): 590609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trejo, Raúl, ed. 1988. Las redes de Televisa. Mexico: Claves Latinoamericanas.Google Scholar
Treviño-Rangel, Javier. 2012. “Policing the Past: Transitional Justice and the Special Prosecutor’s Office in Mexico, 2000–2006.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
Trudeau, Robert H. 1993. Guatemalan Politics: The Popular Struggle for Democracy. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsebelis, George. 1990. Nested Games: Rational Choice in Comparative Politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Tucker, Joshua A. 2006. Regional Economic Voting: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, 1990–1999. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tucker, Joshua and Powell, Eleanor Neff. 2014. “Revisiting Electoral Volatility in Post-Communist Countries: New Data, New Results and New Approaches.” British Journal of Political Science 44(1): 123147.Google Scholar
Tuckman, Jo. 2011. “Scandal Erupts Around Union Chief in Mexico.” The Guardian, July 8.Google Scholar
Tuckman, Jo.2012. “Mexican Media Scandal: Secretive Televisa Unit Promoted PRI Candidate.” The Guardian, June 26.Google Scholar
Turner, Brian. 2014. “Paraguay: La vuelta del Partido Colorado al poder.” Revista de Ciencia Política 34(1): 249266.Google Scholar
Urrutia, Adriana. 2011a. “Que la Fuerza (2011) esté con Keiko: El nuevo baile del fujimorismo.” In Meléndez, Carlos, ed., Post-candidatos: Guía analítica de supervivencia hasta las próximas elecciones, pp. 93120. Lima: Aerolíneas Editoriales.Google Scholar
Urrutia, Adriana.2011b. “Hacer campaña y construir partido: Fuerza 2011 y su estrategia para (re)legitimar al fujimorismo a través de su organización.” Argumentos 5(2), http://revistaargumentos.iep.org.pe/articulos/hacer-campana-y-construir-partido-fuerza-2011-y-su-estrategia-para-relegitimar-al-fujimorismo-a-traves-de-su-organizacion/ [Accessed March 21, 2018].Google Scholar
Valenzuela, J. Samuel. 1992. “Democratic Consolidation in Post-Transitional Settings: Notion, Process and Facilitating Conditions.” In Mainwaring, Scott, O’Donnell, Guillermo, and Samuel Valenzuela, J., eds., Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective, pp. 353375. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar
van Biezen, Ingrid, Mair, Peter, and Poguntke, Thomas. 2012. “Going, Going … Gone? The Decline of Party Membership in Contemporary Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 51: 2456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Walle, Nicolas. 2001. African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Walle, Nicolas.2003. “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 41(2): 297321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van de Walle, Nicolas.2007. “Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss? The Evolution of Political Clientelism in Africa.” In Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds., Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, pp. 5067. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Donge, Jan Kees. 1995. “Kamuzu’s Legacy: The Democratization of Malawi: Or Searching for the Rules of the Game in African Politics.” African Affairs 94(375): 227257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Dyck, Brandon. 2018. “External Appeal, Internal Dominance: How Party Leaders Contribute to Successful Party Building.” Latin American Politics and Society 60(1): 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vázquez Rosas, Fernando. 2012. “En Tabasco el petróleo es tricolor.” Revista Nueva Era Online 1(6): 29.Google Scholar
Vengroff, Richard and Creevey, Lucy. 1997Senegal: The Evolution of a Quasi Democracy.” In Clark, John F. and Gardinier, David E., eds., Political Reform in Francophone Africa, pp. 204222. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Villalón, Leonardo. 2006. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Villalón, Leonardo A. and VonDoepp, Peter, eds. 2005. The Fate of Africa’s Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Vincent, Mary. 1996. Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic: Religion and Politics in Salamanca, 1930–1936. New York: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Beyme, Klaus. 1984. Parteien Im Westlichen Demokratien. Munich: Piper.Google Scholar
von Gerlach, Hellmut. 1925. Errinerungen Eines Junkers [Memoir of a Junker]. Berlin: Die Welt am Montag.Google Scholar
Vuković, Ivan. 2015. “Political Dynamics of the Post-Communist Montenegro: One-Party Show.” Democratization 22(1): 7391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wade, Robert. 1990. Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wald, Kenneth D. 1983. Crosses on the Ballot: Patterns of British Voter Alignment since 1885. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waller, Michael. 1995. “Adaptation of the Former Communist Parties of East Central Europe: A Case of Social-Democratization?Party Politics 1(4): 473490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Yi-Ting. 2013. “A Case Study of Parties’ Programmatic and Clientelistic Electoral Appeals in South Korea.” In Kitschelt, Herbert, ed., Research and Dialogue on Programmatic Parties and Party Systems. Case Study Report, pp. 158188. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).Google Scholar
Way, Lucan. 2015. Pluralism by Default: Weak Autocrats and the Rise of Competitive Politics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca. 2014. Curbing Clientelism in Argentina: Politics, Poverty, and Social Policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyden, Patrick Vander. 2006. “The Comeback of Désiré Bouterse? General Elections in Suriname 2005.” Representation 42(3): 235242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt. 1996. “Neo-Populism and Neo-Liberalism in Latin America: Unexpected Affinities.” Studies in Comparative International Development 32(3): 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt.1999. “Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe.” Comparative Politics 31(4): 379401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitehead, Laurence. 1986. “Bolivia’s Failed Democratization, 1977–1980.” In O’Donnell, Guillermo, Schmitter, Philippe C., and Whitehead, Laurence, eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule, Vol. 2: Latin America, pp. 4971. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Whitfield, Lindsay. 2009. “‘Change for a Better Ghana’: Party Competition, Institutionalization, and Alternation in Ghana’s 2008 Elections.” African Affairs 108(433): 621641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widner, Jennifer A. 1992. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya: From Harambee! to Nyayo!. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winckler, Edwin. 1984. “Institutionalization and Participation on Taiwan: From Hard to Soft Authoritarianism?The China Quarterly 99: 481499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, Anne. 2014. Can Secular Parties Lead the New Tunisia? Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Wong, Joseph. 2004. Healthy Democracies: Welfare Politics in Taiwan and South Korea. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Wong, Joseph.2008. “Maintaining KMT Dominance: Party Adaptation in Authoritarian and Democratic Taiwan.” In Friedman, Edward and Wong, Joseph, eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, pp. 5774. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, Joseph.2011. Betting on Biotech: Innovation and the Limits of Asia’s Developmental State.