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Chapter 18 - A Baby’s Citizenship and Kinship Ties after Surrogate Birth

The Case in France

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 October 2016

E. Scott Sills
Center for Advanced Genetics, California
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Handbook of Gestational Surrogacy
International Clinical Practice and Policy Issues
, pp. 131 - 139
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

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Bateman, Simone. Les passeurs de gamètes (Nancy: Presses universitaires de Nancy, 1994).
CCNE no. 3, Sur les problèmes éthiques nés des techniques de reproduction artificielle, October 23, 1984. Available online at:; Braibant, G. Sciences de la vie, de l’éthique au droit (Paris: La Documentation française, 1988); Lenoir, N. Aux frontières de la vie (Paris: La Documentation française, 1991); Mattei, J.-F. La vie en questions, pour une éthique biomédicale (Paris: La Documentation française, 1994).
CE, January 22, 1988, no. 80936, Association Les Cigognes, RD sanit. soc. 1988, p. 317 (Dubois); Gaz. Pal., November 1997, 334, pp. 7–13 (Dufau); TGI Marseille, December 16, 1987, 1ère ch. civ., no. 1987-600054, Proc. Rép. v. Alma Mater, JCP 1989, II, 21, 191 (Pedrot) (décision confirmed by the Cour d’appel of Aix-en-Provence, April 29, 1988); TGI Créteil, March 23, 1988, no. 1988-600527, Proc. Rép. v. Assoc. Ste Sarah, Gaz. pal., 1988, II, somm. p. 346.
Law no. 94-653, July 29, 1994.
Articles 16-9, 16-5, 16-6, and 16-8. The period to act is five years from the discovery of the facts. However, for legal action concerning parentage, the period is 10 years.
Cass., Ass. Plén., May 31, 1991, no. 90-20.105 (D., 1991, 417 [Thouvenin]; JCP 1991, II, 45, 21752 [Terré]; RTD civ. 1992, 489 [Gobert]); Rév. crit. DIP, 1991, p. 711 (Labrusse-Riou); Déf.. September 15, 1991, no.17, p. 947 (Massip); D., 1991, p. 318 (Aubert); RTD civ., 1991, p. 517 (Huet-Weiller); Dictionnaire permanent de bioéthique, Maternité de substitution.
Civ. 1ère, December 9, 2003, no. 01-03.927, D., July 2004, 28, pp. 1998–2002 (Poisson-Drocourt); Def., 2004, 592 (Massip); RTD civ., 2004, 75 (Hauser); Gaz. Pal., September 2007, 248-49, pp. 10–14 (Geouffre de la Pradelle).
Article 17, Code de déontologie médicale, and Article R 4127-17, Code de la santé publique (CSP); Article 511-24, C. pén. (repris à l’Art. L 2165–5, CSP); Article 511-27, C. pén. (repris à l’Art. L 2164-1, CSP et Art. R 2142-17, CSP).
A dismissal order was rendered on September 30, 2004, by the investigative judge of Créteil (D., 2005, p. 476 [Depadt-Sebag]).
In application of Article 113-2 of the French Penal Code according to which French law is applied to all infractions committed on French territory (yet, in this case, the couple went abroad to the United States to carry out the surrogacy) and Article 113-6 of the Second Penal Code, which allows for the application of French law to infractions committed abroad as long as these infractions are also punished by legislation in the country where they occurred.
Rennes, July 4, 2002 (01/02471), D., 2002, no. 38, p. 2902 (Granet); JCP Gén., no. 1–2, January 8, 2003, p. 17 (Rubellin-Devichi) concerning a surrogacy agreement in California.
Paris, February 26, 2009, no. 07/18559 (JCP Gén. 2009, 26, p. 17 [Mirkovic]).
Mennesson, Sylvie and Dominique, . Interdits d’enfatns, le témoignage unique de parents ayant recours à une mere porteuse (Paris: Michalon, 2008).
Paris, 1ère ch., October 25, 2007, no. 06/00507 (D., 2007, 2953 [Luxembourg]; AJ fam. 2007, p. 478 [Chénédé]; D., 2008, chron. 434 [Bandrac, Delaisi de Parseval, Depadt-Sebag]; Rev. gén. dr. méd., June 2008, no. 27 [Brunet]; RDC, 2008 [Bellivier, Noiville]; D . 2008, p. 1371 [Granet-Lambrechts]; Gaz. pal.. January 27–29 2008, 20 [Geouffre de la Pradelle]; RTD civ., 2008, 95 [Hauser]; JCP, 2007, p. 547; JDI, 2008, no.1, p. 1 [Cuniberti]; Dr. fam., June 2008, no.15 [Mirkovic]; Dr. fam., November 2007, no. 11, p. 87 [Lamarche]).
Civ. 1ère, December 17, 2008, no. 07-20.468 (Responsabilité, no. 34, p. 27 [Feuillet]; Gaz. Pal., January 2009, p. 18 [Weiss-Gout]; Rec. Dalloz, March 11, 2010, 10, pp. 604–619 [Galloux, Gaumont-Prat]; Gaz. Pal., April 12, 2009, 102–106, pp. 18–19 [Massip]; Rec. Dalloz, March 19, 2009, 11, pp. 773–779 [Granet-Lambrechts]; JCP Gén. February 18, 2009, 8, pp. 20–24 [Byk]; Rec. Dalloz, February 5, 2009, 5, pp. 340–344 [Brunet]; JCP Gén., February 4, 2009, 6, pp. 37–39 [Mirkovic]; Dr. fam. February 2009, 2, pp. 27–29 [Murat]; RTD civ., January 2009, 1, pp. 106–107 [Hauser]; Éthique et société, [Feuillet]; D., 2009, p. 340 [Brunet}; Dr. fam., February 2009, comm. no. 15 [Murat]; JCP, 2009, II, 10020 [Mirkovic et D’Avout]; JDI, 2009, p.577 [Bollée]).
Paris, 1ère ch., March 18, 2010, no. 09/11017 (D., 2010, p. 1683 [Geouffre de la Pradelle]; AJ fam. 2010, p. 233 [Chénédé]); JCP Gén., May 3, 2010, no.18, p. 498 (Mirkovic).
Civ. 1ère, April 6, 2011, no. 09-17.130, no. 10-19.053, no. 09-66.486 (RTD civ., April 1, 2011, pp. 340–342 [Hauser]; Rev. Lamy Dr. Civ., June 1, 2011, 83, pp. 39–44 [Mirkovic]; Rec. Dalloz, June 16, 2011, 23, pp. 1585–1591 [Granet-Lambrechts); JCP Gén., July 18, 2011, 29, pp. 1449–1455 [Byk]; Rec. Dalloz, February 2, 2012, 5, pp. 308–322 [Galloux, Gaumont-Prat]; Gaz. Pal., May 25, 2011, 145–146, pp. 7–10 [Weiss-Gout]; Rec. Dalloz, June 2011, p. 1522 [Brunet, Berthiau]).
Cass. Civ. 1ère, September 13, 2013, no.12-30.138.
Cass. Civ. 1ère, March 19, 2014, no. 13-50.005.
CEDH, 5ème section, June 26, 2014, no. 65192/11, Mennesson v. France, CEDH, 5ème section, June 26, 2014, no. 65941/11, Labassée v. France; the same grounds were used to conclude to the violation of Article 8 concerning the right to respect for the child’s private life but not that of the intended parents.
The ECHR has issued other decisions on the question of the recognition of effects of surrogacy conventions concluded abroad that concern Belgium and Italy, respectively: D. and others v. Belgium, CEDH, July 8, 2014, no. 29176/13; Paradiso and Campanelli v. Italy, CEDH, January 27, 2015, no. 25358/12.
CE, May 4, 2011, no. 348778 (JCP Gén. June 2012, 25, pp. 1233–1239 [Byk]; Rec. Dalloz, June 2012, 22, pp. 1432–1439 [Granet-Lambrechts]; Gaz. Pal., March 2012, no. 83–84, pp. 29–33 [Gouttenoire]; Rec. Dalloz, February 2012, 5, pp. 308–322 [Galloux, Gaumont-Prat]; Rev. jur. pers. fam., November 2011, 11, pp. 26–28 [Corpart]).
CE, July 8, 2011, no. 350486 (Rec. Dalloz, June 2012, 22, pp. 1432–1439 [Granet-Lambrechts]; Rev. jur. pers. fam., November 2011, 11, pp. 26–28 [Corpart]; AJ fam., 2011, p. 499 [Miloudi]): in this particular case, a French man requested a Laissez-passer from the French consulate in Bombay for two children so that they all could return to France. The consulate administrative authority informed him that an investigation was first going to be carried out. The father of the children thus decided to seize the Administrative Tribunal of Paris. On June 24, 2011, the administrative judge in Paris ordered the consulate administration to deliver the documents. At that point, the French Minster of European and Foreign Affairs appealed this decision and requested a stay of execution. The Conseil d’État canceled the Paris Admininstrative Tribunal’s decision, considering that “in the absence of any illegal deprivation of fundamental liberties invoked by Mr. A., the Foreign Ministry has grounds to argue that it was wrong for the Paris Administrative Judges to honor the request that was made of them.”
Circulaire of January 25, 2013, JUSC 1301528 C, CIV/02/13. V. C. Neirinck, The Circular CIV/02/13 on French nationality certificates, or the art of implicitly avoiding the laws, Dr. fam., March 2013, comm. 42.
The first case, Laborie v. France (no. 44024/13) involved the refusal to a French couple to obtain filiation recognition between themselves and children born in the Ukraine through surrogacy; the second and third cases, Foulon v. France (no. 9063/14) and Bouvet v. France (no. 10410/14), concern the impossibility for a French person to obtain – in France – filiation recognition between himself and a child born in India via surrogacy.
This solution was confirmed by the Cour de cassation on September 22, 2014, Avis nos. G1470006 and J1470007.
Cass., Ass. Plén., July 3, 2015, no. 15-50.002.
Cass., Ass. Plén., July 3, 2015, no. 14-21.323.
Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights; Article 3-1 of the New York Convention.

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