Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-2bgxn Total loading time: 0.707 Render date: 2022-11-30T02:22:16.832Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

4 - Human motivation and performance outcomes in the context of downsizing

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2014

Aharon Tziner
Netanya Academic College
Erich C. Fein
University of South Australia
Lior Oren
Ariel University Center of Samaria and Netanya Academic College
Cary L. Cooper
Lancaster University
Alankrita Pandey
University of Texas, Arlington
James Campbell Quick
University of Texas, Arlington
Get access


Human motivation is defined as the psychological force that generates complex cycles of goal-directed thought and behavior. Such thought and behavior is ultimately directed toward the achievement of the fundamental goal of inclusive fitness (Bernard, Mills, Swenson, and Walsh, 2005), where individuals strive to match their internal needs to actual or potential resources in their life space. Motivation is what animates us, what prompts us to launch actions, to reach decisions, to make choices, and to persist in the pursuit of courses of action until their completion. Accordingly, scholars studying human motivation intend to unveil the processes by which an individual’s internal, psychological forces in conjunction with external, environmental forces determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of personal behavior aimed at goal attainment (Kanfer, 2009). In preparing this chapter, we have chosen to focus specifically on the complex interplay between endogenous forces, such as internal drives and beliefs, and exogenous forces, such as changes in the stability of rewards, within the work environment. Furthermore, because the study of motivation is extremely vast, we have currently chosen to restrict ourselves to focusing solely on work motivation within work environments. It is definitely included in the immense field of human motivation and it provides a key determinant of reactions to downsizing in organizations.

One recent and dramatic example of how a work environment may rapidly change is the traumatic closure of Deutsche Post World Net operations in Wilmington, Ohio, which has received considerable national media attention in the United States. At the beginning of the Global Financial Crisis in 2007, the DHL division of Deutsche Post World Net employed approximately 8,000 workers in Wilmington, Ohio, which was the seat of US domestic air shipping operations. By 2008, DHL announced the phased closure of shipping activities and by the end of operations approximately 7,500 employees were laid off (Lynch, 2008). Although only a portion of the laid off employees were from Wilmington, the layoffs still effectively devastated the local economy (Driehaus, 2008).

Is Less Still More?
, pp. 103 - 133
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adams, J. S. 1965. “Inequity in social exchange,” in Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. II. New York: Academic Press, pp. 267–299.Google Scholar
Aguinis, H. 2009. Performance Management. New Jersey: Pearson.Google Scholar
Alderfer, C. P. 1972. Existence, Relatedness, and Growth: Human Needs in Organizational Settings. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Allen, T. D., Freeman, D. M., Russell, J. E. A., Reizenstein, R. C., and Rentz, J. O. 2001. “Survivor reactions to organizational downsizing: Does time ease the pain?Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 74: 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allport, G. W. 1951. “Basic principles in improving human relations,” in Bigelow, K. W. (ed.), Cultural Groups and Human Relations. Oxford: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Co, pp. 8–28.Google Scholar
Amabile, T. M. and Conti, R. 1999. “Changes in the work organization for creativity during downsizing.” Academy of Management Journal 42: 630–640.Google Scholar
Armstrong-Stassen, M. and Cameron, S. 2003. “Nurses job satisfaction and turnover intentions over a six-year period of hospital downsizing and amalgamation.” International Journal Public Administration 26: 1607–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong-Stassen, M. and Cattaneo, J. 2010. “The effect of downsizing on organizational practices targeting older workers.” Journal of Management Development 29: 344–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong-Stassen, M. and Latack, J. C. 1992. “Coping with workforce reduction: The effects of layoff exposure on survivor reactions.” Academy of Management Review, Best Papers, pp. 207–211.
Atkinson, J. W. 1964. An Introduction to Motivation. Oxford: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
Barling, J., Dupre, K. E., and Hepburn, C. G. 1998. “Effects of parents’ job insecurity on children’s work, beliefs and attitudes.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83: 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batt, R., Colvin, A. J. S., and Keefe, J. 2002. “Employee voice, human resource practices, and quit rates: Evidence from the telecommunications industry.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55: 573–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, R. J. 1998. “Perceived powerlessness as a cause of employee deviance,” in Griffin, R. W., O’Leary-Kelly, A., and Collins, J. M. (eds.), Dysfunctional Behavior in Organizations: Violent and Deviant Behavior. Stamford, CT: JAI Press, pp. 221–239.Google Scholar
Bernard, L. C., Mills, M., Swenson, L., and Walsh, R. 2005. “An evolutionary theory of human motivation.” Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 131: 129–184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bies, R. J. 2001. “Interactional (in)justice: The sacred and the profane,” in Greenberg, J. and Cropanzano, R. (eds.), Advances in Organizational Justice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 89–118.Google Scholar
Bies, R. J. and Moag, J. F. 1986. “Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness,” in Lewicki, R. J., Sheppard, B. H., and Bazerman, M. H. (eds.), Research on Negotiations in Organizations. Greenwich. CT: JAI Press, pp. 43–55.Google Scholar
Blau, P. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Brandes, P., Castro, S. L., James, M. S. L., Martinez, A. D., Matherly, T. A., Ferris, G. R., and Hochwarter, W. A. 2008. “The interactive effects of job insecurity and organizational cynicism on work effort following a layoff.” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 14: 233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BretzJr., R. D., Ash, R. A., and Dreher, G. F. 1989. “Do people make the place? An examination of the fit and attraction−selection−attrition hypothesis.” Personnel Psychology 42: 561–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brockner, J. 1986. “Layoffs, equity theory and work performance: Further evidence of the impact of survivor guilt.” Academy of Management Journal 29: 373–84.Google Scholar
Brockner, J. 1988. “The effects of work layoffs on survivors: Research, theory and practice,” in Staw, B. M. and Cummings, L. L. (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior 10: 213–255.Google Scholar
Brockner, J. 1992. “Managing the effects of layoffs on others.” California Management Review 34: 9–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brockner, J. and Greenberg, J. 1990. “The impact of layoffs on survivors: An organizational justice perspective,” in Carroll, J. S. (ed.), Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 45–75.Google Scholar
Brockner, J., Grover, S., Reed, T. F., and DeWitt, R. L. 1992. “Layoffs, job insecurity, and survivors’ work effort: Evidence of an inverted-U relationship.” Academy of Management Journal 35: 413–425.Google Scholar
Brockner, J., Konovsky, M., and Cooper-Schneider, R. 1994a. “Interactive effects of procedural justice and outcome negativity on victims and survivors of job loss.” Academy of Management Journal 37: 397–409.Google Scholar
Brockner, J., Konovsky, M., Cooper-Schneider, R., Folger, R., Martin, C., and Bies, R. J. 1994b. “Interactive effects of procedural justice and outcome negativity on victims and survivors of job loss.” Academy of Management Review 37: 397–409.Google Scholar
Brockner, J., Wiesenfeld, B., Stephan, J., Hurley, R., Grover, S., Reed, T., DeWitt, R. L., and Martin, C. 1997. “The effects on layoff survivors of their fellow survivors’ reactions.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 10: 835–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BrookeJr., P. P., Russell, D. W., and Price, J. L. 1988. “Discriminant validation of measures of job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 73: 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, M. E. and Trevino, L. K. 2009. “Leader−follower value congruence: Are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it?Journal of Applied Psychology 94: 478–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buchanan, D., Claydon, T., and Doyle, M. 1999. “Organisation development and change: The legacy of the nineties.” Human Resource Management Journal 9: 20–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burroughs, S. M., Bing, M. N., and James, L. R. 1999. “Effects of personality and job stressors on affective reactions and aggressive work behaviors.” Paper presented at the American Psychological Association and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Interdisciplinary Conference on Work, Stress, and Health, March, Baltimore, MD.
Cameron, K. S., Sutton, R. I., and Whetton, D. A. 1988. Readings in Organizational Decline: Frameworks, Research and Prescriptions. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
Carmeli, A. 2005. “The relationship between organizational culture and withdrawal intentions and behaviors.” International Journal of Manpower 26: 177–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carver, C., Scheier, M., and Weintraub, J. 1989. “Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56: 267–283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cascio, W. 1993. Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? Academy of Management Executive 7: 95–104.Google Scholar
Cascio, W. F., Young, C. E., and Morris, J. R. 1997. “Financial consequences of employment-change decisions in major US corporations.” Academy of Management Review 40: 1175–1189.Google Scholar
Chang, C., Rosen, C. C., and Levy, P. E. 2009. “The relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee attitudes, strain, and behavior: A meta-analytic examination.” Academy of Management Journal 52: 779–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, P. Y. and Spector, P. E. 1992. “Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft, and substance use: An exploratory study.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 65: 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Z. and Francesco, A. 2003. “The relationship between the three components of commitment and employee performance in China.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 62: 490–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chisholm, R. P., Kasl, S. V., and Eskanazi, B. 1983. “The nature and prediction of job related tension in a crisis situation: Reaction of nuclear workers to the Three Mile Island accident.” Academy of Management Journal 26: 385–405.Google Scholar
Cody, A. M., Hegeman, G. B., and Shanks, D. C. 1987. “How to reduce the size of the organization but increase effectiveness.” Journal of Business Strategy 8: 66–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cropanzano, R., Prehar, C. A., and Chen, P. Y. 2002. “Using social exchange theory to distinguish procedural from interactional justice.” Group and Organization Management 27: 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davy, J. A., Kinicki, A. J., and Scheck, C. L. 1991. “Developing and testing a model of survivor responses to layoffs.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 48: 302–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawis, R. V. 1991. “Vocational interests, values, and preferences,” in Dunnette, M. D. and Hough, L. M. (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. II (2nd edn.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, pp. 833–871.Google Scholar
Dean, J. W., Brandes, P., and Dharwadkar, R. 1998. “Organizational cynicism.” Academy of Management Review 23: 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. 2002. “Self-determination research: Reflections and future directions,” in Deci, E. L. and Richard, R. M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, pp. 431–441.Google Scholar
Demarie, S. M. and Keats, B. W. 1996. “Organizational downsizing: A research framework.” Paper presented at the annual conference of the Academy of Management.
DeShon, R. P. and Gillespie, J. Z. 2005. “A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90: 1096–1127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devine, K., Reay, T., Stainton, L., and Collins-Nakai, R. 2003. “The stress of downsizing: Comparing survivors and victims.” Human Resource Management 42: 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doherty, N. and Horsted, J. 1995. “Helping survivors stay on board.” People Management 1: 26–31.Google Scholar
Driehaus, R. 2008. “DHL cuts 9,500 jobs in US, and an Ohio town takes the brunt.” New York Times, November 11, p. A7.
Edwards, J. R. 2004. “Complementary and supplementary fit: A theoretical and empirical integration.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89: 822–834.Google Scholar
Erez, M. 2008. “Social-cultural influences on work motivation,” in Kanfer, R., Chen, G., and Pritchard, R. D. (eds.), Work Motivation: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 501–538.Google Scholar
Fein, E. C. and Klein, H. J. 2011. “Personality predictors of behavioral self-regulation: Linking behavioral self-regulation to Five Factor Model factors, facets, and a compound trait.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 19, 132−144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, A. B. 2005. “The downside of downsizing.” New York Times, May 23, pp. B1, B2.
Fleming, P. 2005. “‘Kindergarten cop’: Paternalism and resistance in a high-commitment workplace.” Journal of Management Studies 42: 1469–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folger, R. and Cropanzano, R. 1998. Organizational Justice and Human Resource Management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Freeman, S. J. 1999. “The gestalt of organizational downsizing: Downsizing strategies as packages of change.” Human Relations 52: 1505–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, S. J. and Cameron, K. S. 1993. “Organizational downsizing: Convergence and reorientation framework.” Organization Science 4: 10–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., and Aycan, Z. 2007. “Cross-cultural organizational behavior.” Annual Review of Psychology 58: 479–514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, E. A., Zammuto, R. F., and Gifford, B. D. 2001. “The competing values framework: Understanding the impact of organizational culture on the quality of work life.” Organization Development Journal 19: 58–68.Google Scholar
Greenhalgh, L. 1982. “Maintaining organizational effectiveness during organizational retrenchment.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 18: 155–170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenhalgh, L. and Rosenblatt, Z. 1984. “Job insecurity: Towards conceptual clarity.” Academy of Management Review 9: 438–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greguras, G. J. and Diefendorff, J. M. 2009. “Different fits satisfy different needs: Linking person−environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94: 465–477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grunberg, L., Anderson-Connolly, R., and Greenberg, E. S. 2000. “Surviving layoffs: The effects on organizational commitment and job performance.” Work and Occupations 27: 7–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, N. and Beehr, T. A. 1979. “Job stress and employee behaviors.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 23: 373–387.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hackman, J. and Oldham, G. R. 1976. “Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16: 250–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handy, F. and Katz, E. 1998. “The wage differential between non-profit institutions and corporations: Getting more by paying less?Journal of Comparative Economics 26: 246–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., and Hayes, T. L. 2002. “Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87: 268–279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., and Snyderman, B. 1959. The Motivation to Work (2nd edn.). Oxford: John Wiley.Google Scholar
Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., Harback, H. F., and Nixon, R. D. 1994. “Rightsizing: Building and maintaining strategies, leadership and long-term competitiveness.” Organizational Dynamics 23: 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations (2nd edn.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Hofstede, G. and Peterson, M. F. 2000. “National values and organizational practices,” in Ashkanasy, N. M., Wilderom, C. M., and Peterson, M. F. (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 401–416.Google Scholar
Holland, J. L. and Rayman, J. R. 1986. “The self-directed search,” in Walsh, W., Osipow, S. H., Walsh, W., and Osipow, S. H. (eds.), Advances in Vocational Psychology, Vol. I: The Assessment of Interests. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 55–82.Google Scholar
Hung-Wen, L. 2010. “The relationship between achievement, motivation, and psychological constructs.” The Journal of Global Business Issues 4: 9–17.Google Scholar
Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., and Nahrgang, J. D. 2005. “Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader−follower outcomes.” Leadership Quarterly 16: 373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobson, D. 1987. “A personological study of the job insecurity experience.” Social Behavior 2: 143–155.Google Scholar
Jahoda, M. 1982. Employment and Unemployment: A Social Psychological Analysis. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Jehn, K. A. 1997. “Affective and cognitive conflict in work groups: Increasing performance through value-based intragroup conflict,” in De Dreu, C. W. and Vliert, E. Van de (eds.), Using Conflict in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanfer, R. 2009. “Work motivation: Identifying use-inspired research directions.” Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2: 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanter, D. L. and Mirvis, P. H. 1989. The Cynical Americans: Living and Working in an Age of Discontent and Disillusion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Kets de Vries, M. and Balazs, K. 1997. “The downside of downsizing.” Human Relations 50: 11–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kettley, P. 1995. Employee Morale During Downsizing, Report No. 291. Brighton: Institute of Employment Studies.Google Scholar
Kilmann, R. H. 1981. “Toward a unique/useful concept of values for interpersonal behavior: A critical review of the literature on value.” Psychological Reports 48: 939–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, H. S. 2009. “Examining the role of informational justice in the wake of downsizing from an organizational relationship management perspective.” Journal of Business Ethics 88: 297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhnert, K. W., Sims, R. R., and Lacey, M. A. 1989. “The relationship between job security and employee health.” Group and Organization Studies 14: 399–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latham, G. P. and Pinder, C. C. 2005. “Work motivation: Theory and research at the dawn of the 21st century.” Annual Review of Psychology 56: 485–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, S. and Yu, K. 2004. “Corporate culture and organizational performance.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 19: 340–359.Google Scholar
Lee, T. W. and Mitchell, T. R. 1994. “An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover.” Academy of Management Review 19: 51–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Sablynski, C. J., Burton, J. P., and Holton, B. C. 2004. “The effects of job embeddedness on organizational citizenship, job performance, volitional absences, and voluntary turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 47: 711–722.Google Scholar
Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Wise, L., and Fireman, S. 1996. “An unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 39: 5–36.Google Scholar
Leventhal, G. S. 1980. “What should be done with equity theory?” in Gergen, K. J., Greenberg, M. S., and Willis, R. H. (eds.), Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research. New York: Plenum, pp. 27–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liden, R. C. and Graen, G. 1980. “Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership.” Academy of Management Journal 23: 451–465.Google Scholar
Lim, V. K. G. 1996. “Job insecurity and its outcomes: Moderating effects of work-based and nonwork-based social support.” Human Relations 49: 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lofquist, L. H. and Dawis, R. V. 1978. “Values as second-order needs in the theory of work adjustment.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 1: 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, D. J. 2008. “Hard times hit Ohio town hard: Biggest employer in town of 13,000 laying off 7,500.” USA Today, December 16, p. B1.
Maertz, C. P., Wiley, J. J. W., LeRouge, C., and Campion, M. A. 2010. “Downsizing effects on survivors: Layoffs, offshoring, and outsourcing.” Industrial Relations 49: 275–285.Google Scholar
Martin, D. C. and Bartol, K. M. 1985. “Managing turnover strategically.” Personnel Administrator 30: 63–73.Google Scholar
McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., and Lowell, E. L. 1976. The Achievement Motive. Oxford: Irvington.Google Scholar
Meglino, B. M. and Ravlin, E. C. 1998. “Individual values in organizations: Concepts, controversies, and research.” Journal of Management 24: 251–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D. and Lee, J. 2001. “The people make the process: Commitment to employees, decision making, and performance.” Journal of Management 27: 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minkov, M. 2007. What Makes Us Different and Similar: A New Interpretation of World Values Survey and Other Cross-Cultural Data. Sofia, Bulgaria: Klasika I Still.Google Scholar
Mirvis, P. H. and Kanter, D. L. 1992. “Beyond demography: A psychographic profile of the workforce.” Human Resource Management 30: 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., and Erez, M. 2001. “Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 44: 1102–1121.Google Scholar
Mount, M. K. and Barrick, M. R. 1998. “Five reasons why the ‘Big Five’ article has been frequently cited.” Personnel Psychology 51: 849–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, H. A. 1938. Explorations in Personality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nolan, J. 2008. “Ohio looks for new uses for DHL hub in Wilmington.” McClatchy-Tribune Business News, August 19.
Parker, S. K. and Ohly, S. 2008. “Designing motivating jobs: An expanded framework for linking work characteristics and motivation,” in Kanfer, R., Chen, G., and Pritchard, R. D. (eds.), Work Motivation: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 233–284.Google Scholar
Pelley, S. 2009. “The long recession.” 60 Minutes. December 20.
Pinder, C. C. 2008. Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior (2nd edn.). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Probst, T. M. 2002. “Layoffs and tradeoffs: Production, quality, and safety demands under the threat of job loss.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 7: 211–220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Probst, T. M., Stewart, S. M., Gruys, M. L., and Tierney, B. W. 2007. “Productivity, counter-productivity, and creativity: The ups and downs of job insecurity.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 80: 479–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puffer, S. M. 1987. “Prosocial behavior, noncompliant behavior, and work performance among commission sales people.” Journal of Applied Psychology 72: 615–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritzman, R. L. and Tomaskovic-Devey, D. D. 1992. “Life chances and support for equality and equity as normative and counternormative distribution rules.” Social Forces 70: 745–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rokeach, M. 1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Roskies, E. and Louis-Guerin, C. 1990. “Job insecurity in managers: Antecedents and consequences.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 11: 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sahdev, K. 2004. “Revisiting the survivor syndrome: The role of leadership in implementing downsizing.” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 13: 165–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sauter, S. L., Murphy, L. R., and Hurrell, J. J. 1990. “A national strategy for the prevention of work-related disorders.” American Psychologist 45: 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheppard, B. H., Lewicki, R. J., and Minton, J. W. 1992. Organizational Justice: The Search for Fairness in the Workplace. New York: Lexington Books/Macmillan.Google Scholar
Sheridan, J. E. 1992. “Organizational culture and employee retention.” Academy of Management 35: 1036–1056.Google Scholar
Song, L., Tsui, A. S., and Law, K. S. 2009. “Unpacking employee responses to organizational exchange mechanisms: The role of social and economic exchange perceptions.” Journal of Management 35: 56–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiles, P., Gratton, L., Truss, C., Hope-Hailey, V., and McGovern, P. 1997. “Performance management and the psychological contract.” Human Resource Management Journal 7: 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Storey, J. and Sisson, K. 1993. Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., and Naswall, K. 2002. “No security: A review and meta-analysis of job insecurity and its consequences.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 7: 242–264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taras, V., Kirkman, B. D., and Steel, P. 2010. “Examining the impact of culture’s consequences: A three decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede’s cultural value dimensions.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95: 405–439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thibaut, J. W. and Walker, L. 1975. Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Trevor, C. O. and Nyberg, A. J. 2008. “Keeping your headcount when all about you are losing theirs: Downsizing, voluntary turnover rates, and the moderating role of HR practices.” Academy of Management Journal 51: 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triandis, H. C. 1994. Culture and Social Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
Tyler, T. R., and Bies, R. 1990. “Beyond normal procedures: The interpersonal context of procedural justice,” in Carroll, J. S. (ed.), Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. London: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 77–98.Google Scholar
Tziner, A. 1987. “Congruency issue retested using Fineman’s achievement climate motivation.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2: 63–78.Google Scholar
Tziner, A. and Falbe, C. M. 1990. “Actual and preferred climates of achievement orientation and their congruency: An investigation of their relationships to work attitudes and performance in two occupational strata.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 11: 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tziner, A., Shultz, T., and Fisher, T. 2008. “Justice, leader–member–exchange, and job performance: Are their relationships mediated by organizational culture?Psychological Reports 103: 516–526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ulrich, D. 1998. “A mandate for human resources.” Harvard Business Review (February/March): 124–134.
Vroom, V. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Wanous, J. P, Reichers, A. E., and Austin, J. T. 2000. “Cynicism about organizational change: Measurement, antecedents, and correlates.” Group and Organization Management 25: 132–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weismal-Manor, R., Tziner, A., Berger, E., and Dikstein, E. 2010. “Two of a kind? Leader−member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating role of leader−member similarity.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 40: 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westacott, C. 2010. “Remuneration management,” in Stafford, J. (ed.), 2010 Australian Master Human Resources Guide. Sydney: CCH.Google Scholar
Zaccaro, S. J., Ely, K., and Nelson, J. 2008. “Leadership processes and work motivation,” in Kanfer, R., Chen, G., and Pritchard, R. D. (eds.), Work Motivation: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 319–360.Google Scholar
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats