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Chapter 4 - Gestational Surrogacy and the Feminist Perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 October 2016

E. Scott Sills
Center for Advanced Genetics, California
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Handbook of Gestational Surrogacy
International Clinical Practice and Policy Issues
, pp. 25 - 32
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

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Layne, LL, Vostral, SL, & Boyer, K. Feminist Technology (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2010).
For an excellent introduction to the major traditions of feminist theory, see Tong, RP. Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013).
Points, K. Commercial surrogacy and fertility tourism in India: the case of baby Manji, The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University, 2009. Available online at:; accessed June 15, 2015.
BBC News. Baby Gammy granted Australian citizenship, January 2015. Available online at:; accessed May 4, 2015.
Hadfield, GK. The dilemma of choice: a feminist perspective on the limits of freedom of contract. Osgoode Hall Law J 1995; 33(2):337–51.
Crozier, GK. Protecting cross-border providers of ova and surrogacy services? Glob Soc Policy 2010; 10(3):292305.
Gamble, N. Crossing the line: the legal and ethical problems of foreign surrogacy. Reprod Biomed Online 2009; 199(2):151–2.
Callahan, J, & Roberts, D. A feminist social justice approach to reproduction-assisting technologies: a case study on the limits of liberal theory. KY Law J 1996; 84:1197–234.
Tronto, J. Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care (New York: Routledge, 1993).
Nelson, HL. Damaged Identities, Narrative Repair (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001).
Walker, MU. Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in Ethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Kittay, EF. Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency (New York: Routledge, 1999).
Bailey, A. Reconceiving surrogacy: toward a reproductive justice account of Indian surrogacy. Hypatia 2011; 26(4):715–41.
Panitch, V. Surrogate tourism and reproductive rights. Hypatia 2013; 28(2):274–89.
Pande, A. Wombs in Labor: Transnational Commercial Surrogacy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).
Parks, JA. Care ethics and the global practice of commercial surrogacy. Bioethics 2010; 24(7):333–40.
Bailey, , note 12, p. 718.
Petrapanagos, A. Fertility preservation technologies for women: a feminist ethical analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository, Paper 1299), 2013, p. 36.
Ibid., note 17, p. 43.
Burrows, CL. Deconstructing motherhood: a critique of the legal regulation of surrogacy. Ph.D. thesis, Durham University, 2011. Available online at:; accessed May 25, 2015.
Pande, A. Not an “angel,” not a “whore”: commercial surrogates as “dirty” workers in India. Indian J Gend Stud 2009; 16(14):141–73.
Shanley, ML.Surrogate mothering” and women’s freedom: a critique of contracts for human reproduction. In Boling, P., ed., Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse and New Reproductive Technologies (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 156–77.
Mackenzie, C. Abortion and embodiment. Australasian J Phil 1992; 70(2):136–55.
Young, IM. Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990).
Scutti, S. Father of Down syndrome Baby Gammy is a convicted pedophile, surrogate not worried he will molest his daughter. Medical Daily, August 8, 2014. Available online at:; accessed July 1, 2015.
For an argument in favor of licensing parents who wish to reproduce through reproductive surrogacy, see Overall, C. Reproductive “surrogacy” and parental licensing. Bioethics 2015; 29(5):353–61.
Hochschild, A. Childbirth at the Global Crossroads. The American Prospect. 2009. Available online at:; accessed August 12, 2015.

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