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65 - Antiviral therapy of varicella-zoster virus infections

from Part VI - Antiviral therapy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2009

John W. Gnann Jr.
Affiliation:
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics and Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Birmingham VA Medical Center Birmingham, AL, USA
Ann Arvin
Affiliation:
Stanford University, California
Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume
Affiliation:
Università degli Studi, Bologna, Italy
Edward Mocarski
Affiliation:
Emory University, Atlanta
Patrick S. Moore
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Bernard Roizman
Affiliation:
University of Chicago
Richard Whitley
Affiliation:
University of Alabama, Birmingham
Koichi Yamanishi
Affiliation:
University of Osaka, Japan
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Summary

Introduction

Primary infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is manifest by varicella (chickenpox), while reactivation of latent virus causes herpes zoster (shingles). In immunocompetent children, varicella is usually not a serious disease, but can cause severe morbidity and mortality in adults and in immunocompromised individuals. Similarly, herpes zoster is associated with much greater morbidity in patients with impaired cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, herpes zoster can cause prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia) that can be very difficult to manage, particularly in older individuals. The outcomes of varicella and herpes zoster, especially in immunocompromised patients, have been dramatically improved by the development of safe and effective antiviral drugs with potent activity against VZV. Early drugs with modest efficacy and substantial toxicity (e.g., interferon, vidarabine, etc.) have been replaced by antiviral agents with enhanced in vitro activity, improved pharmacokinetic properties, and excellent safety profiles.

Diagnosis

Most experienced physicians will be able to make an accurate clinical diagnosis of chickenpox based on the distinctive appearance of the skin lesions (Fig. 65.1(a)). The clinical syndrome of a child with mild constitutional symptoms, the typical diffuse vesicular rash, and no prior history of chickenpox is strongly suggestive of the diagnosis, especially if there has been exposure to VZV within the previous two weeks. However, in countries where the incidence of varicella is dramatically declining (such as the United States), younger physicians will have fewer opportunities to see patients with chickenpox and may feel less confident with the clinical diagnosis.

Type
Chapter
Information
Human Herpesviruses
Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis
, pp. 1175 - 1191
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2007

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