Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-qdp55 Total loading time: 0.606 Render date: 2021-12-08T08:18:06.152Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

10 - An overview of the meteorology and climatology of the humid tropics

from Part II - Hydrological processes in undisturbed forests

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 January 2010

J. Callaghan
Severe Weather Section, Bureau of Meteorology, G.P.O. Box 413, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
M. Bonell
Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
M. Bonell
L. A. Bruijnzeel
Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
Get access



Because of the positive net radiation received in the tropics, this energy is the driver of the hydrological cycle, as is reflected in the frequency of some of the highest rainfall intensities (by global standards) found across the duration spectrum. There remains, however, considerable spatial and temporal variability in rainfall across the humid tropics. Such variability is partly a consequence of the different synoptic-scale, rain-producing meteorological phenomena which occur in this climatic region. Moreover, the link between synoptic climatology/rainfall characteristics/storm runoff hydrology, for example, is insufficiently represented within the hydrological literature, especially that pertaining to tropical forest hydrology.

Consequently, it will be necessary to go into some detail both within this chapter as we introduce the main features of the tropical atmosphere circulation and also in the subsequent one, where the focus is on particular synoptic- and meso-scale rain-producing systems, in an attempt to highlight the important linkage between synoptic climatology and rainfall characteristics. Later, varying responses in the storm runoff hydrology of tropical forests will be cross-referenced with material presented here.

Within the meteorological and climatological literature, there is no consensus on the terminology used to describe the various meteorological systems affecting the tropics. Commonly, many such rain-producing systems are ‘lumped’ under the phenomenon, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). As this chapter (and the one following) will outline, the term ITCZ incorporates several phenomena between the synoptic (say 10° latitude by 40° longitude, Davidson et al., 1983) and mesoscale (length scale, 2–2000 km; Orlanski, 1975).

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics
Past, Present and Future Hydrological Research for Integrated Land and Water Management
, pp. 158 - 193
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2005

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., and Keehn, P. R., 1994. Global tropical rain estimates from microwave-adjusted geosynchronous IR data. Remote Sens. Rev., 11, 125–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allan, R. J., 1991: In: Teleconnections linking worldwide climate anomalies. Glantz, M, et al. (Eds), Cambridge Uni. Press, Cambridge, UK, 73–120 pp
Allan, R. J., 1993: Historical fluctuations in ENSO and teleconnection structure since 1879: Near global patterns. Quat. Australasia, 11, 17–27Google Scholar
Allan, J. A. Lindesay, and Reason, C. J. C., 1995. Multidecadal variability in the climate system over the Indian Ocean region during austral summer. J. Climate, 8, 1853–18732.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basher, R. E. and Zheng, X. 1995. Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific: Spatial Patterns and Relationships to Southern Oscillation and Sea Surface Temperatures. Jnl of Climate, 8, 1249–12602.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basher, R. E. and Zheng, X. (1998) Mapping Rainfall Fields and their ENSO Variation in Data-Sparse Tropical South-West Pacific Ocean Region. Int. J. Climatol. 18: 237–2513.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonell, M. (1991) Progress and future research needs in water catchment conservation within the wet tropical coast of NE Queensland. In: Tropical Rainforest Research in Australia: Present Status and Furure Directions for the Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Proceedings of a Workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 4–6 May, 1990. Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, pp. 59–86
Bonell, M. and Gilmour, D. A. (1980) Variations in short-term rainfall intensity in relation to synoptic climatological aspects of the humid tropical north-east Queensland coast. Singapore J. Trop. Geog. 1(2): 16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunt, A. T., 1969: Low latitude Cyclones. Aust. Met. Mag., 17, 67–90Google Scholar
Bureau of Meteorology 1994. The Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation: Generalised Short-Duration. Melbourne, Australia
Chang, C-P. and Krishnamurti, T. N. (eds). 1987. Monsoon Meteorology. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics No 7. Oxford University Press. 544 pp
Chang, J-H and Lau, L. S.: 1993, A definition of the humid tropics. In: Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics – Hydrological Research Issues and Strategies for Water Management, Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M., and Gladwell, J. S., eds., UNESCO – Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 571–574
Chen, S. S. and Houze, R. A. Jr. (1997) Diurnal Variation and life-cycle of deep convective systems over the tropical Pacific warm pool. Int. J. Climatol. 123: 357–388Google Scholar
Chen, T.-C. and Weng, S.-P. 1998a. Interannual Variation of the Summer Synoptic Scale Disturbance Activity in the Western Tropical Pacific. Monthly Weather Review: vol. 126, 1725–17332.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, T.-C. and Weng, S.-P. 1998b. Interannual Variation in the Tropical Cyclone Formation over the Western North Pacific. Monthly Weather Review: vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1080–10902.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, T.-C. and Weng, S.-P. 1999. Interannual and Intraseasonal Variations in Monsoon Depressions and Their Westward-Propagating Predecessors. Monthly Weather Review: vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1005–10202.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, T.-C and Yoon, J-h. 2000. Interannual Variation in Indochina Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Possible Mechanism. Journal of Climate: Vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1979–19862.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Das, P. K. 1987. Short and Long-Range Monsoon Prediction in India. Monsoons J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, published by John Wiley and sons Ney York 632 pages
Davidson, N. E., McBride, J. L. and McAvaney, B. J. (1983) The onset of the Australian monsoon during winter MONEX: Synoptic aspects. Mon. Weath. Rev. 117: 1181–1192Google Scholar
Demarre, G. R. and Nicolis, C.: 1990. ‘Onset of Sahelian drought viewed as a Fluctuation-Induced Transition’, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 116, 221–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolman, A. J., Gash, J. H. C., Goutorbe, J-P., Kerr, Y., Lebel, T., Prince, S. D. and Strickler, J. N. M.: 1997, ‘The role of the land surface in Sahelian climate: HAPEX-Sahel results and future research needs’, J. Hydrol. 188–189, 1067–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunne, T. and Black, R. D. (1970a). An experimental investigation of runoff production in permeable soils. Wat. Resour. Res., 6, 478–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunne, T. and Black, R. D. (1970b). Partial area contributions to storm runoff in a small New England watershed. Wat. Resour. Res., 6, 1296–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falkland, A. C., Custodio, E., Diaz, Arenas, A. and Simler, L. (1991). Hydrology and water resources of small islands: a practical guide. Studies and reports in hydrology, No. 49. UNESCO, Paris
Falkland, A. C. and Brunel, J. P. (1993). Review of Hydrology and Water Resources of Humid Tropical Islands. (In) Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S. 10: 135–166CrossRef
Fein, J. S. and Stephens, P. L. (eds), 1987. Monsoons. John Wiley, Canada. 632 pp
Folland, C. K., Owen, J. A., Ward, M. N. and Colman, A. W.: 1991. ‘Prediction of seasonal rainfall in the Sahel region using empirical and dynamical methods’, Journal of Forecasting 10, 21–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garraud, R. D. 2000. Cold air incursions over the subtropical and tropical South America: structure and dynamics. Mon. Weath. Rev. 128, 2544–25592.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garreaud, R. D. and Wallace, J. M. 1998. Summertime Incursions of Midlatitude Air into Subtropical and Tropical South America. Monthly Weather Review. 126, 2713–27332.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gash, J. H. C., Kabat, P., Monteny, B. A., Amadou, M., Bessemoulin, P., Billing, H., Blyth, E. M., deBruin, H. A. R., Elbers, J. A., Friborg, T., Harrison, G., Holwill, C. J., Lloyd, C. R., Lhomme, J.-P., Moncrieff, J. B., Puech, D., Soegaard, H., Taupin, J. D., Tuzet, A. and Verhoef, A.: 1997. ‘The variability of evaporation during the HAPEX-Sahel: Intensive Observation Period’, J.Hydrol. 188–189, 385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, A. E. 1982. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 30, Academic Press, London, 662 pages
Gong, C. and Eltahir, E.: 1996, ‘Sources of moisture for rainfall in west Africa’, Water Resour. Res., 32, 3115–3121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goutorbe, J-P., Lebel, T., Tinga, A., Bessemoulin, P., Brouwer, J., Dolman, A. J., Engman, E. T., Gash, J. H. C., Hoepffner, M., Kabat, P., Kerr, Y. H., Monteny, B., Prince, S., Said, F., Sellers, P., Wallace, J. S.: 1994, ‘HAPEX-Sahel: a large-scale study of land-atmosphere interactions in the semi-arid tropics’, Ann. Geophysicae 12, 53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, W. M. 1975. Tropical cyclone genesis. Dept of Atmos Sci., paper No 323, Colorado State University
Hendon, H., Davidson, N. E. and Gunn, B. (1989). Austrailian summer monsoon onset during AMEX 1987. Mon. Weath. Rev. 117: 2554–25742.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, W. K. (1979). Some aspects of the fate of cold fronts in the Gulf of Mexico. Mon. Weath. Rev. 107: 1078–10822.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, W. K. (1980) Three late spring fronts in the Carribean. Nat. Wea. Dig. 5(1): 18–24Google Scholar
Holland, G. J. (1984). On the climatology and structure of tropical cyclones in the Australian/south-west Pacific region: (a) Data and tropical storms. Aust. Met. Mag 32: 1–15; (b) Hurricanes, 17–31 (C) Major hurricanes, 33–46Google Scholar
Holliday, C. R. and Thompson, A. H. (1986). An Unusual Near-Equatorial Typhoon. Mon. Weath. Rev., 114(12), 26742.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horel, J. D. and Wallace, J. M. (1981) Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 109: 813–8292.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horton, R. E. (1933). The role of infiltration in the hydrological cycle. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 14, 446–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horton, R. E. (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Bull. Geolog. Soc. Am., 56, 275–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoskins, B. J., Draghici, I. and Davies, H. C.. 1978. A new look at the Omega equation. Quarterly Journal or the Royal Met. Soc. 104, 31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, S. S. ed. (1982). Heavy rainfall in South China in pre-typhoon season. Guangdon Institute of Tropical Meteorology, (in Chinese) Guangdon
Hubert, P. and Carbonnel, J. P.: 1987, ‘Approche statistique de l'aridification de l'Afrique de l'Ouest’, J. Hydrol. 95, 165–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulme, M.: 1992, ‘Rainfall changes in Africa: 1931–1960 to 1961–1990’, Int. J. Climatol. 12, 685–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, M., Leetmaa, A., and Kousky, V. E., 1996: Coupled model predictions of ENSO during the 1980s and 1990s at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. J. Climate, 9, 3105–31202.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kachi, M., and Nitta, T., 1997: Decadal variations of the global ocean—atmosphere system. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 75, 657–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawamura, R., 1994: A rotated EOF analysis of global sea surface temperature variability with interannual and interdecadal time scale. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 707–7152.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keen, R. A. 1982. The role of cross equatorial cyclone pairs in the Southern Oscillation, Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1405–14162.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleeman, R., and Moore, A. M., and Smith, N. R., 1995: Assimilation of subsurface thermal data into a simple ocean model for the initialization of an intermediate tropical coupled ocean—atmosphere forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 3103–31142.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knutson, T. R., and Manabe, S., 1998: Model assessment of decadal variability and trends in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Climate., 11, 2273–22962.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kousky, V. E. (1979) Frontal influences on northeast Brazil. Mon. Weath. Rev. 107: 1140–11532.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kousky, V. E. and Ferreira, J. (1981) Frontal influences on northeast Brazil: Their spatial distribution, origins and effectsMon. Weath. Rev. 109, 1999–20082.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kripalani, R. H., and Kulkarni, A., 1997: Climatic impact of El Niño/La Niña on the Indian monsoon: A new perspective. Weather, 52, 39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krishnamurti, T. N., Wagner, C. P., Cartwright, T. J. and Oosterhof, D. (1997) Wave Trains Exrefd by Cross-Equatorial Passage of the Monsoon Annual Cycle. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 2709–27152.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krishnamurthy, V. and Goswami, B. N. 2000. Indian Monsoon—ENSO Relationship on Interdecadal Timescale. Journal of Climate: vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 579–5952.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krishnamurti, T. N. (1979) Tropical Meteorology. Compendium of Meteorology II, WMO-No. 364, World Meteorological Organization, 428 pp
Kuhnel, I. (1989) Tropical-extratropical cloudband activity climatology based on satellite data. Int. J. Climatol. 9.: 441–463. Press: 161–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landsea, C. W., Gray, W. M., Mielke, P. W. Jr., and Berry, K. J. 1994. Seasonal forecasting of Atlantic hurricane activity. Weather. 49, 273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latif, M., 1998: Dynamics of interdecadal variability in coupled ocean—atmosphere models. J. Climate., 11, 602–6242.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latif, R. Kleeman, and Eckert, C., 1997: Greenhouse warming, decadal variability, or El Niño? An attempt to understand the anomalous 1990s. J. Climate., 10, 2221–22392.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, K.-M. and C.-P. Chang 1987. Planetary Scale Aspects of the Winter Monsoon and Atmospheric Teleconnections. Monsoon Meteorology edited by C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti. Published by Oxford University Press UK, 544 pages
Barbe, L. and Lebel, T.: 1997, ‘Rainfall climatology of the HAPEX-Sahel during the years 1950–1990’, J. Hydrol., 188–189, 43–73Google Scholar
Lenters, J. D. and Cook, K. H. (1999) Summertime Precipitation Variability over South America: Role of the Large-Scale Circulation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 409–4312.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Love, G. (1985a) Cross-equatorial influence of winter hemisphere subtropical cold surges. Mon. Weath. Rev. 113(9): 1487–14982.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Love, G. (1985b) Cross-equatorial interactions during tropical cyclongenesis. Mon. Weath. Rev. 113(9): 1499–15092.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madden, R. A. and Julian, P. R. (1971) Detection of a 40–50 day oscillation in the zonal wind in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci. 28: 702–7082.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madden, R. A. and Julian, P. R. (1994) Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation – A review. Mon. Weath. Rev. 122: 814–8372.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahe, G.: 1993, Les Ecoulements Fluviaux sur la Facade Atlantique de l'Afrique – Etude des Elements de Bilan Hydrique et Variabilite Interannuelle, Analyse de Situations Hydroclimatiques Moyennes et Extremes, Editions de l'ORSTOM, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique Pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Collection ETUDES et THESES, Paris 1993, 438 pp
Maloney, E. D. and Hartmann, D. L. (1998) Frictional Moisture Convergence in a Composite Life Cycle of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Jnl. Of Climate. 11: 2387–24032.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manton, M. J. and Bonell, M. (1993) Climate and Rainfall Variability in the Humid Tropics. (In) Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S. 2: 13–33
Marengo, J. A. and Rogers, V. C. (2001). Polar Outbreaks in the Americas: Assessment and Impacts during modern and past climates. In: Interhemispheric Climate Linkages, Markgraf, V. (ed), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 31–51
Marengo, J., Carnejo, A., Saymurty, P., Nobre, C. and Sea, W. (1997) Cold surges in tropical and extratropical South America: The strong event in June 1994. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 2759–27862.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthews, A. J., Hoskins, B. J., Slingo, J. M. and Blackburn, M. (1996) Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 122: 669–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAlpine, J., Keig, G. and Falls, R. (1983) Climate of Papua New Guinnea, CSIRO-ANU Press, 11–38
McBride, J. L. and Keenan, T. D. (1982) Climatology of tropical cyclone genesis in the Austrailian region. J. Climatol. 2: 13–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGaughey, G., Zipser, E. J., Spencer, R. W., and Hood, R. E., (1996) : High-resolution passive microwave observations of convective systems over the Tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 1921–19472.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McPhaden, M. J., 1999: Genesis and evolution of the 1997–98 El Niño. Science, 283, 950–954CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mohr, K. I., and Zipser, E. J., 1996a: Defining mesoscale convective systems by their 85-GHz ice scattering signature. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1179–11892.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohr, K. I., and Zipser, E. J., 1996b: Mesoscale convective systems defined by their 85-GHz ice scattering signature: Size and intensity comparison over tropical oceans and continents. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2417–24372.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohr, K. I., and Zipser, E. J., Toracinta, E. R., Zipser, E. J., and Orville, R. E., 1996: A comparison of WSR-88D reflectivities, SSM/I brightness temperatures, and lightning for mesoscale convective systems in Texas. Part II: SSM/I brightness temperatures and lightning. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 919–9312.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molion, L. C. B.: 1993, Amazonia rainfall and its variability. In: Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics – Hydrological Research Issues and Strategies for Water Management, Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S., eds., Cambridge, pp. 99–111
Nicholls, N., 1992: Historical El Niño/Southern Osscillation variability in the Australian region. In Diaz, H. F. and Margraf, V. (Eds), El Niño, historical and paleoclimate aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge Uni. Press, Cambridge, UK 151–174 pp
Nicholson, S. E.: 1978, ‘Climatic variations in the Sahel and other African regions during the past five centuries’, J. Arid Environments. 1, 3–24Google Scholar
Nicholson, S. E.: 1989, ‘Long-term changes in African rainfall’, Weather 44, 46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Opoku-Ankomah, Y. and Cordery, I.: 1994, ‘Atlantic sea surface temperatures and rainfall variabilty in GhanaJ. Climate,. 7, 551–5582.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orlanski, I. (1975) A relatipnal subdivision of scales for atmosphere processes. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 56: 527–530Google Scholar
Pant, G. B., and Parthasarathy, B., 1981: Some aspects of an association between the Southern Oscillation and Indian summer monsoon. Arch. Met. Gaffes. Biokl., 1329, 245–252Google Scholar
Parthasarathy, B., and Pant, G. B., 1985: Seasonal relationship between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and Southern Oscillation. J. Climatol., 5, 369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patural., J. E., Servat, E., Kouame, B., Lubes, H., Ouedraogo, M. and Masson, J. M.: 1997Climatic variability in humid Africa along the Gulf of Guinea Part II: an integrated regional approach’, J. Hydrol. 191, 16–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, F., 1997: Sneaky El Niño outwits weather forecasters. New Sci., 31 May, 6Google Scholar
Polcher, J.: 1995Sensitivity of tropical convection to land surface processes’, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 3143–31612.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, S., Casey, T., Folland, C., Colman, A., Mehta, V. 1999. Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on AustraliaClimate Dynamics 15, 319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramage, C. S. (1968). Role of a ‘maritime continent’ in the atmospheric circulation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 96, 365–3702.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramage, C. S., Khalsa, S. J. S. and Meisner, B. N. (1979) The Central Pacific Near – Equatorial Convergence Zone, UHMET 79-11, Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Ramage, C. S., and Schroeder, T. A. (1999) Trade wind rainfall atop Mount Waialeale, Kauai. Mon. Weath. Rev., 127: 2217–22262.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasmusson, E. M. and Carpenter, T. H. 1982. Variations in Tropical Sea Surface temperatures and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Nino. Mon Wea.Rev., 354–3842.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasmusson, E. M., and Carpenter, T. H., 1983: The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 517–5282.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riehl, H. (1954) Tropical meteorology. McGraw-Hill, New York
Riehl, H. (1979) Climate and Weather in the Tropics. Academic Press
Rodwell, M. J., and Hoskins, B. J., 1996: Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 122, 1385–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saha, K., Sanders, F., and Shukla, J., 1981: Westward propagating predecessors of monsoon depressions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 330–3432.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadler, J. C. (1967) On the origin of tropical vortices. Proc. Of working panel on tropical dynamic meteorology, Monterey, California, Navy Weather Research Facility, Report 12-1167-132, 39-75. Available from the department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Sadler, J. C. (1974) The monsoon circulation and cloudiness over the GATE area. Dept. of Meteorolgy, University of Hawaii. (Also presented at the Eighth Technical Conference of Hurricans and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, Florida, 14–17 May 1973.)
Sadler, J. C. (1975a) The upper tropospheric circulation over the global tropics, Dept. of Meteorolgy, University of Hawaii
Sadler, J. C. (1975b) The monsoon circulation and cloudiness over the GATE area. Mon. Weath. Rev. 104: 369–3872.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadler, J. C. 1976: A role of the tropical tropospheric trough in early season typhoon development. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 1266–12782.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadler, J. C. (1984) The anomalous tropical cyclones in the Pacific during the 1982–1983 El-Nino. Postprints volume, 15th Conf. Hurricans and Tropical Meteorology, January 9–13, 1984, Miami, Florida, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 51–55
Sadler, J. C., Lander, M. A., Hori, A. M. and Oda, L. K. (1987) Tropical Marine Climatic Atlas, Volume I (Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and Volume II (Pacific Ocean), Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Sadler, J. C. and Harris, B. E. (1970) The mean tropospheric circulation and cloudiness over southeast Asia and neighbouring areas, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii. Available from the Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Schneider, E. K., Huang, B., Zhu, Z., DeWitt, D. G., Kinter, J. L. III, Kirtman, B., and Shukla, J., 1999: Ocean data assimilation, initialization, and predictions of ENSO with a coupled GCM. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1187–12072.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schultz, D., Bracken, W. E., Bosart, L. F., Hakim, G. J.Bedrick, M. A., Dickinson, M. J. and Tyle, K. R. 1997. The 1993 superstorm cold surge: Frontal structure, gap flow and tropical impact. Monthly Weather Review, 125, 5–392.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Servat, E., Patural., J. E., Lubes, H., Kouame, B., Ouedraogo, M. and Masson, J. M. 1997: ‘Climate variability in humid Africa along the Gulf of Guinea Part I: detailed analysis of the phenomenon in Cote d'Ivoire’, J. Hydrol. 191, 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shukla, J., 1987: Interannual variability of monsoons. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., New York, Wiley, pp. 399–464
Shukla, J., and Paolino, D. A., 1983: The Southern Oscillation and long-range forecasting of the summer monsoon rainfall over India. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1830–18372.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sikka, D. R., 1980: Some aspects of the large scale fluctuations of summer monsoon rainfall over India in relation to fluctuations in the planetary and regional scale circulation parameters. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth and Planet. Sci.), 89, 179–195Google Scholar
Sircoulon, J., Lebel, T. and Arnell, N. W.: 1998, ‘Assessment of the impacts of climate variablilty and change on the hydrology of Africa’, In: Impact of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Hydrologic Regimes, van Dam, J. C., ed., Cambridge University Press – UNESCO International Hydrology Series, in Press
Spencer, R. W., Goodman, H. M., and Hood, R. E., 1989: Precipitation retrieval over land and ocean with the SSM/I: Identification and characteristics of the scattering signal. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 254–2732.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stockdale, T. N., Anderson, D. L. T., Alves, J. O. S., and Balmaseda, M. A., 1998: Global seasonal rainfall forecasts using a coupled ocean—atmosphere model. Nature, 392, 370–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanimoto, Y., Iwasaka, N., Hanawa, K., and Toba, Y., 1993: Characteristic variations of sea surface temperature with multiple time scales in the North Pacific. J. Climate., 6, 1153–11602.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, C. M., Said, F. and Lebel, T. 1997 Interactions between the land surface and mesoscale rainfall variability during HAPEX-Sahel, Mon. Weath. Rev. 125, 2211–22272.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oldenborgh, G. J. 2000. What Caused the Onset of the 1997–98 El Niño?Monthly Weather Review: vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 2601–26072.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Rompaey, R. S. A. R.: 1995, ‘Climate change and deforestation in west Africa: a space-time trend analysis of rainfall series from Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia’, In: Climate Change Research: Evaluation and Policy Implications, Zwerver, S., van Rompaey, R. S. A. R., Kok, M. T. J. and Berk, M. M., eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 417–420
Wang, B. 1995. Interdecadal Changes in El Nino Onset in the Last Four Decades. J. Climate, 8, 267–2852.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, B., Wu, R., and Fu, X., 2000. Pacific—East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?J. Climate, 13, 1517–15362.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, P. J., and Yang, S., 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J.Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118, 877–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, M. A. J. and Balling, R. C.: 1994, Interactions of Desertification and Climate, WMO/UNEP, 230pp
W.M.O. 1995. Global Perspective on Tropical Cyclones. World Meteorological Organization Report No. TCP-38 289 pages
Wright, W. J. (1997) Tropical-Extratropical Cloudbands and Australian Rainfall: I. Climatology. Int. J. Climatol. 17: 807–8293.0.CO;2-J>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., and Battisti, D. S., 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate., 10, 1004–10202.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats