Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-66d7dfc8f5-g56fq Total loading time: 1.084 Render date: 2023-02-09T07:35:16.427Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

13 - Assistive devices and falls prevention

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2010

Stephen R. Lord
Affiliation:
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney
Catherine Sherrington
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
Hylton B. Menz
Affiliation:
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney and La Trobe University, Melbourne
Jacqueline C. T. Close
Affiliation:
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney and Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney
Get access

Summary

As discussed in Chapter 1, falls result from the interaction between intrinsic risk factors (i.e. those pertaining to the individual, such as poor vision and reduced strength) and extrinsic risk factors (i.e. those relating to environmental hazards). The interface between the individual and their environment is also important, and can be modified by a range of physical assistive devices, which are used by at least one-quarter of older people. Devices to be addressed in this chapter include footwear, foot orthoses, walking aids, other physical assistive devices, spectacles, hip protectors, aids to prevent ‘long lies’ and restraints. The potential impact of each of these devices on falls and/or fall injury is discussed.

Footwear

Footwear has an important role in protecting the foot from extremes of temperature, moisture and mechanical trauma. However, since the development and widespread popularity of fashion footwear in the 1600s, the functional aspect of footwear has largely been supplanted by cosmetic requirements. In both males and females of all ages, shoe selection is primarily based on aesthetic considerations, many of which are incompatible with optimal function of the lower extremity. This is of particular importance in older people, as certain types of footwear, by modifying the interface between the sole of the foot and the ground, may have a significantly detrimental impact on postural stability and possibly predispose to falls.

Unfortunately, evidence to support the suggestion that certain types of shoes increase the risk of falls is meagre.

Type
Chapter
Information
Falls in Older People
Risk Factors and Strategies for Prevention
, pp. 264 - 299
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Watts, J., Erickson, A., Houde, L., Wilson, E. & Maynard, M., Assistive device use among the elderly: a national data-based survey. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatics, 14 (1996), 1–18.Google Scholar
Coughlin, M. J. & Thompson, F. M., The high price of high-fashion footwear. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Instructional Course Lectures, 44 (1995), 371–7.Google Scholar
Menz, H. B. & Lord, S. R., Footwear and postural stability in older people. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 89 (1999), 346–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barbieri, E., Patient falls are not patient accidents. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 9 (1983), 165–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, C. C. & Kubasak, M., Faulty footwear contributes to why seniors fall. Biomechanics, 5 (1998), 45–7.Google Scholar
Hourihan, F., Cumming, R. G., Tavener-Smith, K. M. & Davidson, I., Footwear and hip fracture-related falls in the elderly. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 19 (2000), 91–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connell, B. R. & Wolf, S. L., Environmental and behavioural circumstances associated with falls at home among healthy individuals. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78 (1997), 179–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherrington, C. & Menz, H. B., An evaluation of footwear worn at the time of fall-related hip fracture. Age and Ageing, 32 (2003), 310–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finlay, O. E., Footwear management in the elderly care program. Physiotherapy, 72 (1986), 172–8.Google Scholar
White, E. & Mulley, G., Footwear worn by the over 80's: a community survey. Clinical Rehabilitation, 3 (1989), 23–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunne, R. G., Bergman, A. B., Rogers, L. W., Inglin, B. & Rivara, F. P., Elderly persons' attitudes towards footwear – a factor in preventing falls. Public Health Reports, 108 (1993), 245–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Kerse, N., Butler, M., Robinson, E. & Todd, M., Wearing slippers, falls and injury in residential care. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 28 (2004), 180–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keegan, T. H. M., Kelsey, J. L., King, A. C., Quesenberry, C. P. & Sidney, S., Characteristics of fallers who fracture at the foot, distal forearm, proximal humerus, pelvis, and shaft of the tibia/fibula compared with fallers who do not fracture. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159 (2004), 192–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsen, E. R., Mosekilde, L. & Foldspang, A., Correlates of falling during 24 h among elderly Danish community residents. Preventive Medicine, 39 (2004), 389–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koepsell, T. D., Wolf, M. E., Buchner, D. M.et al., Footwear style and risk of falls in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52 (2004), 1495–501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tencer, A. F., Koepsell, T. D., Wolf, M. E.et al., Biomechanical properties of shoes and risk of falls in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52 (2004), 1840–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edelstein, J. E., If the shoe fits: footwear considerations for the elderly. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 5 (1987), 1–16.Google Scholar
Edelstein, J. E., Foot care for the aging. Physical Therapy, 68 (1988), 1882–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sudarsky, L., Geriatrics: gait disorders in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 322 (1990), 1441–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Frey, C. C., Thompson, F., Smith, J., Sanders, M. & Horstman, H., American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society women's shoe survey. Foot and Ankle, 14 (1993), 78–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, L., Stepping Out – Three Centuries of Shoes (Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing, 1997).Google Scholar
Bendix, T., Sorenson, S. S. & Klausen, K., Lumbar curve, trunk muscles, and line of gravity with different heel heights. Spine, 9 (1984), 223–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Opila, K. A., Wagner, S. S., Schiowitz, S. & Chen, J., Postural alignment in barefoot and high-heeled stance. Spine, 13 (1988), 542–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLateur, B. J., Giaconi, R. M., Questad, K., Ko, M. & Lehmann, J. F., Footwear and posture – compensatory strategies for heel height. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70 (1991), 246–54.Google Scholar
Franklin, M. E., Chenier, T. C., Brauninger, L., Cook, H. & Harris, S., Effect of positive heel inclination on posture. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 21 (1995), 94–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gastwirth, B. W., O'Brien, T. D., Nelson, R. M., Manger, D. C. & Kindig, S. A., An electrodynographic study of foot function in shoes of varing heel heights. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 81 (1991), 463–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, R. E., Williams, K. R.Jr, G. B. Holmes, The effects of wearing high heeled shoes on pedal pressures in women. Foot and Ankle, 13 (1992), 85–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corrigan, J. P., Moore, D. P. & Stephens, M. M., Effect of heel height on forefoot loading. Foot and Ankle, 14 (1993), 148–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snow, R. E. & Williams, K. R., High heeled shoes: their effect on centre of mass position, posture, three dimensional kinematics, rearfoot motion and ground reaction forces. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75 (1994), 568–76.Google Scholar
Nyska, M., McCabe, C., Linge, K. & Klenerman, L., Plantar forefoot pressures during treadmill walking with high-heel and low-heel shoes. Foot and Ankle International, 17 (1996), 662–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sussman, R. E. & D'Amico, J. C., The influence of the height of the heel on the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 74 (1984), 504–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McBride, I. D., Wyss, U. P., Cooke, T. D.et al., First metatarsophalangeal joint reaction forces during high-heel gait. Foot and Ankle, 11 (1991), 282–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merrifield, H. H., Female gait patterns in shoes with different heel heights. Ergonomics, 14 (1971), 411–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ebbeling, C. J., Hamill, J. & Crussemeyer, J. A., Lower extremity mechanics and energy cost of walking in high-heeled shoes. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 19 (1994), 190–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, R. P. & Heath, A. L., Preliminary findings from a roentgenographic study of the influence of heel height and empirical shank curvature on osteo-articular relationships of the normal female foot. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 46A (1959), 324–34.Google Scholar
Gollnick, P. D., Tipton, C. M. & Karpovich, P. V., Electromyographic study of walking on high heels. Research Quarterly, 35 (Suppl) (1964), 370–8.Google Scholar
Gehlsen, G., Braatz, S. J. & Assmann, N., Effects of heel height on knee rotation and gait. Human Movement Science, 5 (1986), 149–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soames, R. W. & Evans, A. A., Female gait patterns: the influence of footwear. Ergonomics, 30 (1987), 893–900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Opila-Correia, K. A., Kinematics of high-heeled gait. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71 (1990), 304–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Reinschmidt, C. & Nigg, B. M., Influence of heel height on ankle joint moments in running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27 (1995), 410–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerrigan, D. C., Todd, M. K. & Riley, P. O., Knee osteoarthritis and high-heeled shoes. The Lancet, 351 (1998), 1399–401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Opila-Correia, K. A., Kinematics of high-heeled gait with consideration for age and experience of wearers. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71 (1990), 905–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Lee, K. H., Matteliano, A., Medige, J. & Smiehorowski, T., Electromyographic changes of leg muscles with heel lift: therapeutic implications. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68 (1987), 298–301.Google ScholarPubMed
Lee, K. H., Shieh, J. C., Matteliano, A. & Smiehorowski, T., Electromyographic changes of leg muscles with heel lifts in women: therapeutic implications. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71 (1990), 31–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Gibson, M. J., Andres, R. O., Isaacs, B., Radebaugh, T. & Worm-Petersen, J., The prevention of falls in later life. Danish Medical Bulletin, 34 (Suppl 4) (1987), 1–24.Google Scholar
Rubenstein, L., Robbins, A., Schulman, B.et al., Falls and instability in the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36 (1988), 266–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinetti, M. E. & Speechly, M., Prevention of falls among the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 320 (1989), 1055–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Adrian, M. J. & Karpovich, P. V., Foot instability during walking in shoes with high heels. Research Quarterly, 37 (1966), 168–75.Google ScholarPubMed
Brecht, J. S., Chang, M. W., Price, R. & Lehmann, J., Decreased balance performance in cowboy boots compared with tennis shoes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76 (1995), 940–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R. & Bashford, G. M., Shoe characteristics and balance in older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44 (1996), 429–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arnadottir, S. A. & Mercer, V. S., Effects of footwear on measurements of balance and gait in women between the ages of 65 and 93 years. Physical Therapy, 80 (2000), 17–27.Google ScholarPubMed
Lindemann, U., Scheibe, S., Sturm, E.et al., Elevated heels and adaptation to new shoes in frail elderly women. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 36 (2003), 29–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Surdyk, F. & Kostyniuk, P., Heel rise: an aid in ambulation for Parkinsonian patients who lose their balance backward. American Journal of Corrective Therapy, 23 (1969), 107.Google ScholarPubMed
Hogan-Budris, J., Choosing foot materials for the elderly. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 7 (1992), 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robbins, S. E., Gouw, G. J. & McClaran, J., Shoe sole thickness and hardness influence balance in older men. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40 (1992), 1089–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robbins, S. E., Waked, E. & McClaran, J., Proprioception and stability: foot position awareness as a function of age and footwear. Age and Ageing, 24 (1995), 67–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robbins, S. E., Waked, E., Allard, P., McClaran, J. & Krouglicof, N., Foot position awareness in younger and older men: the influence of footwear sole properties. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45 (1997), 61–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sekizawa, K., Sandrey, M. A., Ingersoll, C. D., Cordova, M. L., Effects of shoe sole thickness on joint position sense. Gait and Posture, 13 (2001), 221–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Redfern, M. S., Moore, P. L. & Yarsky, C. M., The influence of flooring on standing balance among older persons. Human Factors, 39 (1997), 445–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R., Clark, R. D. & Webster, I. W., Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39 (1991), 1194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lord, S. R., McLean, D. & Stathers, G., Physiological factors associated with injurious falls in older people living in the community. Gerontology, 38 (1992), 338–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gronqvist, R., Roine, J., Jarvinen, E. & Korhonen, E., An apparatus and a method for determining the slip resistance of shoes and floors by simulation of human foot motions. Ergonomics, 32 (1989), 979–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjornstig, U., Bjornstig, J. & Dahlgren, A., Slipping on ice and snow – elderly women and young men are typical victims. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29 (1997), 211–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, D. P., Ayers, I., Jones, C., Bruce, M. & Cohen, K., The incidence of underfoot accidents during 1985 in a working population of 10000 Merseyside people. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 10 (1988), 121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, D. P., Slipping and the penalties inflicted generally by the law of gravitation. Journal of Social and Occupational Medicine, 38 (1988), 123–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, J., Slip and fall accidents. Occupational Health and Safety, December (1995), 40–41, 57.Google ScholarPubMed
Strandberg, L., The effect of conditions underfoot on falling and over-exertion accidents. Ergonomics, 28 (1985), 131–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabell, A., Simons, M. A. & Nayak, , Falls in the healthy elderly: predisposing causes. Ergonomics, 28 (1985), 965–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkins, P. J. & Wilson, M. P., Slip-resistance testing of shoes – new developments. Ergonomics, 26 (1983), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tisserand, M., Progress in the prevention of falls caused by slipping. Ergonomics, 28 (1985), 1027–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menz, H. B., Lord, S. R. & McIntosh, A. S., Slip resistance of casual footwear: implications for falls in older adults. Gerontology, 47 (2001), 145–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lloyd, D. & Stevenson, M. G., Measurement of slip resistance of shoes on floor surfaces. Part 2. Effect of a bevelled heel. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety, 5 (1989), 229–35.Google Scholar
Petrov, O., Blocher, K. & Bradbury, R., Footwear and ankle stability in the basketball player. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, 5 (1988), 275–90.Google ScholarPubMed
J. A. Denton, Athletic shoes. In Clinical Biomechanics of the Lower Extremities, ed. Valmassy, R.. (St Lois: Mosby, 1996), pp. 453–63.Google Scholar
Johnson, G., Dowson, D. & Wrights, V., A biomechanical approach to the design of football boots. Journal of Biomechanics, 9 (1976), 581–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ottaviani, R. A., Ashton-Miller, J. A., Kothari, S. U. & Wojtys, E. M., Basketball shoe height and maximal muscular resistance to applied ankle inversion and eversion moments. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 23 (1995), 418–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stacoff, A., Steger, J., Stussi, E. & Reinschmidt, C., Lateral stability in sideward cutting movements. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28 (1996), 350–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R., Bashford, G. M., Howland, A. & Munro, B., Effects of shoe collar height and sole hardness on balance in older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47 (1999), 681–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whipple, R. H., Wolfson, L. I. & Amerman, P. M., The relationship of knee and ankle weakness to falls in nursing home residents: an isokinetic study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 35 (1987), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robbins, S. E., Waked, E. & Rappel, R., Ankle taping improves proprioception before and after exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29 (1995), 242–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsusaka, N., Control of the medial-lateral balance in walking. Acta Orthopedica Scandinavica, 57 (1986), 555–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gauffin, H. & Tropp, H., Postural control in single limb stance strategies for correction. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 26 (1994), 267–78.Google Scholar
Hoogvliet, P., Duyl, W. A. V., Bakker, J. V. D., Mulder, P. G. H. & Stam, H. J., A model for the relation between the displacement of the ankle and the centre of pressure in the frontal plane, during one leg stance. Gait and Posture, 6 (1997), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoogvliet, P., Duyl, W. A. V., Bakker, J. V. D., Mulder, P. G. H. & Stam, H. J., Variations in foot breadth: effect on aspects of postural control during one-leg stance. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78 (1997), 284–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarke, T. E., Frederick, E. C. & Hamill, C. L., The effects of shoe design parameters on rearfoot control in running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15 (1983), 376–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nigg, B. M. & Morlock, M., The influence of lateral heel flare of running shoes on pronation and impact forces. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19 (1987), 294–302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R., Rogers, M. W., Howland, A. & Fitzpatrick, R., Lateral stability, sensorimotor function and falls in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47 (1999), 1077–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simoneau, G. G., Ulbrecht, J. S., Derr, J. A., Becker, M. B. & Cavanagh, P. R., Postural instability in patients with diabetic sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 17 (1994), 1411–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boucher, P., Teasdale, N., Courtemanche, R., Bard, C. & Fleury, M., Postural stability in diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care, 18 (1995), 638–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magnusson, M., Enbom, H., Johansson, R. & Pyykko, I., Significance of pressor input from the human feet in anterior-posterior postural control. Acta Otolaryngologica, 110 (1990), 182–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orteza, L. C., Vogelbach, W. D. & Denegar, C. R., The effects of molded and unmolded orthotics on balance and pain while jogging following inversion ankle sprain. Journal of Athletic Training, 27 (1992), 80–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Guskiewicz, K. & Perrin, D., Effect of orthotics on postural sway following inversion ankle sprain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 23 (1996), 326–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stude, D. E. & Brink, D. K., Effects of nine holes of simulated golf and orthotic intervention on balance and proprioception in experienced golfers. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 20 (1997), 590–601.Google ScholarPubMed
Hosoda, M., Yoshimaru, O., Takayanagi, K.et al., The effects of various footwear types and materials, and of fixing of the ankles by footwear, on upright posture control. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 9 (1997), 47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waddington, G. & Adams, R., Textured insole effects on ankle movement discrimination while wearing athletic shoes. Physical Therapy in Sport, 1 (2000), 119–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maki, B. E., Perry, S. D., Norrie, R. G. & McIlroy, W. E., Effect of facilitation of sensation from plantar foot-surface boundaries on postural stabilization in young and older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 54A (1999), M281–7.Google Scholar
Priplata, A. A., Niemi, J. B., Harry, J. D., Lipsitz, L. A. & Collins, J. J., Vibrating insoles and balance control in elderly people. The Lancet, 362 (2003), 1123–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seale, K., Women and their shoes: unrealistic expectations?American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Instructional Course Lectures, 44 (1995), 379–84.Google ScholarPubMed
Joyce, P., Women and their shoes: attitudes, influences and behaviour. British Journal of Podiatry, 3 (2000), 111–15.Google Scholar
Rossi, W., The frustration of “sensible” shoes. Journal of the American Podiatry Association, 70 (1980), 257–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fortinsky, R. H., Iannuzzi-Sucich, M., Baker, D. I.et al., Fall-risk assessment and management in clinical practice: views from healthcare providers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52 (2004), 1522–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Geriatrics Society, Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49 (2001), 664–72.
Ogle, A. A., Canes, crutches, walkers, and other ambulation aids. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 14 (2000), 485–92.Google Scholar
Aminzadeh, F. & Edwards, N., Exploring seniors' views on the use of assistive devices in fall prevention. Public Health Nursing, 15 (1998), 297–304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deathe, A., Hayes, K. & Winter, D., The biomechanics of canes, crutches and walkers. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 5 (1993), 15–29.Google Scholar
Winter, D., Overall principle of lower limb support during stance phase of gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 13 (1980), 923–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, J. & Shepherd, R., Neurological Rehabilitation: Optimizing Motor Performance (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998).Google Scholar
Neumann, D. A., Hip abductor muscle activity as subjects with hip prostheses walk with different methods of using a cane. Physical Therapy, 78 (1998), 490–501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutherland, D., Cooper, C. & Daniel, D., The role of the ankle plantar flexors in normal walking. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 62-A (1980), 354–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moseley, A., Wales, A., Herbert, R., Shurr, K. & Moore, S., Observation and analysis of hemiplegic gait: stance phase. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 39 (1993), 259–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wesmiller, S. & Hoffman, L., Assistive device for ambulation in oxygen dependent patients with COPD. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 14 (1994), 122–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honeyman, P., Barr, P. & Stubbing, D., Effect of a walking aid on disability, oxygenation, and breathlessness in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 16 (1996), 63–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yohannes, A. M. & Connolly, M. J., Early mobilization with walking aids following hospital admission with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17 (2003), 465–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeka, J. & Lackner, J., Fingertip contact influences human postural control. Experimental Brain Research, 100 (1994), 495–502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, M. W., Wardman, D. L., Lord, S. R. & Fitzpatrick, R. C., Passive tactile sensory input improves stability during standing. Experimental Brain Research, 136 (2001), 514–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinetti, M. E., Speechley, M. & Ginter, S. F., Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (1988), 1701–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, A. J., Borrie, M. J. & Spears, G. F., Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. Journal of Gerontology, 44 (1989), M112–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teno, J., Kiel, D. P. & Mor, V., Multiple stumbles: a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling elderly. A prospective study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38 (1990), 1321–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinetti, M. E., Doucette, J., Claus, E. & Marottoli, R., Risk factors for serious injury during falls by older persons in the community. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43 (1995), 1214–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiely, D. K., Kiel, D. P., Burrows, A. B. & Lipsitz, L. A., Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46 (1998), 551–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikolaus, T. & Bach, M., Preventing falls in community-dwelling frail older people using a home intervention team (HIT): results from the randomised falls-HIT trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51 (2003), 300–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, J., Lundin-Olsson, L., Nyberg, L. & Gustafson, Y., Fall and injury prevention in older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 136 (2002), 733–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, C. & Pirrie, L., Walking aids: a survey of suitability and supply. Physiotherapy, 77 (1991), 231–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyson, S. F. & Ashburn, A., The influence of walking aids on hemiplegic gait. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 10 (1994), 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breuer, J., Assistive devices and adapted equipment for ambulation programs for geriatric patients. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 1 (1981), 51–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, J., Clarke, A. & Harrison, R., Guide lines for prescription of walking frames. Physiotherapy, 76 (1990), 118–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
P. Holliday & G. Fernie, Assistive devices: aids to independence. In Physiotherapy with Older People, ed. Pickles, B., Compton, A., Cott, C.et al. (London: W.B. Saunders, 1995), pp. 360–81.Google Scholar
Prajapati, C., Watkins, C., Cullen, H.et al., The ‘S’ test – a preliminary study of an instrument for selecting the most appropriate mobility aid. Clinical Rehabilitation, 10 (1996), 314–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
York, J., Mobility methods selected for use in home and community environments. Physical Therapy, 69 (1989), 736–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farley, R. & Roy, J., Equipment review: the Edinburgh Homewalker – design and field trial. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59 (1996), 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, D. & Kemp, T., The dual-task methodology and assessing the attentional demands of ambulation with walking devices. Physical Therapy, 72 (1992), 306–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deathe, A. B., Pardo, R. D., Winter, D. A., Hayes, K. C. & Russell-Smyth, J., Stability of walking frames. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 33 (1996), 30–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Lu, C. L., Yu, B., Basford, J. R., Johnson, M. E. & An, K. N., Influences of cane length on the stability of stroke patients. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 34 (1997), 91–100.Google ScholarPubMed
Wilkin, C., Pragmatics in the issuing of sticks and frames. Physiotherapy, 82 (1996), 331–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, J., A walking aid for Parkinsonian patients [letter]. The Lancet, 342 (1993), 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blau, J., Seymour stick [letter]. The Lancet, 342 (1993), 250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crosbie, W. J. & Nicol, A. C., Aided gait in rheumatoid arthritis following knee arthroplasty. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71 (1990), 299–303.Google ScholarPubMed
Crosbie, W. J., Kinematics of walking frame ambulation. Clinical Biomechanics, 8 (1993), 31–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winter, D. A., Patla, A. E., Frank, J. S. & Walt, S. E., Biomechanical walking pattern changes in the fit and healthy elderly. Physical Therapy, 70 (1990), 340–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baruch, I. & Mossberg, K., Heart-rate response of elderly women to nonweight-bearing ambulation with a walker. Physical Therapy, 63 (1983), 1782–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Annesley, A., Almada-Norfleet, M., Arnall, D. & Cornwall, M., Energy expenditure of ambulation using the Sure-Gait crutch and the standard axillary crutch. Physical Therapy, 70 (1990), 18–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holder, C., Haskvitz, E. & Weltman, A., The effects of assistive devices on the oxygen cost, cardiovascular stress, and perception of nonweight-bearing ambulation. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 18 (1993), 537–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rush, K. L. & Ouellet, L. L., Mobility aids and the elderly client. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 23 (1997), 7–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pippin, K. & Fernie, G. R., Designing devices that are acceptable to the frail elderly: a new understanding based upon how older people perceive a walker. Technology and Disability, 7 (1997), 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateni, H., Heung, E., Zettel, J., McLlroy, W. E. & Maki, B. E., Can use of walkers or canes impede lateral compensatory stepping movements?Gait and Posture, 20 (2004), 74–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherrington, C., Lord, S. & Herbert, R., A randomised trial of weight-bearing versus non-weight-bearing exercise for improving physical ability in inpatients after hip fracture. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 49 (2003), 15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mann, W., Hurren, D. & Tomita, M., Comparison of assistive device use and needs of home-based older persons with different impairments. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47 (1993), 980–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nochajski, S., Tomita, M. & Mann, W., The use and satisfaction with assistive devices by older persons with cognitive impairments: a pilot intervention study. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 12 (1996), 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, D., Bowling, A., Ellis, M. & Silman, A., Locomotor disability in very elderly people: value of a programme for screening and provision of aids for daily living. British Medical Journal, 301 (1990), 216–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clemson, L. & Martin, R., Usage and effectiveness of rails, bathing and toileting aids. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 10 (1996), 41–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isakov, E., Mizrahi, J., Onna, I. & Susak, Z., The control of genu recurvatum by combining the Swedish knee-cage and an ankle-foot brace. Disability and Rehabilitation, 14 (1992), 187–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berenter, R. & Kosai, D., Various types of orthoses used in podiatry. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, 11 (1994), 219–29.Google ScholarPubMed
Hesse, S., Gahein-Sama, A. & Mauritz, K. -H., Technical aids in hemiparetic patients: prescription, costs and usage. Clinical Rehabilitation, 10 (1996), 328–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, W., Hurren, D., Tomita, M. & Charvat, B., Use of assistive devices for bathing by elderly who are not institutionalised. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 16 (1996), 261–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finlayson, M. & Havixbeck, K., A post-discharge study on the use of assistive devices. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59 (1992), 201–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mann, W., Hurren, D. & Tomita, M., Assistive devices used by home-based elderly persons with arthritis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49 (1995), 810–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munro, B. J., Steele, J. R., Bashford, G. M., Ryan, M. & Britten, N., A kinematic and kinetic analysis of the sit-to-stand transfer using an ejector chair: implications for elderly rheumatoid arthritic patients. Journal of Biomechanics, 31 (1998), 263–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schemm, R. & Gitlin, L., How occupational therapists teach older patients to use bathing and dressing devices in rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52 (1998), 276–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gitlin, L. & Burgh, D., Issuing assistive devices to older patients in rehabilitation: an exploratory study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49 (1995), 994–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, P. & Gladman, J., A survey of predischarge occupational therapy home assessment visits for stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 9 (1995), 339–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorensen, H. V., Lendal, S., Schultz-Larsen, K. & Uhrskov, T., Stroke rehabilitation: assistive technology devices and environmental modifications following primary rehabilitation in hospital – a therapeutic perspective. Assistive Technology, 15 (2003), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corr, S. & Bayer, A., Occupational therapy for stroke patients after hospital discharge – a randomised controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 9 (1995), 291–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, J., Ellis, M., Hooper, R.et al., Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 353 (1999), 93–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, M., Holman, C. D. J., Bennett, N. & deKlerk, N., Preventing falls in older people: outcome evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49 (2001), 1448–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Attebo, K., Ivers, R. Q. & Mitchell, P., Refractive errors in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 106 (1999), 1066–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tielsch, J. M., Sommer, A., Witt, K., Katz, J. & Royall, R. M., Blindness and visual impairment in an American urban population: the Baltimore Eye Survey. Archives of Ophthalmology, 108 (1990), 286–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jack, C. I., Smith, T., Neoh, C., Lye, M. & McGalliard, J. N., Prevalence of low vision in elderly patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit in Liverpool: elderly people who fall are more likely to have low vision. Gerontology, 41 (1995), 280–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
S. P. Donahue, Loss of accommodation and presbyopia. In Ophthalmology, ed. Yanoff, M. & Duker, J. S.. (London: Mosby, 1999).Google Scholar
C. J. Patorgis, Presbyopia. In Diagnosis and Management in Vision Care, ed. Amos, J. F., (Stoneham: Butterworth, 1987).Google Scholar
Bettigole, R., Reducing the risk of falls among the elderly [letter]. New England Journal of Medicine, 332 (1995), 269.Google Scholar
El-Arabi, M. & Rashed, O., Bifocal glasses. Bulletin of the Ophthalmology Society of Egypt, 64 (1971), 249–52.Google ScholarPubMed
Elder, S. D., The Practice of Refraction (London: Churchill, 1963).Google Scholar
Tinetti, M. E., Preventing falls in elderly persons. New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (2003), 42–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivers, R. Q., Cumming, R. G., Mitchell, P. & Attebo, K., Visual impairment and falls in older adults: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46 (1998), 58–64.Google ScholarPubMed
Nevitt, M., Cummings, S., Kidd, S. & Black, D., Risk factors for recurrent non-syncopal falls. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261 (1989), 2663–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lord, S. R., Clark, R. D. & Webster, I. W., Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in relation to falls in an elderly population. Age and Ageing, 20 (1991), 175–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boer, M. R., Pluijm, S. M., Lips, P.et al., Different aspects of visual impairment as risk factors for falls and fractures in older men and women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 19 (2004), 1539–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R. & Dayhew, J., Visual risk factors for falls in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49 (2001), 508–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felson, D. T., Anderson, J. J. & Annan, M. T., Impaired vision and hip fracture. The Framingham study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37 (1989), 495–500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummings, S. R., Nevitt, M. C., Browner, W. S.et al., Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 332 (1995), 767–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norton, R., Campbell, A. J., Lee-Joe, T., Robinson, E. & Butler, M., Circumstances of falls resulting in hip fractures among older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45 (1997), 1108–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berg, W. P., Alessio, H. M., Mills, E. M. & Tong, C., Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age and Ageing, 26 (1997), 261–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patla, A. E. & Vickers, J. N., Where and when do we look as we approach and step over an obstacle in the travel path?Neuro Report, 8 (1997), 3661–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Lord, S. R., Dayhew, J. & Howland, A., Multifocal glasses impair edge-contrast sensitivity and depth perception and increase the risk of falls in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50 (2002), 1760–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grabiner, M. D. & Jahnigen, D. W., Modeling recovery from stumbles: preliminary data on variable selection and classification efficacy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40 (1992), 910–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mills, N., The biomechanics of hip protectors. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 210 (1996), 259–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lauritzen, J. B., Petersen, M. M. & Lund, B., Effect of external hip protectors on hip fractures. The Lancet, 341 (1993), 11–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallace, R. B., Ross, J. E., Huston, J. C., Kundel, C. & Woodworth, G., Iowa FICSIT trial: the feasibility of elderly wearing a hip joint protective garment to reduce hip fractures. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41 (1993), 338–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, A., Mallmin, H., Michaelsson, K. & Ljunghall, S., External hip protectors to prevent osteoporotic hip fractures [letter]. The Lancet, 350 (1997), 563–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, M., Gillespie, L. & Gillespie, W., Hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3) (2004), CD001255.Google ScholarPubMed
O'Halloran, P., Cran, G., Beringer, T.et al., A cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate a policy of making hip protectors available to residents of nursing homes. Age and Ageing, 33 (2004), 582–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forsen, L., Sogaard, A., Sandvig, S.et al., Risk of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in nursing homes in Norway. Injury Prevention, 10 (2004), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birks, Y., Porthouse, J., Addie, C.et al., Randomized controlled trial of hip protectors among women living in the community. Osteoporosis International, 15 (2004), 701–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoor, N., Deville, W., Bouter, L. & Lips, P., Acceptance and compliance with external hip protectors: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporosis International, 13 (2002), 917–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cameron, I. D., Hip protectors: prevent fractures but adherence is a problem [editorial]. British Medical Journal, 324 (2002), 375–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cameron, I., Stafford, B., Cumming, R.et al., Hip protectors improve falls self efficacy. Age and Ageing, 29 (2000), 57–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinetti, M. E., Liu, W. L. & Claus, E. B., Predictors and prognosis of inability to get up after falls among elderly persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269 (1993), 65–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reece, A. C. & Simpson, J. M., Preparing older people to cope after a fall. Physiotherapy, 82 (1996), 227–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofmeyer, M. R., Alexander, N. B., Nyquist, L. V., Medell, J. L. & Koreishi, A., Floor-rise strategy training in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50 (2002), 1702–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, J. M., Harrington, R. & Marsh, N., Guidelines for managing falls among elderly people. Physiotherapy, 84 (1998), 173–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinetti, M. E., Liu, W. & Ginter, S. F., Mechanical restraint use and fall-related injuries among residents of skilled nursing facilities. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116 (1992), 369–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minnick, A. F., Mion, L. C., Leipzig, R., Lamb, K. & Palmer, R. M., Prevalence and patterns of physical restraint use in the acute care setting. Journal of Nursing Administration, 28 (1998), 19–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watson, M. E. & Mayhew, P. A., Identifying fall risk factors in preparation for reducing the use of restraints. MEDSURG Nursing, 3 (1994), 25–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Capezuti, E., Evans, L., Strumpf, N. & Maislin, G., Physical restraint use and falls in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44 (1996), 627–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubenstein, L. Z., Josephson, K. R. & Osterweil, D., Falls and fall prevention in the nursing home. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 12 (1996), 881–902.Google ScholarPubMed
Capezuti, E., Strumpf, N. E., Evans, L. K., Grisso, J. A. & Maislin, G., The relationship between physical restraint removal and falls and injuries among nursing home residents. Journal of Gerontology, 53A (1998), M47–52.Google Scholar
Basante, J., Bentz, E., Heck-Hackley, J.et al., Falls risk among older adults in long-term care facilities: a focused literature review. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 19 (2001), 63–85.Google Scholar
Letizia, M., Babler, C. & Cockrell, A., Repeating the call for restraint reduction. MEDSURG Nursing, 13 (2004), 9–13.Google ScholarPubMed
Werner, P., Cohen-Mansfield, J., Koroknay, V. & Braun, J., The impact of a restraint-reduction program on nursing home residents. Geriatric Nursing, 15 (1994), 142–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, J. M., Marchello, V. & Totolos, E., Progress toward a restraint-free environment in a large academic nursing facility. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43 (1995), 914–18.Google Scholar
Evans, L. K., Strumpf, N. E., Allen-Taylor, S. L.et al., A clinical trial to reduce restraints in nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45 (1997), 675–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schnelle, J. F., MacRae, P. G., Giacobassi, K.et al., Exercise with physically restrained nursing home residents: maximizing benefits of restraint reduction. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44 (1996), 507–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ejaz, F. K., Folmar, S. J., Kaufmann, M., Rose, M. S. & Goldman, B., Restraint reduction: can it be achieved?Gerontologist, 34 (1994), 694–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Dibartolo, V., 9 steps to effective restraint use. RN, 61 (1998), 23–4.Google ScholarPubMed