Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-s5lbf Total loading time: 0.893 Render date: 2022-06-27T09:29:42.047Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 May 2010

Anna K. Jarstad
Affiliation:
Uppsala Universitet, Sweden
Timothy D. Sisk
Affiliation:
University of Denver
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
From War to Democracy
Dilemmas of Peacebuilding
, pp. 260 - 283
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abbink, Jon, and Hesseling, Gerti, eds. 1999. Election Observation and Democratization in Africa. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
Andersson, Andreas. 2000. “Democracies and UN Peacekeeping Operations, 1990–1996.” International Peacekeeping 7 (2): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arato, Andrew. 1981. “Civil Society vs. the State: Poland 1980–81.” Telos 47: 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archer, Dane, and Gartner, Rosemary. 1976. “Violent Acts and Violent Times: A Comparative Approach to Postwar Homicide Rates.” American Sociological Review 41 (6): 937–963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arzt, Donna E. 2006. “Views on the Ground: The Local Perception of International Criminal Tribunals in the Former Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 603 (1): 226–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atlas, Pierre M., and Licklider, Roy. 1999. “Conflict Among Former Allies after Civil War Settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad and Lebanon.” Journal of Peace Research 36 (1): 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, Pauline. 2001. “Conflict Resolution versus Democratic Governance: Divergent Paths to Peace?” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Hampson, Fen O., Crocker, Chester A. and Aall, Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (753–764).Google Scholar
Baldwin, Clive. 2006. Minority Rights in Kosovo under International Rule. London: Minority Rights Group International.Google Scholar
Ballentine, Karen, and Sherman, Jake, eds. 2003. The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Bangura, Yusuf. 2000. “Strategic Policy Failure and Governance in Sierra Leone.” Journal of Modern African Studies 38 (4): 551–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, Catherine. 2002. Owning the Process: Mechanisms for Political Participation of the Public in Peacemaking. London: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael. 2006. “Building a Republican Peace.” International Security 30 (4) (Spring): 87–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barro, Robert J. 1999. “Determinants of Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 107: 158–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartolini, Stefano, and Peter Mair. 2001. “Challenges to Contemporary Political Parties.” In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry and Gunther, Richard. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press (327–343).Google Scholar
Belloni, Roberto. 2007. “Shades of Orange and Green: Civil Society and the Peace Process in Northern Ireland.” Paper presented at the 48th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Chicago, February 27.
Belloni, Roberto. 2004. “Peacebuilding and Consociational Electoral Engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” International Peacekeeping 11 (2): 334–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belloni, Roberto. 2001. “Civil Society and Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” Journal of Peace Research 38 (2): 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belloni, Roberto, and Deane, Shelley. 2005. “From Belfast to Bosnia: Piecemeal Peacemaking and the Role of Institutional Learning.” Civil Wars 7 (3): 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentley, Kristina A., and Southall, Roger. 2005. An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
Berdal, Mats, and Malone, David M., eds. 2000. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Berman, Sheri. 1997. “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics 49 (3): 401–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertram, Eva. 1995. “Reinventing Governments: The Promise and Perils of United Nations Peace Building.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 39 (5): 387–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bieber, Florian. 2003. “The Other Civil Society in Serbia: Non-Governmental Nationalism – The Case of the Serbian Resistance Movement.” In Uncivil Society? Contentious Politics in Post-Communist Europe, ed. Kopecky, Petr and Muddes, Cass. London and New York: Routledge (19–36).Google Scholar
Bjornlund, Eric. 2004. Beyond Free and Fair: Monitoring Elections and Building Democracy. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Vesna. 2006. “War Veterans' Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” In Challenges to Peacebuilding: Managing Spoilers During Conflict Resolution, ed. Newman, Edward and Richmond, Oliver. Tokyo, New York, and Paris: United Nations University Press (200–218).Google Scholar
Brass, Paul R. 1991. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. New Delhi, Newsbury Park and London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Brown, Frederick Z. 1998. “Cambodia's Rocky Venture in Democracy.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization & International Assistance, ed. Kumar, Krishna. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (87–110).Google Scholar
Brown, Michael E., Lynn-Jones, Sean M., and Miller, Steven E., eds. 1996. Debating the Democratic Peace. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce and Downs, George W.. 2006. “Intervention and Democracy.” International Organization 60 (3): 627–650.Google Scholar
Burkhart, Ross E., and Michael, S. Lewis-Beck. 1994. “Comparative Democracy: The Economic Development Thesis.” American Political Science Review 88: 903–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnell, Peter. 2005. “Political Strategies of External Support for Democratization.” Foreign Policy Analysis 1: 361–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, Charles T. 2003. “Democratisation, War and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35: 827–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, Charles T., and Cook, Susan E.. 2003. “On Democratization and Peacebuilding.” Global Governance 9: 233–246.Google Scholar
Call, Charles T., and William Stanley. 2003. “Military and Police Reform after Civil War.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby, J. and Ginty, R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (212–223).Google Scholar
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. 1998. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Washington, DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Available at wwics.si.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/rept97/finfr.htm.
Carothers, Thomas. 2004. Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Carothers, Thomas. 1999. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Cawthra, Gavin, and Luckham, Robin. 2003. Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security Establishments in Transitional Democracies. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Cerdas Cruz, Rodolfo. 1998. “Political Parties and Party Systems.” In Guatemala after the Peace Accords, ed. Sieder, Rachel. London: Institute of Latin American Studies (15–54).Google Scholar
Chandler, David. 2004. “The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the ‘Liberal Peace’.” International Peacekeeping 11 (1): 59–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandler, David. 1999. Bosnia. Faking Democracy after Dayton. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Headcounts in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2004. You, The People: The United Nations, Transition Administration, and State-Building. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chesterman, Simon, Ignatieff, Michael, and Thakur, Ramesh. 2004. Making States Work: From State Failure to State Building. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
Chesterman, Simon, Tom Farer, and Timothy Sisk. 2003. “Competing Claims: Self-Determination, Security, and the United Nations.” A report of the project on “Self-Determination, Security, and the United Nations,” Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver, and the International Peace Academy. Available at www.ipacademy.org/Publications/Reports/Research/PublRepoReseCompClaims_body.htm.
Clapham, Christopher, and John A. Wiseman. 1995. “Conclusions: Assessing the Prospects for the Consolidation of Democracy.” In Democracy and Political Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Wiseman, J. A.. London: Routledge (220–232).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colletta, Nat J., Markus Kostner, and Ingo Wiederhofer. 2004. “Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration: Lessons and Liabilities in Reconstruction.” In When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, ed. Rotberg, Robert. Princeton: Princeton University Press (170–181).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colletta, Nat J. and Cullen, Michelle L.. 2000. Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Somalia. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Collier, Paul, Elliot, V. L., Hegre, Håvard, Hoeffler, Anke, Reynal-Querol, Marta, and Sambanis, Nicholas, eds. 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Collin Marks, Susan. 2000. Watching the Wind: Conflict Resolution during South Africa's Transition to Democracy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
Collins, Kathleen. 2006. The Logic of Clan Politics in Central Asia: The Impact on Regime Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Commission on Global Governance. 1995. Our Global Neighbourhood. The Report of the Commission on Global Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cousens, Elizabeth M. 2001a. “Building Peace in Bosnia.” In Peacebuilding as Politics: Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies, ed. Cousens, Elizabeth M. and Kumar, Chetan. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (113–152).Google Scholar
Cousens, Elizabeth M.2001b. “Introduction.” In Peacebuilding as Politics, ed. Cousens, Elizabeth M. and Kumar, Chetan. Boulder Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (1–20).Google Scholar
Cowen, Michael, and Laakso, Liisa. 1997. “An Overview of Election Studies in Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 35 (4): 717–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Damm, Darlene. 2003. Managing Election Violence in Cambodia: New Strategies for the International Donor Community. Draft Report 1 December 2003. Johns Hopkins University: International Donor Community Cambodia Steering Committee. Available at www.sais-jhu.edu/bwelsh/DarlenePolicyPaper.pdf.
Darby, John. 2006. Violence and Reconstruction. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Darby, John. 2001. The Effect of Violence on Peace Processes. Washington DC: USIP Press.Google Scholar
Darby, John. 1986. Intimidation and Control of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.Google Scholar
Darby, John, and Ginty, Roger Mac, eds. 2000. The Management of Peace Processes. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Nevers, Renée. 1993. “Democratization and Ethnic Conflict.” In Ethnic Conflict and International Security, ed. Brown, Michael. Princeton: Princeton University Press (61–78).Google Scholar
DeVotta, Neil. 2004. Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Zeeuw, Jeroen. 2005. “Projects Do Not Create Institutions: The Record of Democracy Assistance in Post-Conflict Societies.” Democratization 12 (4): 481–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
du Toit, Pierre. 2003. “Why Post-settlement Settlements?Journal of Democracy 14 (3): 104–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diamond, Larry. 2005. Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq. New York: Time Books.Google Scholar
Diamond, Larry.1999a. “Toward Democratic Consolidation.” In The Global Resurgence of Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry and Platter, Marc F.. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (227–240).Google Scholar
Diamond, Larry. 1999b. Developing Democracy: Towards Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Diamond, Larry.1997a. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors, Instruments, and Issues.” In Democracy's Victory and Crisis, ed. Hadenius, Axel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (311–370).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diamond, Larry.1997b. “Introduction: In Search of Consolidation.” In Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives, ed. Diamond, Larry, Plattner, Marc F., Chu, Yun-han, and Tien, Hung-mao. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (xiii–xlvii).Google Scholar
Diamond, Larry, Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour Martin, eds. 1988. Democracy in Developing Countries. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Diamond, Larry, Plattner, Marc F., Chu, Yun-han, and Tien, Hung-mao, eds. 1997. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Dorussen, Han. 2001. “Mixing Carrots with Sticks: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Positive Incentives.” Journal of Peace Research 38 (2): 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2006. Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 94 (4): 779–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, Daniel. 1986. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crises.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30: 327–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, Michael. 2004. Civil Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Eide, Espen Barth, Anja Therese Kaspersen, Randolph Kent, and Karen von Hippel. 2005. Report on Integrated Missions: Practical Perspectives and Recommendations. Independent Study for the Expanded UN ECHA Core Group.
Elklit, Jørgen. 1999. “Electoral Institutional Change and Democratisation: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but You Can't Make it Drink.” Democratisation 6 (4): 28–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elklit, Jørgen, and Svensson, Palle. 1997. “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?Journal of Democracy 8 (3): 32–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eriksson, Mikael, and Wallensteen, Peter. 2004. “Armed Conflict 1989–2003.” Journal of Peace Research 41 (5) (September): 625–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eubank, William Lee, and Weinberg, Leonard. 1994. “Does Democracy Encourage Terrorism?Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (4): 417–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farer, Tom J. 2004. “The Promotion of Democracy: International Law and Norms.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy. Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman, Edward and Rich, Roland. Tokyo: UN University Press (32–61).Google Scholar
Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2004. “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States.” International Security 28 (4): 5–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97 (1): 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, Jeff. 2002. Electoral Conflict and Violence: A Strategy for Study and Prevention. IFES White Paper.
Fitzduff, Mari. 2004. Civil Society and Peacebuilding: The New Fifth Estate? European Center for Conflict Prevention. Available at www.gppac.net.
Foley, Michael W. 1996. “Laying the Groundwork: The Struggle for Civil Society in El Salvador.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 38 (1): 67–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents' Choices After Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Fortna, Virginia Page.2005. “Where Have all the Victories Gone? War Outcomes in Historical Perspective.” Paper presented at International Studies Association, March, Honolulu, HI.
Fortna, Virginia Page. 2004. “Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace after Civil War.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (2): 269–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Francis, David J. 2000. “Tortuous Path to Peace: The Lomé Accord and Postwar Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” Security Dialogue 31 (3): 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franck, Thomas M. 1992. “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance.” American Journal of International Law 86 (1): 46–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freedom House. 2006. Freedom in the World Comparative Rankings: 1975–2005. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Freedom House.2002–2005a. Country Report: Cambodia: Freedom House. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Freedom House.2002–2005b. Country Report: East Timor: Freedom House. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Fukuyama, Francis. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Gamba, Virginia. 2003. “Managing Violence: Disarmament and Demobilization.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby, J. and Ginty, R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (125–136).Google Scholar
Gidron, Benjamin, Katz, Stanley N., and Hasenfel, Yeheskel. 2002. Mobilizing for Peace: Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland, Israel/Palestine, and South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilligan, Michael, and Stedman, Stephen John. 2003. “Where Do the Peacekeepers Go?International Studies Review 5 (4): 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Nils Petter, and Hegre, Håvard. 1997. “Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (2): 283–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greif, Avner. 1998. “Self-Enforcing Political Systems and Economic Growth: Late Medieval Genoa.” In Analytic Narratives, ed. Bates, R. H., Greif, A., Levi, M., Rosenthal, J.-L., and Weingast, B.. Princeton: Princeton University Press (23–63).Google Scholar
Grugel, Jean. 2002. Democratization. A Critical Introduction. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Guelke, Adrian. 2003. “Civil Society and the Northern Ireland Peace Process.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 14 (1): 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunther, Richard, and Larry Diamond. 2001. “Types and Functions of Parties.” In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Gunther, Richard and Diamond, Larry. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (3–39).Google Scholar
Gurr, Ted Robert. 2000a. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
Gurr, Ted Robert. 2000b. “Ethnic warfare on the wane.” Foreign Affairs 79 (3): 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hadenius, Axel, and Uggla, Fredrik. 1996. “Making Civil Society Work, Promoting Democratic Development: What Can States and Donors Do?World Development 24 (10): 1621–1639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggard, Stephan. 1997. “Democratic Institutions, Economic Policy, and Development.” In Institutions and Economic Development, ed. Clague, Christopher. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (120–149).Google Scholar
Hammer, Peter J., and Tara Urs. 2005. “The Elusive Face of Cambodian Justice.” In Bringing the Khmer Rouge to Justice: Prosecuting Mass Violence before the Cambodian Courts, ed. Ramji, Jaya and Schaack, Beth. Ontario: Edwin Mellen Press (13–58).Google Scholar
Hampson, Dave. 2004. “It's Time to Open Up:” Ten Years After the Genocide in Rwanda. Christian Aid, March. Available at www.discover.ac.uk/socialsciences/cgi-bin/fullrecord.pl?handle=sosig1.
Hampson, Fen Osler. 1996. Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed or Fail. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
Hann, Chris, and Dunn, Elizabeth, eds. 1996. Civil Society: Challenging Western Models. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Haraszti, Miklos. 2004. The Role of the Media in the March 2004 Events in Kosovo. Vienna: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.Google Scholar
Harbom, Lotta, Högbladh, Stina, and Wallensteen, Peter. 2006. “Armed Conflicts and Peace Agreements.” Journal of Peace Research 43 (5): 617–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harbom, Lotta, and Wallensteen, Peter. 2005. “Armed Conflict and Its International Dimensions, 1946–2004.” Journal of Peace Research 42 (5): 623–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, Peter, and Reilly, Benjamin, eds. 1998. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.Google Scholar
Hartlyn, Jonathan. 1998. The Politics of Coalition Rule in Colombia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hartzell, Caroline A., and Hoddie, Matthew. 2003. “Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (2): 318–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hearn, Julie. 2000. “Aiding Democracy? Donors and Civil Society in South Africa.” Third World Quarterly 21 (5): 815–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegre, Håvard, Ellingsen, Tanja, Gates, Scott, and Gleditsch, Nils Petter. 2001. “Towards a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change and Civil War, 1816–1992.” American Political Science Review 95 (1): 33–48.Google Scholar
Heldt, Birger. 2007. “Peacekeeping Operations and Post-conflict Transitions to Democracy?” Paper presented at the 2007 Annual Conference by the Swedish Network of Peace, Conflict and Development Research: “The Democratization Project: Challenges and Opportunities,” Uppsala October 23–24, 2007.
Hoddie, Matthew, and Caroline A. Hartzell. 2005. “Power Sharing in Peace Settlements: Initiating the Transition from Civil War.” In Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil War, ed. Roeder, Philip G. and Rothchild, Donald. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (83–106).Google Scholar
Hodges, Tony. 2001. Angola From Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Höglund, Kristine. 2008. Peace Negotiations in the Shadow of Violence. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
Höglund, Kristine. 2005. “Violence and the Peace Process in Sri Lanka.” Civil Wars 7 (2): 156–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Höglund, Kristine, and I. William Zartman. 2006. “Violence by the State: Official Spoilers and their Allies.” In Violence and Reconstruction, ed. Darby, J.. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press (11–31).Google Scholar
Hohe, Tanja. 2002. “Totem Polls: Indigenous Concepts and ‘Free and Fair’ Elections in East Timor.” International Peacekeeping 9 (4): 69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holbrooke, Richard. 1998. To End a War. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Holm, Tor, Tanke, and Eide, Espen Barth. 2000. Peacebuilding and Police Reform. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Holohan, Anne. 2005. Networks of Democracy: Lessons from Kosovo for Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Holsti, Kalevi J. 1996. The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, Donald L. 2001. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Howard, Ross. 2005. “The Media's Role in War and Peacebuilding.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne, G. and Verkoren, W.. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (117–128).Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2004. Failure to Protect: Anti-Minority Violence in Kosovo, March 2004. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. 2005. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P. 1957. The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
ICG. 2007a. Nepal's Constitutional Process. Asia Report No. 128. Kathmandu and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2007b. After Mecca: Engaging Hamas. Middle East Report No. 62. Amman, Jerusalem, and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2006a. Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead. Africa Report No. 106. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2006b. Lebanon at a Tripwire. Middle East Briefing No. 20. Beirut and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005a. Elections in Burundi: A Radical Shake-up of the Political Landscape. Africa Briefing No. 31. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005b. Kosovo after Haradinaj. Europe Report No. 163. Pristina and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005c. Aceh: A New Chance for Peace. Asia Briefing No. 40. Jakarta and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005d. Liberia's Elections: Necessary but Not Sufficient. Africa Report No. 107. Dakar and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004a. Collapse in Kosovo. Europe Report No. 155. Pristina, Belgrade, and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004b. Tajikistan's Politics: Confrontation or Consolidation? Asia Briefing No. 33. Dushanbe and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004c. Elections in Burundi: The Peace Wager. Africa Briefing No. 20. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2003. The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Promises and Pitfalls of a “New Model.” Africa Briefing No. 16. Freetown and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2002. Sierra Leone after Elections: Politics as Usual? Africa Report No. 49. Freetown and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Jarstad, Anna K. 2007. “To Share or to Divide? Negotiating the Future of Kosovo.” Civil Wars 9 (3): 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarstad, Anna K.2001. “Changing the Game: Consociational Theory and Ethnic Quotas in Cyprus and New Zealand.” Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Jarstad, Anna K., and Ralph Sundberg. 2007. “Peace by Pact: Data on the Implementation of Peace Agreements.” In Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, ed. Swain, Ashok, Amer, Ramses, and Öjendal, Joakim. London: Anthem Press (73–89).Google Scholar
Jeong, Ho-Won. 2005. Peace building in Postconflict Societies. Strategy and Process. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Jung, Dietrich, ed. 2003. Shadow Globalization, Ethnic Conflicts and New Wars: A Political Economy of Intra-State War. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kandeh, Jimmy D. 2003. “Sierra Leone's Post-Conflict Elections of 2002.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2): 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaldor, Mary. 2003. Global Civil Society: An Answer to War. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Kasfir, Nelson. 2004. “Civil Society, the State and Democracy in Africa.” In Civil Society in Democratization, ed. Burnell, Peter and Calvert, Peter. London and Portland, reg.: Frank Cass (117–142).Google Scholar
Katana, Gordana. 1999. “NGOs in Republika Srpska: Bashful Support of the Regime.” AIM Banja Luka, September 20. Available at www.aimpress.ch/dyn/trae/archive/data/199909/90926-002-trae-sar.htm.
Kaufmann, Chaim. 1997. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, ed. Brown, Michaelet al. (265–304).Google Scholar
Keane, John. 2004. Violence and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keane, John. 1998. Civil Society: Old Images, New Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Keck, Margaret, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Knaus, Gerald, and Martin, Felix. 2003. “Travails of the European Raj.” Journal of Democracy 14 (3): 60–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohn, Richard H. 1997. “How Democracies Control the Military.” Journal of Democracy 8 (4): 140–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kritz, Neil J. 2001. “The Rule of Law in the Postconflict Phase: Building a Stable Peace.” In Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Hampson, Fen O., Crocker, Chester A., and Aall, Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (801–820).Google Scholar
Krznaric, Roman. 1999. “Civil and Uncivil Actors in the Guatemalan Peace Process.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 18 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, Krishna. 1998a. “Postconflict Elections and International Assistance.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar, Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (5–14).Google Scholar
Kumar, Krishna1998b. “After the Elections: Consequences for Democratization.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar, Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (215–227).Google Scholar
Kumar, Krishnaed. 1998c. Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Kumar, Krishnaed. 1997. Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Kydd, Andrew, and Walter, Barbara F.. 2002. “Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence.” International Organization 56 (2): 263–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacy, Brett. 2004. “Building Accountability, Legitimacy, and Peace: Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, and the Right to Political Participation.” IFES Occasional Paper, Washington, DC.
Lanegran, Kimberly. 2001. “South Africa's 1999 Election: Consolidating a Dominant Party System.” Africa Today 48 (2): 81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lederach, John Paul. 1997. Building Peace. Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
Levi, Margaret. 1996. Consent, Dissent, and Patriotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Licklider, Roy. 2005. “Comparative Studies of Long Wars.” In Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, ed. Crocker, Chester A., Hampson, Fen Osler, and Aall, Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (33–46).Google Scholar
Liddle, R. William. 1997. “Coercion, Co-optation, and the Management of Ethnic Relations in Indonesia.” In Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in the Asia-Pacific, ed. Brown, Michael E. and Ganguly, Sumit. Cambridge and London: MIT Press (273–319).Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy. Government Forms and Performances in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1994. “Democracies: Forms, Performance, and Constitutional Engineering.” European Journal of Political Research 25: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lijphart, Arend.1993. “Consociational Democracy.” In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, ed. Krieger, Joel. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press (188–189).Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1985. Power-Sharing in South Africa. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California.Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1968. “Typologies of Democratic Systems.” Comparative Political Studies 1 (April): 3–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linz, Juan, and Stepan, Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Linz, Juan, and Stepan, Alfred. 1992. “Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.” Daedalus 121 (2): 123–139.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53: 69–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lithander, Anna. 2000. Engendering the Peace Process: A Gender Approach to Dayton – and Beyond. Stockholm: Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation.Google Scholar
Londregan, John B., and Poole, Keith T.. 1996. “Does High Income Promote Democracy?” World Politics 49: 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
López-Pintor, Rafael. 2000. Electoral Management Bodies as Institutions of Governance. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
López-Pintor, Rafael1998. “Nicaragua's Measured Move to Democracy.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar, Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (39–55).Google Scholar
López-Pintor, Rafael1997. “Reconciliation Elections: A Post-Cold War Experience.” In Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, ed. Kumar, K.. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (43–61).Google Scholar
Louw, Antoniette. 1997. “Surviving the Transition: Trends and Perceptions in Crime.” Social Indicators Research 41: 137–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, Robin. 2004. “The UN's Electoral Assistance: Challenges, Accomplishments, Prospects.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman, Edward and Rich, Roland. Tokyo: UN University Press (169–187).Google Scholar
Lyons, Terrence. 2005. Demilitarizing Politics: Elections on the Uncertain Road to Peace. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Lyons, Terrence2004. “Transforming the Institutions of War: Post-Conflict Elections and the Reconstruction of Failed States.” In When States Fail, ed. Rotberg, Robert I.. Princeton: Princeton University Press (269–301).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyons, Terrence2002. “The Role of Postsettlement Elections.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, ed. Stedman, Stephen John, Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elisabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (215–235).Google Scholar
Mac Ginty, Roger. 2006. “Post-Accord Crime.” In Violence and Reconstruction, ed. Darby, J.. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press (101–120).Google Scholar
Mac Ginty, Roger, and Darby, John. 2002. Guns and Government: The Management of the Northern Ireland Peace Process. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacGarry, John, and O'Leary, Brendan, eds. 2004. The Northern Ireland Conflict: Consociational Engagements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacMillan, John. 2003. “Beyond the Separate Democratic Peace.” Journal of Peace Research 40 (2): 233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maksymenko, Serhiy. 2005. “European Neighbourhood Policy and Post-Orange Revolution Ukraine.” In Development, Security and Conflict Prevention, ed. Mellbourn, Anders. Brussels: Madariaga European Foundation Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and Gidlunds (164–174).Google Scholar
Malone, David, ed. 2004. The Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century. Boulder, Colo. and London: International Peace Academy and Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Mani, Rama. 2002. Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Manning, Carrie. 2004. “Armed Opposition Groups into Political Parties: Comparing Bosnia, Kosovo, and Mozambique.” Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (1): 54–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 2005. Electing to Fight: Why Emerging Democracies Go to War. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 2002a. “Democratic Transitions, Institutional Strength, and War.” International Organization 56 (2): 297–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 2002b. “Incomplete Democratic Transitions and the Outbreak of Military Disputes.” International Studies Quarterly 46 (4): 529–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Jack Snyder.2001. “Democratic Transitions and War: From Napoleon to the Millennium's End.” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Crocker, C. A., Hampson, F. O., and Aall, P.. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (113–126).Google Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 1995a. “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security 20 (1): 5–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 1995b. “Democratization and War.” Foreign Affairs 74 (3): 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maoz, Zeev, and Bruce, M. Russett. 1993. “Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace 1946–1986.” American Political Science Review 87 (3): 624–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2002. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2002. College Park, Md.: Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM), University of Maryland.Google Scholar
Marten, Kimberly Zisk. 2004. Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathie, Alison, and Gord Cunningham. 2002. From Clients to Citizens: Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Community-Driven Development. The Coady International Institute, St. Francis Xavier University, Occasional Paper.
McCoy, Jennifer, Gerber, Larry, and Pastor, Robert. 1991. “Pollwatching and Peacemaking.” Journal of Democracy 2 (4): 102–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melber, Henning. 2002. “From Liberation Movements to Governments: On Political Culture in Southern Africa.” African Sociological Review 6 (1): 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendelson, Sarah E. 2005. Barracks and Brothels: Peacekeepers and Human Trafficking in the Balkans. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
Metzl, Jamie F. 1997. “Information Intervention: When Switching Channel Isn't Enough.” ForeignAffairs 76 (6): 15–20.Google Scholar
Morrow, James D. 1994. Game Theory for Political Scientists. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mukherjee, Bumba. 2006. “Why Political Power-Sharing Agreements Lead to Enduring Peaceful Resolution of Some Civil Wars, But Not Others?International Studies Quarterly 50 (2): 479–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mullojanov, Perviz. 2001. “Civil Society and Peacebuilding. Politics of Compromise: The Tajikistan Peace Process.” Conciliation Resources, Accord No. 10, March. Available at www.c-r.org/accord10/peacebuilding.shtml.
Museveni, Yoweri. 2005. Quoted on BBC December 21, 2005. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4549220.stm.
National Democratic Institute. 1996. Bosnia and Hercegovina (BiH): Strengthening Political Parties. Washington DC: NDI Reports.
Nelson, Sue. 1998. “Haitian Elections and the Aftermath.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar, Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (71–86).Google Scholar
Newman, Edward. 2004. “UN Democracy Promotion: Comparative Advantages and Constraints.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman, Edward and Rich, Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (188–207).Google Scholar
Newman, Edward, and Rich, Roland, eds. 2004. The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
Nilsson, Desirée. 2006. In the Shadow of Settlement: Multiple Rebel Groups and Precarious Peace. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
Nilsson, Desirée.2005. “Inclusive Peace Agreements: A Path to Durable Peace?” Paper presented at a review conference October 24–26, 2005 in Uppsala on the book project From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Africa 1989–2004.
Nilsson, Desirée, and Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi. 2005. “Breaking the Cycle of Violence? Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process.” Civil Wars 7 (4): 396–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakley, Robert B., Dziedzic, Michael J., and Goldberg, Eliot M., eds. 2002. Policing the New World Order: Peace Operations and Public Security. Washington DC: National Defence University Press.Google Scholar
O'Donnell, Guillermo, Schmitter, Philippe C., and Whitehead, Lawrence, eds. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Ohlson, Thomas. 1998. Power Politics and Peace Policies: Intra-State Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa, Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
Oneal, John R., Russett, Bruce M., and Berbaum, Michael L.. 2003. “Causes of Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885–1992.” International Studies Quarterly 47 (3): 371–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orjuela, Camilla. 2005. “Civil Society in Civil War: The Case of Sri Lanka.” Civil Wars 7 (2): 120–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
OSCE. 2006. “International Election Observation Mission, Bosnia and Herzegovina – General Elections, 1 October 2006.” OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission Final Report. Warsaw: OSCE.
Ottaway, Marina. 1997. “From Political Opening to Democratization?” In Democracy in Africa. The Hard Road Ahead, ed. Ottaway, Marina. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers (1–14).Google Scholar
Ottaway, Marina. 1991. “Liberation Movements and Transition to Democracy: The Case of the ANC.” Journal of Modern African Studies 29 (1): 61–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paffenholz, Thania. 2001. “Designing Transformation and Intervention Processes.” In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, ed. Bloomfield, David, Fischer, Martina, and Schmelzle, Beatrix. Berlin: Berghof Center for Constructive Conflict Management. Available at www.berghof-handbook.netGoogle Scholar
Paffenholz, Thania, and Christoph Spurk. 2006. Civil Society, Civic Engagement, and Peacebuilding. Washington, DC: Social Development Papers, Paper No. 36, commissioned by the Social Development Department of the World Bank, October.
Papagianni, Katia. 2006. “Transitional Politics in Post-War Countries.” Paper presented at the International Symposium “State, Conflict and Democracy,” Lund, May 12–13, 2006.
Paris, Roland 2004. At War's End: Building Peace after Civil Conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patrick, Ian. 2001. “East Timor Emerging From Conflict: The Role of Local NGOs and International Assistance.” Disasters 25 (1): 48–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pausewang, Siegfried, Trondvall, Kjetil, and Aalen, Lovise, eds. 2002. Ethiopia since the Derg: A Decade of Democratic Pretension and Performance. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Perito, Robert M. 2004. Where Is the Lone Ranger When We Need Him? America's Search for a Postconflict Stability Force. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
Phillips, Anne. 1998. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pickering, Jeffrey, and Peceny, Mark. 2006. “Forging Democracy at Gunpoint.” International Studies Quarterly 50 (3): 539–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plunkett, Mark. 2005. “Reestablishing the Rule of Law.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne, G. and Verkoren, W.. Boulder and London: Lynn Rienner Publishers (73–98).Google Scholar
Posen, Barry R. 1993. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” Survival 35 (1): 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “Civil Society and the Reconstruction of Failed States.” In When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, ed. Rotberg, Robert. Princeton: Princeton University Press (237–255).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pouligny, Beatrice. 2005. “Civil Society and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Ambiguities of International Programmes Aimed at Building ‘New’ Societies.” Security Dialogue 46 (4): 495–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael, Cheibub, Jose Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 1996. “What Makes Democracy Endure.” Journal of Democracy 7 (1): 39–55.Google Scholar
Przeworski, Adam, and Limongi, Fernando. 1997. “Modernization: Theories and Facts.” World Politics 49 (2): 155–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pugh, Michael. 2000. “The Civil/Social Dimension.” In The Regeneration of War-Torn Societies, ed. Pugh, Michael. London: Macmillan (112–133).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, Robert. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rabushka, Alvin, and Shepsle, Kenneth. 1972. Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability. Colombus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
Randall, Vicky, and Svåsand, Lars. 2002. “Political Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Africa.” Democratization 9 (3): 30–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rapoport, David C., and Weinberg, Leonard, eds. 2001a. The Democratic Experience and Political Violence. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Rapoport, David C., and Leonard Weinberg, eds.2001b. “Elections and Violence.” In The Democratic Experience and Political Violence, ed. Rapoport, D. C. and Weinberg, L.. London: Frank Cass (15–20).Google Scholar
Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin. 2007. Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia-Pacific. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin. 2006. “Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies.” Democratization 13 (5): 811–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin.2004. “Elections in Post-Conflict Societies.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman, Edward and Richs, Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (113–134).Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin.2003a. “Democratic Validation.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby, John and MacGinty, Roger. London: Palgrave (174–183).Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin. 2003b. International Electoral Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael.”Google Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin. 2002. “Post-Conflict Elections: Constraints and Dangers.” International Peacekeeping 9 (2): 118–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reilly, Benjamin. 2001. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinicke, Wolfgang H., and Deng, Francis. 2000. Critical Choices: The United Nations, Networks, and the Future of Global Governance. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Reynolds, Andrew, ed. 2002. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, Andrew, Reilly, Benjamin, and Ellis, Andrew. 2005, Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.Google Scholar
Rich, Roland. 2004. “Crafting Security Council Mandates.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman, Edward and Rich, Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (62–85).Google Scholar
Risley, Paul, and Sisk, D. Timothy. 2005. Democracy and United Nations Peacebuilding at the Local Level: Lessons Learned. Stockholm: International IDEA. Available at www.idea.int/publications/democracy_un/index.cfm.Google Scholar
Roeder, Philip G., and Rothchild, Donald, eds. 2005. Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil Wars. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Rosato, Sebastian. 2003. “The Flawed Logic of Democratic Peace Theory.” American Political Science Review 97 (4): 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, Michael L. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” World Politics 53 (3): 325–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothchild, Donald. 2005a. “Problems in Applying Executive Power Sharing to Africa: The Impact of Sequencing on Political Consolidation.” Paper presented at 46th Annual International Studies Association Convention, 1–5 March, at Honolulu, HI.
Rothchild, Donald. 2005b. “Reassuring Weaker Parties after Civil Wars: The Benefits and Costs of Executive Power-sharing Systems in Africa.” Ethnopolitics 4 (3): 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothchild, Donald. 1997. Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Rothchild, Donald. 1973. Racial Bargaining in Independent Kenya: A Study of Minorities and Decolonization. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Russett, Bruce. 1993. Grasping the Democratic Peace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Russett, Bruce M., and Oneal, John R.. 2001. Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Rustow, Dankwart A. 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2 (3): 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salih, M. A. Mohamed. 2003. “Introduction: The Evolution of African Political Parties.” In African Political Parties: Evolution, Institutionalisation and Governance, ed. Salih, M. A. Mohamed. London: Pluto Press (1–33).Google Scholar
Salomons, Dirk. 2005. “Security: An Absolute Prerequisite.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne, G. and Verkoren, W.. Boulder Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (19–42).Google Scholar
Shaw, Mark. 2002. Crime and Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Transforming Under Fire. Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Philip Publisher.Google Scholar
Shoemaker, Jolynn. 2005. Conflict Prevention and Transformation: Women's Vital Contribution. Cambridge and Washington, DC: Women Waging Peace and the United Nations Foundation.Google Scholar
Sida. 2006. Press Statement, August 9, 2006. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Sida.2005. Promoting Peace and Security through Development Cooperation. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Simonsen, Sven Gunnar. 2004. “Nationbuilding as Peacebuilding: Racing to Define the Kosovar.” International Peacekeeping 11 (2): 289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sisk, Timothy D. 2001. “Intrastate Violence.” In Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned, ed. Simmons, P. J. and Jonge Oudraat, Chantal. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (534–563).Google Scholar
Sisk, Timothy D. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflict. Washington, DC: Carnegie Corporation of New York.Google Scholar
Sisk, Timothy D. 1995. Democratization in South Africa: The Elusive Social Contract. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sisk, Timothy D., and Christoph Stefes. 2005. “Power Sharing as an Interim Step in Peace Building: Lessons from South Africa.” In Sustainable Peace. Power and Democracy after Civil Wars, ed. Roeder, Philip G. and Donald, Rothchild. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (293–319).Google Scholar
Smith, Anthony L. 2004. “East Timor: Elections in the World's Newest Nation.” Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, Jack. 2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York and London: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
Snyder, Jack, and Ballentine, Karen. 1996. “Nationalism and the Marketplace of Ideas.” International Security 21 (2): 5–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi. 2007. From Rebellion to Politics: The Transformation of Rebel Groups to Political Parties in Civil War Peace Processes. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
Solana, Javier. 2005. “Prevention Must Be Concrete.” In Development, Security and Conflict Prevention, ed. Mellbourn, Anders. Brussels: Madariaga European Foundation (9–14).Google Scholar
Southall, Roger, Neo Simutanyi, and John Daniel. 2005. “Former Presidents in African Politics.” In Legacies of Power, ed. Southall, Roger and Melber, Henning. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute (1–25).Google Scholar
Spear, Joanna. 2002. “Disarmament and Demobilization.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, ed. Stedman, John Stephen, Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (141–182).Google Scholar
Spears, Ian S. 2000. “Understanding Inclusive Peace Agreements in Africa: The Problems of Sharing Power.” Third World Quarterly 21 (1): 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stedman, Stephen John. 1997. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes.” International Security 22 (2): 5–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stedman, Stephen John, Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elisabeth M., eds. 2002. Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Stewart, Frances. 2000. “Crisis Prevention: Tacking Horizontal Inequalities.” Oxford Development Studies 28 (3): 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stremlau, John. 1998. A House No Longer Divided: Civil Society in South Africa. Washington, DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict.Google Scholar
Stubbs, Paul. 1999. Displaced Promises: Forced Migration, Refugees and Return in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Uppsala: Life & Peace Institute.Google Scholar
Tangri, Roger. 2005. “Politics and Presidential Term Limits in Uganda.” In Legacies of Power, ed. Southall, Roger and Melber, Henning. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute (175–196).Google Scholar
Temporary Media Commissioner. 2004. An Inquiry into the Performance of Kosovo-Wide Television (16–17 March 2004). Pristina: Temporary Media Commissioner.
Thompson, Mark. 1994. Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. London: Article 19.Google Scholar
Thompson, William R., and Richard, Tucker. 1997. “A Tale of Two Democratic Peace Critiques.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (3): 428–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilly, Charles. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992. Cambridge Mass.: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles.1985. “War-Making and State-Making as Organized Crime.” In Bringing the State Back In, ed. Evans, P., Rueschmeyer, D., and Skocpol, T.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (169–191).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, Monica Duffy. 2003. “Peace Through Victory?” Paper presented at American Political Science Association, August 27–31, Philadelphia.
UCDP. 2007. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. [refd 24 March 2007]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
UCDP.2006. “Sudan Conflict Summary”. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University [refd 24 May 2006]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
UCDP.2005. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University [refd June 2, 2005]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
United Nations. 2001. Letter dated 12 February 2001 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council.
Uvin, Peter. 1998. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
Peter, Uvin, and Mironko, Charles. 2003. “Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda.” Global Governance 9 (2): 129–231.Google Scholar
Biezen, Ingrid. 2003. Political Parties in New Democracies: Party Organization in Southern and East-Central Europe. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tongeren, Paul, Brenk, Malin, Hellema, Marte, and Verhoeven, Juliette, eds. 2005. People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Vanberg, Victor, and Buchanan, James. 1989. “Interests and Theories in Constitutional Choice.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 1: 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2002. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2001. “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society.” World Politics 53 (April): 362–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Viggo Jakobsen, Peter. 2003. “Military Forces and Public Security Challenges.” In The United Nations and Regional Security: Europe and Beyond, ed. Pugh, M. and Sidhu, W. P. Singh. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (137–153).Google Scholar
Vinegard, Anna. 1998. “From Guerrillas to Politicians: The Transition of the Guatemalan Revolutionary Movement in Historical and Comparative Perspective.” In Guatemala after the Peace Accords, ed. Sieder, Rachel. London: Institute of Latin American Studies (207–227).Google Scholar
Vines, Alex. 1996. Renamo: From Terrorism to Democracy in Mozambique?London: James Currey.Google Scholar
Wade, Christine. 2007. “El Salvador: The Electoral Success of the FMLN.” In From Soldiers to Politicians: Transforming Rebel Movements after War, ed. Zeeuw, Jeroen. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (33–54).Google Scholar
Wallensteen, Peter 2007. Understanding Conflict Resolution, 2nd edn. London: Sage; 1st edn 2002.Google Scholar
Wallensteen, Peter 2002. Understanding Conflict Resolution. War, Peace and the Global System. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Wallensteen, Peter, and Staibano, Carina, eds. 2005. International Sanctions: Between Words and Wars in the Global System. London and New York: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Walter, Barbara F. 2002. Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Walter, Barbara F. 1999. “Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace.” International Security 24 (1): 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wanis-St. John, Anthony, and Darren Kew. 2006. “The Missing Link? Civil Society, Peace Negotiations: Contributions to Sustained Peace.” Paper presented at the 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego, March 23.
Wantchekon, Leonard. 2004. “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy: A Theoretical Investigation.” American Political Science Review 98 (1) (February): 17–33.Google Scholar
Wantchekon, Leonard, and Neeman, Zvika. 2002. “A Theory of Post-Civil War Democratization.” Journal of Theoretical Politics (14) 439–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, Michael D., and Gleditsch, Kristian S.. 1998. “Democratizing for Peace.” American Political Science Review 92 (1): 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waterman, Harvey. 1993. “Political Order and the ‘Settlement’ of Civil Wars.” In Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End, ed. Licklider, Roy. New York: New York University Press (292–302).Google Scholar
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2005. “Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective.” Working Paper, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
Whitehead, Laurence. 2002. Democratization: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson, Steven I. 2004. Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, Arthur, Scott, Duncan, and Halfpenny, Peter. 2000. “Rebuilding Civil Society in Northern Ireland: The Community and Voluntary Sector's Contribution to the European Union's Peace and Reconciliation District Partnership Programme.” Policy & Politics 28 (1): 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfsfeld, Gadi. 2004. Media and the Path to Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfsfeld, Gadi.2003. “The Role of the News Media in Peace Negotiations: Variations over Time and Circumstance.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby, J. and Ginty, R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (87–100).Google Scholar
Wolfsfeld, Gadi. 2001. “The News Media and Peace Processes: The Middle East and Northern Ireland.” Peaceworks (37). Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (1–55).Google Scholar
Woodward, Susan L. 2002. “Economic Priorities for Successful Peace Implementation.” In Ending Civil Wars. The Implementation of Peace Agreement, ed. Stedman, John Stephen, Rothchild, Donald and Cousens, Elisabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (183–214).Google Scholar
World Bank 2003a. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
World Bank2003b. Working Together: World Bank-Civil Society Relations. Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources?WorkingTogetherBrochure.pdf.
World Bank2002a. The Right to Tell: The Role of Mass Media. Washington DC: World Bank.
World Bank2002b. Local Level Institutions and Social Capital Study, vol. I, June, Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank.
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle. 2005a. “Violence and War-to-Peace Transitions: A Second Look at the ‘Spoiler’ Debate in Light of African Case Studies.” Paper presented at 101st Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 1–4, 2005, Washington, DC.
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle.2005b. “Power Sharing in Lebanon: Foreign Protectors, Domestic Peace, and Democratic Failure.” In Sustainable Peace. Power and Democracy After Civil Wars, ed. Roeder, Philip G. and Donald, Rothchild. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (219–240).Google Scholar
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle.2003. “Reframing the Spoiler Debate in Peace Processes.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby, John and Ginty, Roger Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (114–124).Google Scholar
Zartman, I. William, ed. 1995. Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Zartman, I. William,1991. “Common Elements in the Analysis of a Negotiation Process.” In Negotiation Theory and Practice, ed. Breslin, J. William and Rubin, Jeffrey Z.. Cambridge, Mass.: Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School (147–159).Google Scholar