Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-cxxrm Total loading time: 4.705 Render date: 2021-12-05T02:15:26.505Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 55 - Multiple Pregnancy (Content last reviewed: 14th December 2020)

from Section 6 - Late Prenatal – Obstetric Problems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 November 2017

David James
Affiliation:
University of Nottingham
Philip Steer
Affiliation:
Imperial College London
Carl Weiner
Affiliation:
University of Kansas
Bernard Gonik
Affiliation:
Wayne State University, Detroit
Stephen Robson
Affiliation:
University of Newcastle
Get access

Summary

Multiple pregnancy is not an uncommon occurrence, affecting 2–3% of births. Prevalence rates vary significantly: in England and Wales 15.9 out of every 1000 women giving birth in 2016 had a multiple birth, whereas in the United States the twin rate was 33.4 per 1000 live births (triplet and higher-order births, 101.4 per 100,000 births) in 2016.

Type
Chapter
Information
High-Risk Pregnancy
Management Options
, pp. 1580 - 1622
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
First published in: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Boyle, B, McConkey, R, Garne, E, et al. Trends in the prevalence, risk and pregnancy outcome of multiple births with congenital anomaly: a registry-based study in 14 European countries 1984–2007. BJOG 2013; 120: 707–16.
Office for National Statistics. Birth characteristics in England and Wales: 2016. Statistical Bulletin October 2017. www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/livebirths/bulletins/birthcharacteristicsinenglandandwales/2016 (accessed September 2018).
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Osterman, MJK, Driscoll, AK, Drake, P. Births: final data for 2016. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2018; 67(1): 155. www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_01.pdf (accessed September 2018).
Vayssiere, C, Benoist, G, Blondel, B, et al. Twin pregnancies: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011; 156: 1217.
Hall, JG. Twinning. Lancet 2003; 362: 735–43.
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Sutton, PD, et al. Births: final data for 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2009; 57: 1102
Chauhan, SP, Scardo, JA, Hayes, E, Abuhamad, AZ, Berghella, V. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203: 305–15.
Macfarlane, A, Blondel, B. Demographic trends in Western European countries. In Blickstein, I, Keith, LG (eds), Multiple Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Gestation, and Perinatal Outcome, 2nd edn. London: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp. 1121.
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Multiple births and single embryo transfer review, 2013. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/Multiple-births-after-IVF.html (accessed March 2017).
Weber, MA, Sebire, NJ. Genetics and developmental pathology of twinning. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2010; 15: 313–18.
Benirschke, K, Kim, CK. Multiple pregnancy. 2. N Engl J Med 1973; 288: 1329–36.
Derom, C, Vlietinck, R, Derom, R, Van den Berghe, H, Thiery, M. Increased monozygotic twinning rate after ovulation induction. Lancet 1987; 1: 1236–8.
Umranikar, A, Parmar, D, Davies, S, Fountain, S. Multiple births following in vitro fertilization treatment: redefining success. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 170: 299304.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility Problems: Assessment and Treatment. Clinical Guideline CG156. London: NICE, 2013. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg156 (accessed March 2017).
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Multiple Pregnancy Following Assisted Reproduction. Scientific Impact Paper No. 22. London: RCOG, 2011. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/sip_no_22.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Luke, B, Brown, MB, Wantman, E, Stern, JE. Factors associated with monozygosity in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and the risk of recurrence using linked cycles. Fertil Steril 2014; 101: 683–9.
Busnelli, A, Dallagiovanna, C, Reschini, M, et al. Risk factors for monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 2019; 111: 302–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.10.025.
Glujovsky, D, Blake, D, Farquhar, C, Bardach, A. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; (7): CD002118.
McLernon, D, Harrild, K, Bergh, C, et al. Clinical effectiveness of elective single versus double embryo transfer: meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. BMJ 2010; 341: c6945.
Gelbaya, TA, Tsoumpou, I, Nardo, LG. The likelihood of live birth and multiple birth after single versus double embryo transfer at the cleavage stage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 936–45.
Luke, B, Gopal, D, Cabral, H, et al. Adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes in twins: effects of maternal fertility status and infant gender combinations; the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017; 217: 330.e115. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.04.025.
Helmerhorst, FM, Perquin, DA, Donker, D, Keirse, MJ. Perinatal outcome of singletons and twins after assisted conception: a systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 2004; 328: 261.
Santana, DS, Cecatti, JG, Surita, FG, et al. Twin pregnancy and severe maternal outcomes: the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 127: 631–41. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001338.
Rao, A, Sairam, S, Shehata, H. Obstetric complications of twin pregnancies. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 18: 557–76.
Sibai, BM, Hauth, J, Caritis, S, et al. Hypertensive disorders in twin versus singleton gestations. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182: 938–42.
Laine, K, Murzakanova, G, Sole, KB, et al. Prevalence and risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension in twin pregnancies: a population-based register study. BMJ Open 2019; 9 (7): e029908. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029908.
Schwartz, DB, Daoud, Y, Zazula, P, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus: metabolic and blood glucose parameters in singleton versus twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 912–14.
Goldenberg, RL, Culhane, JF, Iams, JD, Romero, R. Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet 2008; 371: 7584.
Blondel, B, Macfarlane, A, Gissler, M, Breart, G, Zeitlin, J. General obstetrics: preterm birth and multiple pregnancy in European countries participating in the PERISTAT project. BJOG 2006; 113: 528–35.
Victoria, A, Mora, G, Arias, F. Perinatal outcome, placental pathology, and severity of discordance in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 310–15.
Ross, LE, McQueen, K, Vigod, S, Dennis, CL. Risk for postpartum depression associated with assisted reproductive technologies and multiple births: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17: 96106.
Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH). Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safe: 2003–2005. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: CEMACH, 2007.
Sebire, N Anomalous development in twins (including monozygotic duplication). In Kilby, M, Baker, P, Critchley, H, Field, D (eds), Multiple Pregnancy. London: RCOG Press; 2006, pp. 5988.
Glinianaia, SV, Rankin, J, Wright, C. Congenital anomalies in twins: a register-based study. Hum Reprod 2008; 23: 1306–11.
Morin, L, Lim, K, Bly, S, et al. Ultrasound in twin pregnancies: no. 260, June 2011. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2011; 115: 117–18.
Berghella, V, Saccone, G. Cervical assessment by ultrasound for preventing preterm delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 9: CD007235. https://doi.org//10.1002/14651858.CD007235.pub4.
Sun, LM, Chen, XK, Wen, SW, et al. Perinatal outcomes of normal cotwins in twin pregnancies with one structurally anomalous fetus: a population-based retrospective study. Am J Perinatol 2009; 26: 51–6.
Pandya, PP, Snijders, RJ, Psara, N, Hilbert, L, Nicolaides, KH. The prevalence of non-viable pregnancy at 10–13 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996; 7: 170–3.
Sebire, NJ, Snijders, RJ, Hughes, K, Sepulveda, W, Nicolaides, KH. The hidden mortality of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 1203–7.
D’Antonio, F, Khalil, A, Dias, T, Thilaganathan, B. Early fetal loss in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies: analysis of the Southwest Thames Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK) multiple pregnancy cohort. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 632–6.
Sebire, NJ, Thornton, S, Hughes, K, Snijders, RJ, Nicolaides, KH. The prevalence and consequences of missed abortion in twin pregnancies at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 847–8.
Landy, H, Keith, L. The vanishing twin: a review. Hum Reprod Update 1998; 4: 177–83.
Kamath, MS, Antonisamy, B, Selliah, HY, Sunkara, SK. Perinatal outcomes of singleton live births with and without vanishing twin following transfer of multiple embryos: analysis of 113 784 singleton live births. Hum Reprod 2018; 33: 2018–22. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey284.
Ong, S, Zamora, J, Khan, K, Kilby, M. Prognosis for the co-twin following single-twin death: a systematic review. BJOG 2006; 113: 992–8.
Hillman, SC, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Co-twin prognosis after single fetal death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118: 928–40.
D’Antonio, F, Thilaganathan, B, Dias, T, et al. Influence of chorionicity and gestational age at single fetal loss on risk of preterm birth in twin pregnancy: analysis of STORK multiple pregnancy cohort. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017; 50: 723–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.17426.
Breathnach, FM, Malone, FD. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations. Semin Perinatol 2012; 36: 175–81.
Breathnach, FM, McAuliffe, FM, Geary, M, et al. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118: 94103.
Lewi, L, Deprest, J. Management of twin pregnancies: where do we go from here? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 601–4.
Kalafat, E, Thilaganathan, B, Papageorghiou, A, Bhide, A, Khalil, A. Significance of placental cord insertion site in twin pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018; 52: 378–84. doi: 10.1002/uog.18914.
Couck, I, Mourad Tawfic, N, Deprest, J, et al. Does site of cord insertion increase risk of adverse outcome, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth in monochorionic twin pregnancy? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018; 52: 385–9. doi: 10.1002/uog.18926.
Jones, R, Roberton, N. Small for dates babies: are they really a problem? Arch Dis Child 1986; 61: 877–80.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 169: Multifetal gestations: twin, triplet, and higher-order multifetal pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 128: e131–46.
Miller, J, Chauhan, SP, Abuhamad, AZ. Discordant twins: diagnosis, evaluation and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 206: 1020.
Ananth, CV, Joseph, K, Demissie, K, Vintzileos, AM. Trends in twin preterm birth subtypes in the United States, 1989 through 2000: impact on perinatal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 1076.e1–9.
Kiely, JL. What is the population-based risk of preterm birth among twins and other multiples? Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998; 41: 311.
Stoll, BJ, Hansen, NI, Bell, EF, et al. Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 2010; 126: 443–56.
Murphy, D, MacKenzie, I. The mortality and morbidity associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102: 826–30.
Cohen, M, Kohl, S, Rosenthal, A. Fetal interlocking complicating twin gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965; 91: 407–12.
Pharoah, P. Neurological outcome in twins. Semin Neonatol 2002; 7: 223–30.
MBRRACE-UK. Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report: UK perinatal deaths for births from January to December 2014. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 2016. https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/downloads/files/mbrrace-uk/reports/MBRRACE-UK-PMS-Report-2014.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Draper, ES, Gallimore, ID, Kurinczuk, JJ, et al., on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK Collaboration. MBRRACE-UK Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report, UK Perinatal Deaths for Births from January to December 2016. Leicester: Infant Mortality and Morbidity Studies, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, 2018.
Danon, D, Sekar, R, Hack, KE, Fisk, NM. Increased stillbirth in uncomplicated monochorionic twin pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 121: 1318–26.
Dube, J, Dodds, L, Armson, BA. Does chorionicity or zygosity predict adverse perinatal outcomes in twins? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186: 579–83.
Barigye, O, Pasquini, L, Galea, P, et al. High risk of unexpected late fetal death in monochorionic twins despite intensive ultrasound surveillance: a cohort study. PLoS Med 2005; 2 (6): e172.
Spitz, L. Conjoined twins. Prenat Diagn 2005; 25: 814–19.
Mutchinick, OM, Luna-Muñoz, L, Amar, E, et al. Conjoined twins: a worldwide collaborative epidemiological study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2011; 157C: 274–87.
Chen, CP, Hsu, CY, Su, JW, et al. Conjoined twins detected in the first trimester: a review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 50: 424–31.
Dias, T, Mahsud-Dornan, S, Bhide, A, Papageorghiou, AT, Thilaganathan, B. Cord entanglement and perinatal outcome in monoamniotic twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 35: 201–4.
Baxi, LV, Walsh, CA. Monoamniotic twins in contemporary practice: a single-center study of perinatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010; 23: 506–10.
Hack, KE, Derks, JB, Schaap, AH, et al. Perinatal outcome of monoamniotic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113: 353–60.
Rossi, AC, Prefumo, F. Impact of cord entanglement on perinatal outcome of monoamniotic twins: a systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 131–5.
Sueters, M, Oepkes, D. Diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective fetal growth restriction, twin anaemia-polycythaemia sequence, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 28: 215–26.
Khalil, A, Beune, I, Hecher, K, et al. Consensus definition and essential reporting parameters of selective fetal growth restriction in twin pregnancy: a Delphi procedure. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 4754. doi: 10.1002/uog.19013.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Monochorionic Twin Pregnancy, 2nd edn. Green-top Guideline No. 51. London: RCOG, 2016. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg51/ (accessed March 2017).
Gratacos, E, Antolin, E, Lewi, L, et al. Monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction and intermittent absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (Type III): feasibility and perinatal outcome of fetoscopic placental laser coagulation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 31: 669–75.
Gratacos, E, Lewi, L, Muñoz, B, et al. A classification system for selective intrauterine growth restriction in monochorionic pregnancies according to umbilical artery Doppler flow in the smaller twin. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 30: 2834.
Healey, MG. Acardia: predictive risk factors for the co-twin’s survival. Teratology 1994; 50: 205–13.
Lewi, L, Valencia, C, Gonzalez, E, Deprest, J, Nicolaides, KH. The outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence diagnosed in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203: 213.e1–4.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intrauterine laser ablation of placental vessels for the treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. NICE Interventional Procedure Guidance IPG198. London: NICE, 2006. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg198 (accessed March 2017).
Denbow, M, Fogliani, R, Kyle, P, et al. Haematological indices at fetal blood sampling in monochorionic pregnancies complicated by feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. Prenat Diagn 1998; 18: 941–6.
Stagnati, V, Zanardini, C, Fichera, A, et al. Early prediction of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016. doi: 10.1002/uog.15989. [Epub ahead of print]
Mackie, FL, Whittle, R, Morris, RK, et al. First-trimester ultrasound measurements and maternal serum biomarkers as prognostic factors in monochorionic twins: a cohort study. Diagn Progn Res 2019; 3: 9. doi: 10.1186/s41512-019-0054-9.
Simpson, LL. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 208: 318.
Quintero, RA, Morales, WJ, Allen, MH, et al. Staging of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J Perinatol 1999; 19: 550–5.
Lopriore, E, Oepkes, D, Walther, FJ. Neonatal morbidity in twin–twin transfusion syndrome. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87: 595–9.
Tollenaar, LSA, Lopriore, E, Middeldorp, JM, et al. Improved prediction of twin anemia–polycythemia sequence by delta middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity: new antenatal classification system. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 788–93. doi: 10.1002/uog.20096.
Tavares de Sousa, M, Fonseca, A, Hecher, K. Role of fetal intertwin difference in middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in predicting neonatal twin anemia–polycythemia sequence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 794–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.20116.
Slaghekke, F, Kist, WJ, Oepkes, D, et al. Twin anemia–polycythemia sequence: diagnostic criteria, classification, perinatal management and outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2010; 27: 181–90.
Ellings, JM, Newman, RB, Hulsey, TC, Bivins, HA, Keenan, A. Reduction in very low birth weight deliveries and perinatal mortality in a specialized, multidisciplinary twin clinic. Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81: 387–91.
Newman, RB, Ellings, JM. Antepartum management of the multiple gestation: the case for specialized care. Semin Perinatol 1995; 19: 387403.
Ruk, RJ, Brown, CE, Peters, MT, Johnston, AB. Specialized care for twin gestations: improving newborn outcomes und reducing costs. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2001; 30: 5260.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Multiple pregnancy: twin and triplet pregnancies. NICE Quality Standard QS 46. London: NICE, 2013 (updated September 2019). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs46 (accessed February 2020).
Twins and Multiple Births Association. NICE Works: Twins and Multiple Births Association Maternity Engagement Project Final Report. Aldershot: TAMBA, 2019. https://twinstrust.org/uploads/assets/afcc44b3-776e-4341-8a16e9bd990c3425/NICE-works-final-report.pdf (accessed February 2020).
Ballard, CK, Bricker, L, Reed, K, Wood, L, Neilson, JP. Nutritional advice for improving outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (6): CD008867.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Twin and Triplet Pregnancy. NICE Guideline NG137. London: NICE, 2019. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng137 (accessed December 2020).
Lewi, L, Lewi, P, Diemert, A, et al. The role of ultrasound examination in the first trimester and at 16 weeks’ gestation to predict fetal complications in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199: 493.e1–7.
Kurtz, A, Wapner, R, Mata, J, Johnson, A, Morgan, P. Twin pregnancies: accuracy of first-trimester abdominal US in predicting chorionicity and amnionicity. Radiology 1992; 185: 759–62.
Monteagudo, A, Timor-Tritsch, IE, Sharma, S. Early and simple determination of chorionic and amniotic type in multifetal gestations in the first fourteen weeks by high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 170: 824–9.
Lu, J, Cheng, YKY, Ting, YH, Law, KM, Leung, TY. Pitfalls in assessing chorioamnionicity: novel observations and literature review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 219: 242–54. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.02.010.
Dias, T, Ladd, S, Mahsud-Dornan, S, et al. Systematic labeling of twin pregnancies on ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011; 38: 130–3.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Antenatal Care for Uncomplicated Pregnancies. NICE Clinical Guideline CG62. London: NICE, 2008. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg62 (accessed March 2017).
Spencer, K Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester using free β-hCG and PAPP-A, combined with fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Prenat Diagn 2000; 20: 91–5.
NHS Screening Programmes. Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme: Programme Handbook. June 2015. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/456654/FASP_programme_handbook_August_2015.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Gil, MM, Quezada, MS, Revello, R, Akolekar, R, Nicolaides, KH. Analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood in screening for fetal aneuploidies: updated meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015; 45: 249–66.
Canick, JA, Kloza, EM, Lambert-Messerlian, GM, et al. DNA sequencing of maternal plasma to identify Down syndrome and other trisomies in multiple gestations. Prenat Diagn 2012; 32: 730–4.
Attilakos, G, Maddocks, DG, Davies, T, et al. Quantification of free fetal DNA in multiple pregnancies and relationship with chorionicity. Prenat Diagn 2011; 31: 967–72.
Leung, TY, Qu, JZ, Liao, GJ, et al. Noninvasive twin zygosity assessment and aneuploidy detection by maternal plasma DNA sequencing. Prenat Diagn 2013; 33: 675–81.
Qu, JZ, Leung, TY, Jiang, P, et al. Noninvasive prenatal determination of twin zygosity by maternal plasma DNA analysis. Clin Chem 2013; 59: 427–35.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing for Chromosomal Abnormality using Maternal Plasma DNA. Scientific Impact Paper No. 15. London: RCOG, 2014. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/sip_15_04032014.pdf (accessed March 2017).
American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecologists. Committee Opinion No. 640: Cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 126: e31–7.
Benn, P, Borrell, A, Chiu, RW, et al. Position statement from the Chromosome Abnormality Screening Committee on behalf of the Board of the International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis. Prenat Diagn 2015; 35: 725–34.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling. Green-top Guideline No. 8. London: RCOG, 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_8.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Yukobowich, E, Anteby, EY, Cohen, SM, et al. Risk of fetal loss in twin pregnancies undergoing second trimester amniocentesis(1). Obstet Gynecol 2001; 98: 231–4.
Millaire, M, Bujold, E, Morency, AM, Gauthier, RJ. Mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancy and the risk of fetal loss. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2006; 28: 512–18.
Weisz, B, Rodeck, CH. Invasive diagnostic procedures in twin pregnancies. Prenat Diagn 2005; 25: 751–8.
Antsaklis, A, Daskalakis, G, Souka, AP, Kavalakis, Y, Michalas, S. Fetal blood sampling in twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003; 22: 377–9.
D’Antonio, F, Odibo, AO, Prefumo, F, et al. Weight discordance and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018; 52: 1123. doi: 10.1002/uog.18966.
Leombroni, M, Liberati, M, Fanfani, F, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017; 50: 442–50. doi: 10.1002/uog.17348.
Townsend, R, Duffy, JM, Sileo, F, et al.; International Collaboration to Harmonise Outcomes for Selective Fetal Growth Restriction (CHOOSE-FGR). A core outcome set for studies investigating the management of selective fetal growth restriction in twins. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; doi: 10.1002/uog.20388.
Khalil, A, Duffy, JMN, Perry, H, et al.; International Collaboration to Harmonise Outcomes for Selective Fetal Growth Restriction (CHOOSE-FGR). Study protocol: developing, disseminating, and implementing a core outcome set for selective fetal growth restriction in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Trials 2019; 20 (1): 35. doi: 10.1186/s13063-018-3153-y.
Ishii, K, Murakoshi, T, Takahashi, Y, Shinno, T, Matsushita, M, Naruse, H, et al. Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction and different types of umbilical artery Doppler under expectant management. Fetal Diagn Ther 2009; 26: 157–61.
Townsend, R, D’Antonio, F, Sileo, FG, et al. Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction according to management: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 3646. doi: 10.1002/uog.20114.
Monaghan, C, Kalafat, E, Binder, J, Thilaganathan, B, Khalil, A. Prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 200–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.19078.
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Osterman, MJK, Curtin, SC, Mathews, TJ. National vital statistics reports. Births: final data for 2013–2015.
Breathnach, FM, McAuliffe, FM, Geary, M, et al.; Perinatal Ireland Research Consortium. Optimum timing for planned delivery of uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 119: 50–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823d7b06.
Conde-Agudelo A, Romero, R, Hassan, SS, Yeo, L. Transvaginal sonographic cervical length for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203: 128.e112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.064.
Lee, YM. Delivery of twins. Semin Perinatol 2012; 36: 195200.
Singer, E, Pilpel, S, Bsat, F, Plevyak, M, Healy, A, Markenson, G. Accuracy of fetal fibronectin to predict preterm birth in twin gestations with symptoms of labor. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 1083–7.
Gyamfi, C, Lerner, V, Holzman, I, Stone, JL. Routine cervical length in twins and perinatal outcomes. Am J Perinatol 2007; 24: 65–9.
da Silva Lopes, K, Takemoto, Y, Ota, E, Tanigaki, S, Mori, R. Bed rest with and without hospitalisation in multiple pregnancy for improving perinatal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; (3): CD012031. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012031.pub2.
Sosa, C, Althabe, F, Belizan, J, Bergel, E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (1): CD003581.
Norman, JE, Mackenzie, F, Owen, P, et al. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 373: 2034–40.
Dodd, JM, Grivell, RM, O’Brien, CM, Dowswell, T, Deussen, AR. Prenatal administration of progestogens for preventing spontaneous preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; (11). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012024.pub3.
Schuit, E, Stock, S, Rode, L, et al. Effectiveness of progestogens to improve perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis. BJOG 2015; 122: 2737.
Romero, R, Conde-Agudelo, A, El-Refaie, W, et al. Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with a twin gestation and a short cervix: an updated meta‐analysis of individual patient data. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017; 49: 303–14. doi: 10.1002/uog.17397.
Rafael, TJ, Berghella, V, Alfirevic, Z. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; (9): CD009166.
Liem, SM, van Pampus, MG, Mol, BW, Bekedam, DJ. Cervical pessaries for the prevention of preterm birth: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Int 2013; 2013: 576723.
Liem, S, Schuit, E, Hegeman, M, et al. Cervical pessaries for prevention of preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy (ProTWIN): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013; 382: 1341–9.
Goya, M, Pratcorona, L, Merced, C, et al. Cervical pessary in 112 pregnant women with a short cervix (PECEP): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 379: 1800–6.
Nicolaides, KH, Syngelaki, A, Poon, LC, et al. Cervical pessary placement for prevention of preterm birth in unselected twin pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016; 214(1): 3.e19. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.08.051.
Pratcorona, L, Goya, M, Merced, C, et al. Cervical pessary to reduce preterm birth <34 weeks of gestation after an episode of preterm labor and a short cervix: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 219: 99.e116. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.04.031.
Thangatorai, R, Lim, FC, Nalliah, S. Cervical pessary in the prevention of preterm births in multiple pregnancies with a short cervix: PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018; 31: 1638–45. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1319930.
Norman, JE, Norrie, J, Maclennan, G, et al. Open randomised trial of the (Arabin) pessary to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancy with health economics and acceptability: STOPPIT-2 – a study protocol. BMJ Open 2018; 8 (12): e026430. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026430.
Hashimoto, LN, Hornung, RW, Lindsell, CJ, Brewer, DE, Donovan, EF. Effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on outcomes of very low birth weight multifetal gestations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 804–10.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Preterm Prelabour Rupture of the Membranes. Green-top Guideline No. 44. London: RCOG, 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_44.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Kenyon, S, Brocklehurst, P, Jones, D, et al.; MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008; 8: 14.
Sela, HY, Simpson, LL. Preterm premature rupture of membranes complicating twin pregnancy: management considerations. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 54: 321–9.
Doyle, LW, Crowther, CA, Middleton, P, Marret, S, Rouse, D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (1): CD004661.
Wu, MY, Chen, SU, Lee, CN, Ho, HN, Yang, YS. Use of atosiban in a twin pregnancy with extremely preterm premature rupture in the membrane of one twin: a case report and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 49: 495–9.
Cheung, KW, Seto, MTY, Wang, W, et al. Effect of delayed interval delivery of remaining fetus(es) in multiple pregnancies on survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; 222: 306319.e18. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.ajog.2019.07.046.
Dodd, J, Crowther, C. Multifetal pregnancy reduction of triplet and higher-order multiple pregnancies to twins. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1420–2.
Wimalasundera, RC. Selective reduction and termination of multiple pregnancies. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2010; 15: 327–35.
Devine, PC, Malone, FD, Athanassiou, A, Harvey-Wilkes, K, D’Alton, ME. Maternal and neonatal outcome of 100 consecutive triplet pregnancies. Am J Perinatol 2001; 18: 225–35.
Petterson, B, Nelson, KB, Watson, L, Stanley, F. Twins, triplets, and cerebral palsy in births in Western Australia in the 1980s. BMJ 1993; 307: 1239–43.
Curado, J, D'antonio, F, Papageorghiou, AT, et al. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in triplet pregnancy according to chorionicity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 54: 589–95. https://doi.org//10.1002/uog.20209.
Antsaklis, A, Anastasakis, E. Selective reduction in twins and multiple pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2011; 39: 1521.
Zipori, Y, Haas, J, Berger, H, Barzilay, E. Multifetal pregnancy reduction of triplets to twins compared with non-reduced triplets: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online 2017; 35: 296304. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.05.012.
Anthoulakis, C, Dagklis, T, Mamopoulos, A, Athanasiadis, A. Risks of miscarriage or preterm delivery in trichorionic and dichorionic triplet pregnancies with embryo reduction versus expectant management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod 2017; 32: 1351–9. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex084.
Dodd, JM, Crowther, CA. Reduction of the number of fetuses for women with a multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; (10): CD003932.
Evans, MI, Goldberg, JD, Horenstein, J, et al. Selective termination for structural, chromosomal, and Mendelian anomalies: international experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 893–7.
Evans, MI, Goldberg, JD, Dommergues, M, et al. Efficacy of second-trimester selective termination for fetal abnormalities: international collaborative experience among the world’s largest centers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 90–4.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. Umbilical cord occlusion for selective feticide in complicated monochorionic twins: a systematic review of literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 200: 123–9.
Schreiner-Engel, P, Walther, VN, Mindes, J, Lynch, L, Berkowitz, RL. First-trimester multifetal pregnancy reduction: acute and persistent psychologic reactions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172: 541–7.
Heyborne, KD, Porreco, RP, Garite, TJ, Phair, K, Abril, D. Improved perinatal survival of monoamniotic twins with intensive inpatient monitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 96101.
Van Mieghem T, De Heus R, Lewi, L, et al. Prenatal management of monoamniotic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 124: 498506. https://doi.org//10.1097/AOG.0000000000000409.
MONOMONO Working Group. Inpatient vs outpatient management and timing of delivery of uncomplicated monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy: the MONOMONO study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 53: 175–83. https://doi.org//10.1002/uog.19179.
Hillman, S, Morris, R, Kilby, M. Single twin demise: consequence for survivors. Semin Fetal Neonat Med 2010; 15: 319–26.
Mackie, FL, Rigby, A, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Prognosis of the co-twin following spontaneous single intrauterine fetal death in twin pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG 2019; 126: 569–78. https://doi.org//10.1111/1471-0528.15530.
Righini, A, Salmona, S, Bianchini, E, et al. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of ischemic brain lesions in the survivors of monochorionic twin pregnancies: report of 3 cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2004; 28: 8792.
Senat, MV, Bernard, JP, Loizeau, S, Ville, Y. Management of single fetal death in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a role for fetal blood sampling. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002; 20: 360–3.
Tanawattanacharoen, S, Taylor, MJ, Letsky, EA, et al. Intrauterine rescue transfusion in monochorionic multiple pregnancies with recent single intrauterine death. Prenat Diagn 2001; 21: 274–8.
Brassard, M, Fouron, JC, Leduc, L, Grignon, A, Proulx, F. Prognostic markers in twin pregnancies with an acardiac fetus. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94: 409–14.
Malone, FD, D’Alton, ME. Anomalies peculiar to multiple gestations. Clin Perinatol 2000; 27: 1033–46, x.
Mone, F, Devaseelan, P, Ong, S. Intervention versus a conservative approach in the management of TRAP sequence: a systematic review. J Perinat Med 2016; 44: 619–29.
Chaveeva, P, Poon, LC, Sotiriadis, A, Kosinski, P, Nicolaides, KH. Optimal method and timing of intrauterine intervention in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence: case study and meta-analysis. Fetal Diagn Ther 2014; 35: 267–79.
Cabassa, P, Fichera, A, Prefumo, F, et al. The use of radiofrequency in the treatment of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence: a case series and review of the literature. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 166: 127–32.
Lopriore, E, Sueters, M, Middeldorp, JM, et al. Neonatal outcome in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treated with fetoscopic laser occlusion of vascular anastomoses. J Pediatr 2005; 147: 597602.
Khalil, A, Cooper, E, Townsend, R, Thilaganathan, B. Evolution of stage 1 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS): systematic review and meta-analysis. Twin Res Hum Genet 2016; 19: 207–16. doi: 10.1017/thg.2016.33.
Roberts, D, Neilson, JP, Kilby, MD, Gates, S. Interventions for the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; (1): CD002073.
Senat, MV, Deprest, J, Boulvain, M, et al. Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 136–44.
Crombleholme, TM, Shera, D, Lee, H, et al. A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of amnioreduction vs selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 396.e1–9.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. The efficacy of Quintero staging system to assess severity of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with laser therapy: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Am J Perinatol 2009; 26: 537–44.
Lopriore, E, Middeldorp, JM, Oepkes, D, et al. Residual anastomoses after fetoscopic laser surgery in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: frequency, associated risks and outcome. Placenta 2007; 28: 204–8.
Robyr, R, Lewi, L, Salomon, LJ, et al. Prevalence and management of late fetal complications following successful selective laser coagulation of chorionic plate anastomoses in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194: 796803.
Dhillon, RK, Hillman, SC, Pounds, R, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Comparison of Solomon technique against selective laser ablation for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015; 46: 526–31.
van Klink, JM, Koopman, HM, van Zwet, EW, et al. Improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with laser surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 210: 540.e1–7.
Morris, RK, Selman, TJ, Harbidge, A, Martin, WI, Kilby, MD. Fetoscopic laser coagulation for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: factors influencing perinatal outcome, learning curve of the procedure and lessons for new centres. BJOG 2010; 117: 1350–7.
Beck, V, Lewi, P, Gucciardo, L, Devlieger, R. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and fetal survival after minimally invasive fetal surgery: a systematic review of the literature. Fetal Diagn Ther 2012; 31: 19.
Yamamoto, M, El Murr, L, Robyr, R, et al. Incidence and impact of perioperative complications in 175 fetoscopy-guided laser coagulations of chorionic plate anastomoses in fetofetal transfusion syndrome before 26 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 1110–16.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. Comparison of donor and recipient outcomes following laser therapy performed for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a meta-analysis and review of literature. Am J Perinatol 2009; 26: 2732.
Herberg, U, Gross, W, Bartmann, P, et al. Long term cardiac follow up of severe twin to twin transfusion syndrome after intrauterine laser coagulation. Heart 2006; 92: 95100.
Lopriore, E, Slaghekke, F, Oepkes, D, et al. Hematological characteristics in neonates with twin anemia–polycythemia sequence (TAPS). Prenat Diagn 2010; 30: 251–5.
Leung, TY, Tam, WH, Leung, TN, Lok, IH, Lau, TK. Effect of twin-to-twin delivery interval on umbilical cord blood gas in the second twins. BJOG 2002; 109: 63–7.
Dodd, JM, Deussen, AR, Grivell, RM, Crowther, CA. Elective birth at 37 weeks’ gestation for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; (2): CD003582.
Dodd, JM, Crowther, CA, Haslam, RR, Robinson, JS. Elective birth at 37 weeks of gestation versus standard care for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy at term: the Twins Timing of Birth Randomised Trial. BJOG 2012; 119: 964–73.
Morales, WJ, O’BRIEN, WF, Knuppel, RA, Gaylord, S, Hayes, P. The effect of mode of delivery on the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in nondiscordant twin gestations under 1500 g. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 107–10.
Hofmeyr, GJ, Barrett, JF, Crowther, CA. Planned caesarean section for women with a twin pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (12): CD006553. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006553.pub3.
Hogle, KL, Hutton, EK, McBrien, KA, Barrett, JF, Hannah, ME. Cesarean delivery for twins: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188: 220–7.
Hannah, ME, Hannah, WJ, Hewson, SA, et al. Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Lancet 2000; 356: 1375–83.
Hofmeyr, GJ, Hannah, M, Lawrie, TA. Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (7): CD000166.
Rossi, AC, Mullin, PM, Chmait, RH. Neonatal outcomes of twins according to birth order, presentation and mode of delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG 2011; 118: 523–32.
Barrett, JF, Hannah, ME, Hutton, EK, et al.; Twin Birth Study Collaborative Group. A randomized trial of planned cesarean or vaginal delivery for twin pregnancy. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 1295–305.
Wildschut, H, van Roosmalen, J, van Leeuwen, E, Keirse, MJ. Planned abdominal compared with planned vaginal birth in triplet pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102: 292–6.
Stutchfield, P, Whitaker, R, Russell, I. Antenatal betamethasone and incidence of neonatal respiratory distress after elective caesarean section: pragmatic randomised trial. BMJ 2005; 331: 662.
Fox, NS, Silverstein, M, Bender, S, et al. Active second-stage management in twin pregnancies undergoing planned vaginal delivery in a US population. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 229–33.
Myles, T. Vaginal birth of twins after a previous Cesarean section. J Matern Fetal Med 2001; 10: 171–4.
D’Antonio, F, Dias, T, Thilaganathan, B; Southwest Thames Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK). Does antenatal ultrasound labeling predict birth order in twin pregnancies? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 274–7.
Yang, Q, Wen, SW, Chen, Y, et al. Neonatal death and morbidity in vertex-nonvertex second twins according to mode of delivery and birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 840–7.
Yang, Q, Wen, SW, Chen, Y, et al. Neonatal mortality and morbidity in vertex-vertex second twins according to mode of delivery and birth weight. J Perinatol 2006; 26: 310.
Rydhstrom, H. Prognosis for twins with birth weight less than 1500 gm: the impact of cesarean section in relation to fetal presentation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 163: 528–33.
Acker, D, Lieberman, M, Holbrook, RH, et al. Delivery of the second twin. Obstet Gynecol 1982; 59: 710–11.
Chervenak, FA, Johnson, RE, Berkowitz, RL, Hobbins, JC. Intrapartum external version of the second twin. Obstet Gynecol 1983; 62: 160–5.
Chauhan, SP, Roberts, WE, McLaren, RA, et al. Delivery of the nonvertex second twin: breech extraction versus external cephalic version. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173: 1015–20.
Webster, SN, Loughney, AD. Internal podalic version with breech extraction. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 2011; 13: 714.
Rayburn, WF, Lavin, JP, Miodovnik, M, Varner, MW. Multiple gestation: time interval between delivery of the first and second twins. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 63: 502–6.
Thompson, SA, Lyons, TL, Makowski, EL. Outcomes of twin gestations at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1973–1983. J Reprod Med 1987; 32: 328–39.
Chervenak, FA, Johnson, RE, Youcha, S, Hobbins, JC, Berkowitz, RL. Intrapartum management of twin gestation. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 65: 119–24.
Rydhstrom, H, Ingemarsson, I. Interval between birth of the first and the second twin and its impact on second twin perinatal mortality. J Perinat Med 1990; 18: 449–53.
Robertson, E, Celasun, N, Stewart, DE. Risk factors for postpartum depression. In Stewart, DE, Robertson, E, Dennis, CL, Grace, SL, Wallington, T (eds), Postpartum Depression: Literature Review of Risk Factors and Interventions. Toronto: Toronto Public Health, 2003. http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/lit_review_postpartum_depression.pdf (accessed March 2017).
Simmons, R, Doyle, P, Maconochie, N. Dramatic reduction in triplet and higher order births in England and Wales. BJOG 2004; 111: 856–8.
ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Multiple gestation pregnancy. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 1856–64.
Wen, SW, Demissie, K, Yang, Q, Walker, MC. Maternal morbidity and obstetric complications in triplet pregnancies and quadruplet and higher-order multiple pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 254–8.
Pandian, Z, Marjoribanks, J, Ozturk, O, Serour, G, Bhattacharya, S. Number of embryos for transfer following in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (7): CD003416.
Sepulveda, W, Sebire, NJ, Hughes, K, Odibo, A, Nicolaides, KH. The lambda sign at 10–14 weeks of gestation as a predictor of chorionicity in twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996; 7: 421–3.
Campbell, DM, Templeton, A. Maternal complications of twin pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2004; 84: 71–3.
Cotter, A, Ness, A, Tolosa, J. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (4): CD001808.

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×