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Chapter 4 - Fundamentals of crystal structures

Cornelis Klein
Affiliation:
University of New Mexico
Anthony R. Philpotts
Affiliation:
University of Connecticut
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Summary

Crystal structures represent the most fundamental aspects of minerals. In classifications, minerals are organized by chemical groups (see Sec. 2.2) as well as structure types (see Sec.7.4). Because there are about 1140 known silicates, this large chemical group is subdivided by structure type.

Many of the minerals treated in this text are silicates, and gaining an understanding of their various structure types is essential. This text is accompanied by CrystalViewer, which incorporates all the crystal structures of the minerals that are systematically treated in Chapters 7, 10, 13, and 15. Furthermore, each systematic mineral description is accompanied by an illustration of its structure, its mineral name, its chemical formula, and a shorthand notation known as the space group. This chapter provides you with the basic aspects of crystal structures, which will provide you with a good understanding of the crystal structures both in CrystalViewer and in the crystal structure illustrations in this text.

Naturally occurring chemical elements

In Section 2.1, we introduced the definition of mineral in which one of the clauses states with a definite, but commonly not fixed, chemical composition. That led to the concept of minerals with a fixed composition such as quartz, SiO2, and minerals with a variable composition, such as members of the olivine series, ranging from Mg2SiO4 to Fe2SiO4, with the general formula (Mg, Fe)2SiO4.

Type
Chapter
Information
Earth Materials
Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology
, pp. 62 - 85
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

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References

Dyar, M. D.Gunter, M. E.Tasa, D. 2008 Mineralogy and Optical MineralogyMineralogical Society of AmericaChantilly, VAGoogle Scholar
Klein, C. 2008 Minerals and Rocks: Exercises in Crystal and Mineral Chemistry, Crystallography, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Mineral and Rock Identification, and Ore Mineralogy,John Wiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
Klein, C.Dutrow, B. 2008 Manual of Mineral ScienceJohn Wiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
Pauling, L. 1960 The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern structural Chemistry,W. H. Freeman and CompanySan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
Perkins, D. 2011 MineralogyPrentice HallUpper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
Shannon, R. D. 1976 Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and ChalcogenidesActa Crystallographica A32 751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, A. F. 1991 Structural Inorganic Chemistry,Clarendon PressOxford, UKGoogle Scholar
Wenk, H. R.Bulakh, A. 2004 Minerals: Their Constitution and OriginCambridge University PressCambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

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