Published online by Cambridge University Press: 03 August 2020
In interaction, feedback, and task research, data are often sourced from oral production, and sometimes from written production. In computer-aided interaction there may also be synchronous or asynchronous digital transcripts, which fall somewhere between oral and written data. Some kinds of data are, as part of the data collection process, already in digital formats (e.g., gestures as feedback in the form of teachers’ movements during videos of their teaching). Data might also be visual, too, in the form of eye movements that indicate what learners are looking at or focusing on when they receive feedback, for example. Data can also consist of images, like those obtained via fMRI or EEG while learners carry out communicative tasks. Some types of data might be ready for analysis immediately or very soon after collection, for example CALL data of learner–learner chats showing how they modify their output during peer interaction over tasks, or in larger scale studies, like research syntheses or meta-analyses.