Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 March 2012
Taking into consideration the lessons of energy sector reform experience since the 1990s and the challenges of energy for development faced by developing countries at the global and national level discussed in earlier chapters, what is the way forward? Three factors influence the way forward for energy future. First, a new era of global energy is emerging in the initial years of the twenty-first century heralded by profound changes in the economic and political systems and policies of a significant part of the world. Second, energy security concerns linked with geopolitics are shaping energy strategies of oil importing countries. Finally, the development paradigm shift envisaged in the energy sector in the 1990s to privatization and free market in energy for development is now being replaced by the shift toward public- private partnership (PPP). It is now clear to all energy stakeholders, governments of developing and developed countries, multilateral development and financial institutions and energy industry that there cannot be strong private sector involvement in energy in developing countries without an effective and strong government.
Given the disconnect between expectations and realities of energy sector reform from the perspective of various energy stakeholders discussed in earlier chapters, key questions about progress could be raised from the perspective of these stakeholders. For developing countries the way forward raises the issue of how policy principles can be translated into effective implementation by improving economic governance and building the required institutions to modernize the state.