Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-9qwsl Total loading time: 1.019 Render date: 2023-02-05T13:51:18.960Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 4 - Hominin Evolution II

Sapiens, Masters of the Known Universe

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2022

Riadh Abed
Mental Health Tribunals, Ministry of Justice, UK
Paul St John-Smith
Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Get access


Our immediate ancestry remains uncertain at this time, but what is clear is that we are all African. This chapter will start with the current debates on the emergence of Homo sapiens and the changes we see in the subsequent 200,000 years in terms of our behavioural and cultural development. We have already shown that the ‘march of progress’ image – so culturally famous from t-shirts to posters – of a line of ever more upright and ‘civilised’ walking ape-to-man creatures is wrong. There has never been a single line, and we are not the apotheosis of evolution. A second myth is that ‘we evolved’ 200,000–300,000 years ago and since then have been static, with only technology progressing. However, humans have continued to change with time. The third conceit is the focus on ‘our’ move ‘out of Africa’ 50,000–60,000 years ago. This idea is problematic: it culturally assumes a non-African terminus as our destiny and is a very Eurocentric view of the world. It is true that a subpopulation of hunter-gather sapiens, most likely Yoruba peoples from around what is now Tanzania, left that continent at around that time, and from that group the rest of the world’s populations emerge. But this is to downplay the fact that for 80% of our species’ existence we have all been entirely African, and a genetically small subgroup left for the last 20% of that time. History is written by the ‘victors’, and much anthropology has been written by Western academia. In 2020, it was estimated that fewer than 2% of whole sequenced genomes have as yet come from Africa (Maxmen, ), and we lack ancient DNA from Africa greater than 15,000 years old (partially due to climactic reasons). However, the tide has begun to turn, and the next 10 years look very exciting in this regard.

Evolutionary Psychiatry
Current Perspectives on Evolution and Mental Health
, pp. 50 - 63
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aubert, M., Lebe, R., Oktaviana, A. A., Tang, M., Burhan, B., Hamrullah, , Jusdi, A., Abdullah, , Hakim, B., Zhao, J. X., Geria, I. M., Sulistyarto, P. H., Sardi, R. and Brumm, A. 2019. Earliest hunting scene in prehistoric art. Nature, 576, 442445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, J. L., Rotimi, C. N. and Shriner, D. 2017. Human ancestry correlates with language and reveals that race is not an objective genomic classifier. Sci Rep, 7, 1572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barger, N., Hanson, K. L., Teffer, K., Schenker-Ahmed, N. M. and Semendeferi, K. 2014. Evidence for evolutionary specialization in human limbic structures. Front Hum Neurosci, 8, 277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S. 2020. The Pattern Seekers. A New Theory of Human Invention. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Barrett, L., Henzi, P. and Dunbar, R. 2003. Primate cognition: from ‘what now?’ to ‘what if?’. Trends Cogn Sci, 7, 494497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benito-Kwiecinski, S., Giandomenico, S. L., Sutcliffe, M., Riis, E. S., Freire-Pritchett, P., Kelava, I., Wunderlich, S., Martin, U., Wray, G. A., Mcdole, K. and Lancaster, M. A. 2021. An early cell shape transition drives evolutionary expansion of the human forebrain. Cell, 184, 20842102.e19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanchet, C. L., Osborne, A. H., Tjallingii, R., Ehrmann, W., Friedrich, T., Timmermann, A., Bruckmann, W. and Frank, M. 2021. Drivers of river reactivation in North Africa during the last glacial cycle. Nat Geosci, 14, 97103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brumm, A., Oktaviana, A. A., Burhan, B., Hakim, B., Lebe, R., Zhao, J. X., Hadi Sulistyarto, P., Ririmasse, M., Adhityatama, S., Sumantri, I. and Aubert, M. 2021. Oldest cave art found in Sulawesi. Science, 7, eabd4648.Google ScholarPubMed
Bruner, E. 2018. Human paleoneurology: shaping cortical evolution in fossil hominids. J Comp Neurol, 527, 17531765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, E. 2021. Evolving Human Brains: Paleoneurology and the Fate of Middle Pleistocene. J Archaeol Method Theory, 28, 7694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, E., Grimaud-Herve, D., Wu, X., De La Cuetara, J. M. and Holloway, R. L. 2015. A paleoneurological survey of Homo erectus endocranial metrics. Quat Int, 368, 8087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, E., Manzi, G. and Arsuaga, J. L. 2003. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages. PNAS, 100, 1533515340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrne, R. E. and Whitten, A. 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans . Oxford: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cann, R. L., Stoneking, M. and Wilson, A. C. 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature, 325, 3136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarkson, C., Jacobs, Z., Marwick, B., Fullagar, R., Wallis, L., Smith, M., Roberts, R. G., Hayes, E., Lowe, K., Carah, X., Florin, S. A., Mcneil, J., Cox, D., Arnold, L. J., Hua, Q., Huntley, J., Brand, H. E. A., Manne, T., Fairbairn, A., Shulmeister, J., Lyle, L., Salinas, M., Page, M., Connell, K., Park, G., Norman, K., Murphy, T. and Pardoe, C. 2017. Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago. Nature, 547, 306310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clottes, J. 2016. What Is Palaeolithic Art? Cave Paintings and the Dawn of Human Creativity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, C. D., Airey, D. C., Young, N. A., Leitch, D. B. and Kaas, J. H. 2010. Neuron densities vary across and within cortical areas in primates. PNAS, 107, 1592715932.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conde-Valverde, M., Martinez, I., Quam, R. M., Rosa, M., Velez, A. D., Lorenzo, C., Jarabo, P., Bermudez De Castro, J. M., Carbonell, E. and Arsuaga, J. L. 2021. Neanderthals and Homo sapiens had similar auditory and speech capacities. Nat Ecol Evol, 5, 609615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Csibra, G. 2007. Teachers in the wild. Trends Cogn Sci, 11, 9596.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D’Errico, F., Pitarch Marti, A., Shipton, C., Le Vraux, E., Ndiema, E., Goldstein, S., Petraglia, M. D. and Boivin, N. 2020. Trajectories of cultural innovation from the Middle to Later Stone Age in Eastern Africa: personal ornaments, bone artifacts, and ocher from Panga ya Saidi, Kenya. J Hum Evol, 141, 102737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennett, D. 1983. Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: the ‘Panglossian paradigm’ defended. Behav Brain Sci, 6, 343390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennis, M. Y. and Eichler, E. E. 2016. Human adaptation and evolution by segmental duplication. Curr Opin Genet Dev, 41, 4452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunbar, R. I. M. 1998. The social brain hypothesis. Evol Anthropol, 6, 178190.3.0.CO;2-8>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. 2016. Human Evolution. Our Brains and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Eisova, S., Veleminsky, P. and Bruner, E. 2019. The Neanderthal endocast from Ganovce (Poprad, Slovak Republic). J Anthropol Sci, 96, 139149.Google Scholar
Falk, D. 2004. Prelinguistic evolution in early hominins: whence Motherese? Behav Brain Sci, 27, 491503; discussion 503–583.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcia-Moreno, F. and Molnar, Z. 2020. Variations of telencephalic development that paved the way for neocortical evolution. Prog Neurobiol, 194, 101865.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenberg, D. M., Warrier, V., Allison, C. and Baron-Cohen, S. 2018. Testing the empathizing–systemizing theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain theory of autism in half a million people. PNAS, 115, 1215212157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenhill, S. J., Atkinson, Q. D., Meade, A. and Gray, R. D. 2010. The shape and tempo of language evolution. Proc Biol Sci, 277, 24432450.Google ScholarPubMed
Gronau, I., Hubisz, M. J., Gulko, B., Danko, C. G. and Siepel, A. 2011. Bayesian inference of ancient human demography from individual genome sequences. Nat Genet, 43, 10311034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunz, P., Neubauer, S., Falk, D., Tafforeau, P., Le Cabec, A., Smith, T. M., Kimbel, W. H., Spoor, F. and Alemseged, Z. 2020. Australopithecus afarensis endocasts suggest ape-like brain organization and prolonged brain growth. Sci Adv, 6, eaaz4729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, M. J., Milne, B. T., Walker, R. S., Burger, O. and Brown, J. H. 2007. The complex structure of hunter-gatherer social networks. Proc Biol Sci, 274, 21952202.Google ScholarPubMed
Hawkes, K. 2020. Cognitive consequences of our grandmothering life history: cultural learning begins in infancy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 375, 20190501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F. and Blurton Jones, N. G. 2001. Hunting and nuclear families: some lessons from the Hadza about men’s work. Curr Anthropol, 42, 681709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heide, M., Haffner, C., Murayama, A., Kurotaki, Y., Shinohara, H., Okano, H., Sasaki, E. and Huttner, W. B. 2020. Human-specific ARHGAP11B increases size and folding of primate neocortex in the fetal marmoset. Science, 369, 546550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hendy, J. 2021. Ancient protein analysis in archaeology. Sci Adv, 7, eabb9314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henn, B. M., Steele, T. E. and Weaver, T. D. 2018. Clarifying distinct models of modern human origins in Africa. Curr Opin Genet Dev, 53, 148156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henshilwood, C. S., D’Errico, F., Van Niekerk, K. L., Coquinot, Y., Jacobs, Z., Lauritzen, S. E., Menu, M. and Garcia-Moreno, R. 2011. A 100,000-year-old ochre-processing workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science, 334, 219222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernandez-Lloreda, M. V., Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science, 317, 13601366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, K. R., Walker, R. S., Bozicevic, M., Eder, J., Headland, T., Hewlett, B., Hurtado, A. M., Marlowe, F., Wiessner, P. and Wood, B. 2011. Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science, 331, 12861289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofman, M. 2001. Brain evolution in hominids: are we at the end of the road? In: Gibson, K. R. and Falk, D. (eds.), Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 113130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hublin, J. J., Ben-Ncer, A., Bailey, S. E., Freidline, S. E., Neubauer, S., Skinner, M. M., Bergmann, I., Le Cabec, A., Benazzi, S., Harvati, K. and Gunz, P. 2017. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens. Nature, 546, 289292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hublin, J. J., Sirakov, N., Aldeias, V., Bailey, S., Bard, E., Delvigne, V., Endarova, E., Fagault, Y., Fewlass, H., Hajdinjak, M., Kromer, B., Krumov, I., Marreiros, J., Martisius, N. L., Paskulin, L., Sinet-Mathiot, V., Meyer, M., Paabo, S., Popov, V., Rezek, Z., Sirakova, S., Skinner, M. M., Smith, G. M., Spasov, R., Talamo, S., Tuna, T., Wacker, L., Welker, F., Wilcke, A., Zahariev, N., Mcpherron, S. P. and Tsanova, T. 2020. Initial Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria. Nature, 581, 299302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughlings Jackson, J. 1884. Evolution and dissolution of the nervous system, Croonian Lectures at the Royal College of Physicians. Lancet, 123, 649652.Google Scholar
Jamali, M., Grannan, B. L., Fedorenko, E., Saxe, R., Baez-Mendoza, R. and Williams, Z. M. 2021. Single-neuronal predictions of others’ beliefs in humans. Nature, 591, 610614.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarvis, E. D. 2019. Evolution of vocal learning and spoken language. Science, 366, 5054.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joyce, J. 1922. Ulysses. Paris: Shakespeare and Company.Google Scholar
Karten, H. J. 2015. Vertebrate brains and evolutionary connectomics: on the origins of the mammalian ‘neocortex’. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 370, 20150060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, H. L., Ratan, A., Perry, G. H., Montenegro, A., Miller, W. and Schuster, S. C. 2014. Khoisan hunter-gatherers have been the largest population throughout most of modern-human demographic history. Nat Commun, 5, 5692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, R. G. 1995. Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins. J World Prehistory, 9, 167198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koster-Hale, J. and Saxe, R. 2013. Theory of mind: a neural prediction problem. Neuron, 79, 836848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krems, J. A., Claessens, S., Fales, M. R., Campenni, M., Haselton, M. G. and Aktipis, A. 2021. An agent-based model of the female rivalry hypothesis for concealed ovulation in humans. Nat Hum Behav, 5, 726735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krubitzer, L. and Kaas, J. 2005. The evolution of the neocortex in mammals: how is phenotypic diversity generated? Curr Opin Neurobiol, 15, 444453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lai, C. S., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Vargha-Khadem, F. and Monaco, A. P. 2001. A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature, 413, 519523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, P. A., Birch, A., Hall, A. and Dunbar, R. I. M. 2017. Higher order intentionality tasks are cognitively more demanding. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 12, 10631071.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, C., Keles, U., Tyszka, J. M., Gallo, M., Paul, L. and Adolphs, R. 2020. No strong evidence that social network index is associated with gray matter volume from a data-driven investigation. Cortex, 125, 307317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, J. and Robinson-Rechavi, M. 2020. Robust inference of positive selection on regulatory sequences in the human brain. Sci Adv, 6, eabc9863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, W., Martinon-Torres, M., Cai, Y. J., Xing, S., Tong, H. W., Pei, S. W., Sier, M. J., Wu, X. H., Edwards, R. L., Cheng, H., Li, Y. Y., Yang, X. X., De Castro, J. M. and Wu, X. J. 2015. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China. Nature, 526, 696699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lui, J. H., Hansen, D. V. and Kriegstein, A. R. 2011. Development and evolution of the human neocortex. Cell, 146, 1836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mathieson, I., Lazaridis, I., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Patterson, N., Roodenberg, S. A., Harney, E., Stewardson, K., Fernandes, D., Novak, M., Sirak, K., Gamba, C., Jones, E. R., Llamas, B., Dryomov, S., Pickrell, J., Arsuaga, J. L., De Castro, J. M., Carbonell, E., Gerritsen, F., Khokhlov, A., Kuznetsov, P., Lozano, M., Meller, H., Mochalov, O., Moiseyev, V., Guerra, M. A., Roodenberg, J., Verges, J. M., Krause, J., Cooper, A., Alt, K. W., Brown, D., Anthony, D., Lalueza-Fox, C., Haak, W., Pinhasi, R. and Reich, D. 2015. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature, 528, 499503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxmen, A. 2020. The next chapter for African genomics. Nature, 578, 350354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mcbrearty, S. and Brooks, A. S. 2000. The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Hum Evol, 39, 453563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molnar, Z., Clowry, G. J., Sestan, N., Alzu’Bi, A., Bakken, T., Hevner, R. F., Huppi, P. S., Kostovic, I., Rakic, P., Anton, E. S., Edwards, D., Garcez, P., Hoerder, -Suabedissen, A. and Kriegstein, A. 2019. New insights into the development of the human cerebral cortex. J Anat, 235, 432451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Opie, C., Atkinson, Q. D., Dunbar, R. I. and Shultz, S. 2013. Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates. PNAS, 110, 1332813332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pagel, M. 2000. The history, rate and pattern of world linguistic evolution. In: Knight, C., Studdert-Kennedy, M. and Hurford, J. (eds.), The Evolutionary Emergence of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 391416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ponce De Leon, M. S., Bienvenu, T., Marom, A., Engel, S., Tafforeau, P., Warren, J. L. A., Lordkipanidze, D., Kurniawan, I., Murti, D. B., Suriyanto, R. A., Koesbardiati, T. and Zollikofer, C. P. E. 2021. The primitive brain of early Homo. Science, 372, 165171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Powell, A., Shennan, S. and Thomas, M. G. 2009. Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Science, 324, 12981301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Powell, J., Lewis, P. A., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M. and Dunbar, R. I. 2012. Orbital prefrontal cortex volume predicts social network size: an imaging study of individual differences in humans. Proc Biol Sci, 279, 21572162.Google ScholarPubMed
Preuss, T. M. 2017. The human brain: evolution and distinctive features. In: Tibayrenc, M. and Ayala, F. J. (eds.), On Human Nature: Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, pp. 125149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rakic, P. 1988. Specification of cerebral cortical areas. Science, 241, 170176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rakic, P. 2009. Evolution of the neocortex: a perspective from developmental biology. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10, 724735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Redhead, G. and Dunbar, R. I. 2013. The functions of language: an experimental study. Evol Psychol, 11, 845854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, P., Stewart, M., Alagaili, A. N., Breeze, P., Candy, I., Drake, N., Groucutt, H. S., Scerri, E. M. L., Lee-Thorp, J., Louys, J., Zalmout, I. S., Al-Mufarreh, Y. S. A., Zech, J., Alsharekh, A. M., Al Omari, A., Boivin, N. and Petraglia, M. 2018. Fossil herbivore stable isotopes reveal middle Pleistocene hominin palaeoenvironment in ‘Green Arabia’. Nat Ecol Evol, 2, 18711878.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scerri, E. M. L., Chikhi, L. and Thomas, M. G. 2019. Beyond multiregional and simple out-of-Africa models of human evolution. Nat Ecol Evol, 3, 13701372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skoglund, P., Thompson, J. C., Prendergast, M. E., Mittnik, A., Sirak, K., Hajdinjak, M., Salie, T., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Peltzer, A., Heinze, A., Olalde, I., Ferry, M., Harney, E., Michel, M., Stewardson, K., Cerezo-Roman, J. I., Chiumia, C., Crowther, A., Gomani-Chindebvu, E., Gidna, A. O., Grillo, K. M., Taneli Helenius, I., Hellenthal, G., Helm, R., Horton, M., Lopez, S., Mabulla, A. Z. P., Parkington, J., Shipton, C., Thomas, M. G., Tibesasa, R., Welling, M., Patterson, N., Morris, A. G., Boivin, N., Pinhasi, R., Krause, J. and Reich, D. 2017. Reconstructing prehistoric African population structure. Cell, 171, 5971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, T. M., Tafforeau, P., Reid, D. J., Pouech, J., Lazzari, V., Zermeno, J. P., Guatelli-Steinberg, D., Olejniczak, A. J., Hoffman, A., Radovcic, J., Makaremi, M., Toussaint, M., Stringer, C. and Hublin, J. J. 2010. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. PNAS, 107, 2092320928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sousa, A. M. M., Meyer, K. A., Santpere, G., Gulden, F. O. and Sestan, N. 2017. Evolution of the human nervous system function, structure, and development. Cell, 170, 226247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, T. and Hevner, R. F. 2014. Growth and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex: from molecules to malformations. Nat Rev Neurosci, 15, 217232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, X. F., Wen, S. Q., Lu, C. Q., Zhou, B. Y., Curnoe, D., Lu, H. Y., Li, H. C., Wang, W., Cheng, H., Yi, S. W., Jia, X., Du, P. X., Xu, X. H., Lu, Y. M., Lu, Y., Zheng, H. X., Zhang, H., Sun, C., Wei, L. H., Han, F., Huang, J., Edwards, R. L., Jin, L. and Li, H. 2021. Ancient DNA and multimethod dating confirm the late arrival of anatomically modern humans in southern China. PNAS, 118, e2019158118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swadesh, M. 1952. Lexico-statistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Proc Am Phil Soc, 96, 453463.Google Scholar
Urbanus, B. H. A., Peter, S., Fisher, S. E. and De Zeeuw, C. I. 2020. Region-specific Foxp2 deletions in cortex, striatum or cerebellum cannot explain vocalization deficits observed in spontaneous global knockouts. Sci Rep, 10, 21631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Den Heuvel, M. P., Bullmore, E. T. and Sporns, O. 2016. Comparative connectomics. Trends Cogn Sci, 20, 345361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vasistha, N. A., Garcia-Moreno, F., Arora, S., Cheung, A. F., Arnold, S. J., Robertson, E. J. and Molnar, Z. 2015. Cortical and clonal contribution of Tbr2 expressing progenitors in the developing mouse brain. Cereb Cortex, 25, 32903302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Velliky, E. C., Schmidt, P., Bellot-Gurlet, L., Wolf, S. and Conard, N. J. 2021. Early anthropogenic use of hematite on Aurignacian ivory personal ornaments from Hohle Fels and Vogelherd caves, Germany. J Hum Evol, 150, 102900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
West, B. J., Massari, G. F., Culbreth, G., Failla, R., Bologna, M., Dunbar, R. I. M. and Grigolini, P. 2020. Relating size and functionality in human social networks through complexity. PNAS, 117, 1835518358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiessner, P. W. 2014. Embers of society: firelight talk among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. PNAS, 111, 1402714035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilkins, J., Schoville, B. J., Pickering, R., Gliganic, L., Collins, B., Brown, K. S., Von Der Meden, J., Khumalo, W., Meyer, M. C., Maape, S., Blackwood, A. F. and Hatton, A. 2021. Innovative Homo sapiens behaviours 105,000 years ago in a wetter Kalahari. Nature, 592, 248252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, G. C. 1957. Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution, 11, 398411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zerjal, T., Xue, Y., Bertorelle, G., Wells, R. S., Bao, W., Zhu, S., Qamar, R., Ayub, Q., Mohyuddin, A., Fu, S., Li, P., Yuldasheva, N., Ruzibakiev, R., Xu, J., Shu, Q., Du, R., Yang, H., Hurles, M. E., Robinson, E., Gerelsaikhan, T., Dashnyam, B., Mehdi, S. Q. and Tyler-Smith, C. 2003. The genetic legacy of the Mongols. Am J Hum Genet, 72, 717721.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zwyns, N., Paine, C. H., Tsedendorj, B., Talamo, S., Fitzsimmons, K. E., Gantumur, A., Guunii, L., Davakhuu, O., Flas, D., Dogandzic, T., Doerschner, N., Welker, F., Gillam, J. C., Noyer, J. B., Bakhtiary, R. S., Allshouse, A. F., Smith, K. N., Khatsenovich, A. M., Rybin, E. P., Byambaa, G. and Hublin, J. J. 2019. The Northern Route for human dispersal in central and northeast Asia: new evidence from the site of Tolbor-16, Mongolia. Sci Rep, 9, 11759.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats