Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-h9sqt Total loading time: 0.58 Render date: 2022-01-17T05:10:38.585Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 2 - Dichotomous Tests

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 May 2020

Thomas B. Newman
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco
Michael A. Kohn
Affiliation:
University of California, San Francisco
Get access

Summary

For a test to be useful, it must be informative; that is, it must (at least some of the time) give different results depending on what is going on. In Chapter 1, we said we would simplify (at least initially) what is going on into just two homogeneous alternatives, D+ and D−. In this chapter, we consider the simplest type of tests, dichotomous tests, which have only two possible results (T+ and T−).

Type
Chapter
Information
Evidence-Based Diagnosis
An Introduction to Clinical Epidemiology
, pp. 8 - 46
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Poehling, KA, Griffin, MR, Dittus, RS, et al. Bedside diagnosis of influenzavirus infections in hospitalized children. Pediatrics. 2002;110(1 Pt 1):83–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, TB, Bernzweig, JA, Takayama, JI, et al. Urine testing and urinary tract infections in febrile infants seen in office settings: the Pediatric Research in Office Settings’ Febrile Infant Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(1):4454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerlikowske, K, Grady, D, Barclay, J, Sickles, EA, Ernster, V. Likelihood ratios for modern screening mammography: risk of breast cancer based on age and mammographic interpretation. JAMA. 1996;276(1):3943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerlikowske, K, Grady, D, Barclay, J, Sickles, EA, Ernster, V. Effect of age, breast density, and family history on the sensitivity of first screening mammography. JAMA. 1996;276(1):33–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losina, E, Walensky, RP, Geller, A, et al. Visual screening for malignant melanoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(1):21–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hunink, MGM. Decision making in health and medicine: integrating evidence and values. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2014. xxi, 424pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sox, HC, Higgins, MC, Owens, DK. Medical decision making. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobson, J, Whitley, RJ, Pocock, S, Monto, AS. Oseltamivir treatment for influenza in adults: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2015;385(9979):1729–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treanor, JJ, Hayden, FG, Vrooman, PS, et al. Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute influenza: a randomized controlled trial. US Oral Neuraminidase Study Group. JAMA. February 23, 2000;283(8):1016–24. PubMed PMID: 10697061.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sox, HC, Blatt, MA, Higgins, MC, Marton, KI. Medical decision making. Boston: Butterworths; 1988. 406pp.Google Scholar
Hilden, J, Glasziou, P. Regret graphs, diagnostic uncertainty and Youden’s Index. Stat Med. 1996;15(10):969–86.3.0.CO;2-9>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pauker, SG, Kassirer, JP. Therapeutic decision making: a cost-benefit analysis. N Engl J Med. 1975;293(5):229–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pauker, SG, Kassirer, JP. The threshold approach to clinical decision making. N Engl J Med. 1980;302(20):1109–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, DP, Wold, RM, Patel, RJ, et al. The clinical presentation and impact of diagnostic delays on emergency department patients with spinal epidural abscess. J Emerg Med. 2004;26(3):285–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faix, DJ, Sherman, SS, Waterman, SH. Rapid-test sensitivity for novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(7):728–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bellcross, CA, Lemke, AA, Pape, LS, Tess, AL, Meisner, LT. Evaluation of a breast/ovarian cancer genetics referral screening tool in a mammography population. Genet Med. 2009;11(11):783–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chow, AW, Doron, S. Evaluation of acute pharyngitis in adults 2018. December 12, 2018. Available from: www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-acute-pharyngitis-in-adults.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Dichotomous Tests
  • Thomas B. Newman, University of California, San Francisco, Michael A. Kohn, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Evidence-Based Diagnosis
  • Online publication: 02 May 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108500111.003
Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

  • Dichotomous Tests
  • Thomas B. Newman, University of California, San Francisco, Michael A. Kohn, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Evidence-Based Diagnosis
  • Online publication: 02 May 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108500111.003
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Dichotomous Tests
  • Thomas B. Newman, University of California, San Francisco, Michael A. Kohn, University of California, San Francisco
  • Book: Evidence-Based Diagnosis
  • Online publication: 02 May 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108500111.003
Available formats
×