Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-6zkrn Total loading time: 0.898 Render date: 2023-02-05T15:31:25.075Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 5 - Hunter-Gatherers, Mismatch and Mental Disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2022

Riadh Abed
Affiliation:
Mental Health Tribunals, Ministry of Justice, UK
Paul St John-Smith
Affiliation:
Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Get access

Summary

For most of human evolutionary history our species lived as hunter-gatherers; hence, much of our cognition and behaviour is adapted to this way of life. Given the magnitude of the sociocultural, economic and lifestyle changes experienced by Homo sapiens over the last 10,000 years, in particular the last several hundred years, aspects of human psychology may be maladapted to modern ways of life. This process of maladaptation following changes in the physical or social environment is referred to as ‘evolutionary mismatch’ and has been hypothesised to contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders in industrialised societies. However, very few studies have examined the prevalence of these pathologies among contemporary hunter-gatherer populations; thus, empirical support for such diseases of modernity hypotheses is lacking. In this chapter, we review the limited existing research and theorise about the key differences between hunter-gatherer and industrialised societies that are likely to have profound implications for mental health. Specifically, we contrast the strong social support networks, egalitarianism, explorative modes of learning, sensitive child-rearing practices and present orientation of hunter-gatherers with corresponding features of industrialised populations. We argue that mismatches in these domains are partially responsible for of a vast array of mental illnesses, ranging from common mood disorders to behavioural pathologies and psychotic spectrum disorders. We hope that this chapter stimulates the generation and testing of mismatch hypotheses and, eventually, trials of interventions based on mismatch reduction. We end by offering suggestions for methodological approaches to this future research.

Type
Chapter
Information
Evolutionary Psychiatry
Current Perspectives on Evolution and Mental Health
, pp. 64 - 83
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abed, R., and Abbas, M. (2014). Can the new epidemiology of schizophrenia help elucidate its causation? Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 31, 15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ainsworth, M. (1978). The Bowlby–Ainsworth attachment theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 436438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amir, D., and McAuliffe, K. (2020). Cross-cultural, developmental psychology: integrating approaches and key insights. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41, 430444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apicella, C. L., and Crittenden, A. N. (2015). Hunter-gatherer families and parenting. In Buss, D. (ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, pp. 797827.Google Scholar
Arnold, J., Sunell, S., Nigra, B., et al. (2016). Entrenched disbelief: complex hunter-gatherers and the case for inclusive cultural evolutionary thinking. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 23, 448499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, G., and Milner, N. (2002). Coastal hunter-gatherers and social evolution: marginal or central? Before Farming, 2002, 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (eds.) (1992). The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Beck, R., Cesario, T., Yousefi, A., et al. (2000). Choral singing, performance perception, and immune system changes in salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol. Music Perception, 18, 87106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biesele, M., and Barclay, S. (2001). Ju/’Hoan women’s tracking knowledge and its contribution to their husbands’ hunting success. African Study Monographs, Supplement, 26, 6784.Google Scholar
Blurton-Jones, N., Smith, L., O’Connell, J., et al. (1992). Demography of the Hadza, an increasing and high density population of savanna foragers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 89, 159181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bock, J., and Johnson, S. (2004). Subsistence ecology and play among the Okavango Delta peoples of Botswana. Human Nature, 15, 6381.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boehm, C., Barclay, H., Dentan, R., et al. (1993). Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 34, 227254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Boyce, P (2003). Risk factors for postnatal depression: a review and risk factors in Australian populations. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 6, s43s50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyette, A. (2016). Children’s play and culture learning in an egalitarian foraging society. Child Development, 87, 759769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyette, A., and Hewlett, B. (2017). Autonomy, equality, and teaching among Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Congo Basin. Human Nature, 28, 289322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chaudhary, N., Salali, G., Thompson, J. et al. (2016). Competition for cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers. Scientific Reports, 6, 29120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Church of England Research and Statistics (2019). Statistics for Mission 2019, 1–54. Retrieved from www.churchofengland.org/sites/default/files/2020-10/2019StatisticsForMission.pdfGoogle Scholar
Crittenden, A., and Schnorr, S. (2017). Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 162, 84109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Desai, G., and Chatuverdi, S. (2017). Idioms of distress. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, 8, S094S097.Google ScholarPubMed
Ding, Y.-C., Chi, H.-C., Grady, D., et al. (2002). Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 309314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dingle, G., Brander, C., Ballantyne, J., et al. (2004). Mental health benefits of choir singing for disadvantaged adults. Psychology of Music, 41, 405421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duberstein, P., Conwell, Y., Conner, K., et al. (2004). Poor social integration and suicide: fact or artifact? A case–control study. Psychological Medicine, 34, 13311337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunbar, R. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 178190.3.0.CO;2-8>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dyble, M., Thompson, J., Smith, D., et al. (2016). Networks of food sharing reveal the functional significance of multilevel sociality in two hunter-gatherer groups. Current Biology, 26, 20172021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberger, N. (2012). The neural bases of social pain: evidence for shared representations with physical pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 126135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fedurek, P., Lacroix, L., Lehmann, J., et al. (2020). Status does not predict stress: women in an egalitarian hunter-gatherer society. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2, E44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, R., Callander, R., Reddish, P., et al. (2013). How do rituals affect cooperation? Human Nature, 24, 115125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frackowiak, T., Oleszkiewicz, A., Butovskaya, M., et al. (2020). Subjective happiness among Polish and Hadza people. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gesquiere, L., Learn, N., Simao, M., et al. (2011). Life at the top: rank and stress in wild male baboons. Science, 333, 357360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gizer, I., Ficks, C., and Waldman, I. (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Human Genetics, 126, 5190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gray, P. (2013). Hunter-gatherer egalitarianism as a force for decline in sexual dimorphism. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 192194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurven, M., and Kaplan, H. (2007). Longevity among hunter-gatherers: a cross-cultural examination. Population and Development Review, 33, 321365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurven, M., and Lieberman, D. (2020). WEIRD bodies: mismatch, medicine and missing diversity. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41, 330340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hahn-Holbrook, J., and Haselton, M. (2014). Is postpartum depression a disease of modern civilization? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 395400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkes, K. (2003). Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity. American Journal of Human Biology, 15, 294302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkley, L., and Cacioppo, J. (2010). A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 218227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J., and McElreath, R. (2003). The evolution of cultural evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 12, 123135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herlosky, K., Benyshek, D., Mabulla, I., et al. (2020). Postpartum maternal mood among Hadza foragers of Tanzania: a mixed methods approach. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 44, 305332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernàndez-Lloreda, M., et al. (2007) Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science, 317, 13601366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hewlett, B. (1991). Demography and childcare in preindustrial societies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 47, 137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hewlett, B., and Roulette, C. (2016). Teaching in hunter-gatherer infancy. Royal Society Open Science, 3, 150403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, K., Walker, R., Božičević, M., et al. (2011). Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science, 331, 12861289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivey, P. (2000) Cooperative reproduction in Ituri forest hunter‐gatherers: who cares for Efe infants? Current Anthropology, 41, 856866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
January, J., and Chimbari, M. (2018). Study protocol on criterion validation of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) screening tools among rural postnatal women; a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 8, e019085.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, H., Hill, K., and Hurtado, M. (1990). Risk, foraging and food sharing among the Ache. In Cashdan, E. (ed.), Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies. London: Routledge, pp. 107143.Google Scholar
Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., and Hurtado, M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156185.3.0.CO;2-7>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, M. (2000). Inequality and crime. Review of Economics and Statistics, 82, 530539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, R. (2013). The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers: The Foraging Spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., et al. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 763771.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, J., Jones, P., Ullrich, S., et al. (2014). Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 169180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Konner, M. (2016). Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood in the context of human evolution. In Meehan, C. L. and Crittenden, A. N. (eds.), Childhood: Origins, Evolution, and Implications. Santa Fe, NM: University of New Mexico Press, pp. 123154.Google Scholar
Lee, R. (1969). Eating Christmas in the Kalahari. Retrieved from http://people.morrisville.edu/~reymers/readings/ANTH101/EatingChristmas-Lee.pdfGoogle Scholar
Lee, R., and Daly, R. (1999). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lee, R., and DeVore, I. (1968). Man the Hunter. London: Aldine.Google Scholar
Leigh-Hunt, N., Bagguley, D., Bash, K., et al. (2017). An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public Health, 152, 157171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lew-Levy, S., Kissler, S., Boyette, A., et al. (2020). Who teaches children to forage? Exploring the primacy of child-to-child teaching among Hadza and BaYaka hunter-gatherers of Tanzania and Congo. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41, 1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liang, J., Krause, N., and Bennett, J. (2001). Social exchange and well-being: is giving better than receiving? Psychology and Aging, 16, 511523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lim, G., Tam, W., Lu, Y., et al. (2018). Prevalence of depression in the community from 30 countries between 1994 and 2014. Scientific Reports, 8, 2861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Littlewood, R. (1990) From categories to contexts: a decade of the ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 308327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loe, I., and Feldman, H. (2007). Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 643654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lummaa, V., Vuorisalo, T., Barr, R., et al. (1998) Why cry? Adaptive significance of intensive crying in human infants. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 193202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marlowe, F. W. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 14, 5467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McEwen, B. (2003). Early life influences on life-long patterns of behavior and health. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 149154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGee, R. (2015). Unemployment and depression among emerging adults in 12 states, behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12, E38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A., and Laland, K. (2004). Perspective: is human cultural evolution Darwinian? Evidence reviewed from the perspective of the origin of species. Evolution, 58, 111.Google Scholar
Mikulincer, M., and Shaver, P. (2012). An attachment perspective on psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 11, 1115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mörelius, E., Örtenstrand, A., Theodorsson, E., et al. (2015). A randomised trial of continuous skin-to-skin contact after preterm birth and the effects on salivary cortisol, parental stress, depression, and breastfeeding. Early Human Development, 91, 6370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, J. M. (1976). Psychiatric labelling in cross-cultural perspective. Science, 191, 10191028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesse, R. M. (2004). Natural selection and the elusiveness of happiness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359, 13331347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nesse, R. M. (2019). Good Reasons for Bad Feelings: Insights from the Frontier of Evolutionary Psychiatry. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Nettle, D., Gibson, M., Lawson, D., et al. (2013). Human behavioral ecology: current research and future prospects. Behavioral Ecology, 24, 10311040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Keefe, J., and Cordain, L. (2004). Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century hunter-gatherer. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 79, 101108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Page, A., Viguier, S., Dyble, M., et al. (2016). Reproductive trade-offs in extant hunter-gatherers suggest adaptive mechanism for the Neolithic expansion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, 46944699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearce, E., Launay, J., and Dunbar, R. (2015). The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 150221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pickett, K., and Wilkinson, R. (2008). People like us: ethnic group density effects on health. Ethnicity & Health, 4, 321334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polimeni, J., and Reiss, J. (2002). How shamanism and group selection may reveal the origins of schizophrenia. Medical Hypotheses, 58, 244248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pontzer, H., Wood, B., and Raichlen, D. (2018). Hunter-gatherers as models in public health. Obesity Reviews, 19, 2435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porter, C., and Marlowe, F. (2007). How marginal are forager habitats? Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 5968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, J. (1967). The dominance hierarchy and the evolution of mental illness. Lancet, 290, 243246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raison, C., and Miller, A. (2012). The evolutionary significance of depression in pathogen host defense (PATHOS-D). Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reyes-Garcia, V., Gallois, S., Pyhala, A., et al. (2021). Happy just because. A cross-cultural study on subjective wellbeing in three Indigenous societies. PLoS ONE, 16, e0251551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro, W., Bauer, A., Andrade, M., et al. (2017). Income inequality and mental illness-related morbidity and resilience: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 554562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, R. (2007). Evolutionary Psychology as Maladapted Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roser, M., and Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2013). Income Inequality. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/income-inequalityGoogle Scholar
Salali, G. D., and Migliano, A. B. (2015). Future discounting in Congo Basin hunter-gatherers declines with socio-economic transitions. PLoS ONE, 10, e0137806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salali, G. D., Chaudhary, N., Bouer, J., et al. (2019). Development of social learning and play in BaYaka hunter-gatherers of Congo. Scientific Reports, 9, 11080.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salali, G. D., Chaudhary, N., Thompson, J., et al. (2016). Knowledge-sharing networks in hunter-gatherers and the evolution of cumulative culture. Current Biology, 26, 25162521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salali, G. D., Uysal, M. S., and Bevan, A. (2021). Adaptive function and correlates of anxiety during a pandemic. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 9, 393405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shevorykin, A., Pittman, J., Bickel, W., et al. (2019). Primed for health: future thinking priming decreases delay discounting. Health Behaviour and Policy Review, 6, 363377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shultziner, D., Stevens, T., Stevens, M., et al. (2010). The causes and scope of political egalitarianism during the Last Glacial: a multi-disciplinary perspective. Biology and Philosophy, 25, 319346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Small, R., Lumley, J., Yelland, J., et al. (2007). The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in English speaking and non-English speaking populations in Australia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 7078.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smallwood, T., Giacomin, P., Loukas, A., et al. (2017). Helminth immunomodulation in autoimmune disease. Frontiers in Immunology, 8, 453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steptoe, A., Owen, N., Kunz-Ebrecht, S., et al. (2004). Loneliness and neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory stress responses in middle-aged men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 593611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stieglitz, J., Schniter, E., von Rueden, C., et al. (2015a). Functional disability and social conflict increase risk of depression in older adulthood among Bolivian forager-farmers. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70, 948956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stieglitz, J., Trumble, B., Thompson, M., et al. (2015b). Depression as sickness behavior? A test of the host defense hypothesis in a high pathogen population. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 49, 130139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swanepoel, A., Music, G., Launer, J., et al. (2017). How evolutionary thinking can help us to understand ADHD. BJPsych Advances, 23, 410418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H., and Turner, J. C. (2019). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Jost, J. T. and Sidanius, J. (eds.), Political Psychology. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 276293.Google Scholar
The Children’s Society (2020). The Good Childhood Report. Retrieved from www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/2020-11/Good-Childhood-Report-2020.pdfGoogle Scholar
Tovo-Rodrigues, L., Callegari-Jacques, S., Petzl-Erler, M., et al. (2010). Dopamine receptor D4 allele distribution in Amerindians: a reflection of past behavior differences? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143, 458464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tronick, E., Morelli, G., and Winn, S. (1987). Multiple caretaking of Efe (pygmy) infants. New Series, 89, 96106.Google Scholar
United Nations (2015). The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules). Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Google Scholar
van Ijzendoorn, M., Sagi, A., and Lambermon, M. (1992). The multiple caretaker paradox: data from Holland and Israel. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1992, 524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Schaik, C., and Burkart, J. (2011). Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366, 10081016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Welsch, L., Alliott, O., Kelly, P., et al. (2021). The effect of physical activity interventions on executive functions in children with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 20, 100379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilmsen, E., Denbow, J., Bicchieri, M., et al. (1990). Paradigmatic history of San-speaking peoples and current attempts at revision. Current Anthropology, 31, 489524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodburn, J. (1982). Egalitarian societies. Man, 17, 431451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woody, C. A., Ferrari, A., Siskind, D., et al. (2017). A systematic review and meta-regression of the prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 29, 8692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Bank (2020). World Bank Open Data. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.orgGoogle Scholar
Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour, 75, 262300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×