Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 September 2022
Design is about ‘designing schemes for designing institutions’ (Goodin, 1996 p. 28 cited in Lowndes and Roberts, 2013, p. 187). But design is ‘not a cookbook’; there is no simple fail-safe recipe to follow (Bobrow and Dryzek, 1987, p. 207; Boyer, Cook and Steinberg, 2011, p. 87). The stagist model of the policy process has been rejected in favour of an acknowledgement that policy is messy, political, chaotic, with many unforeseen and/or uncontrollable contingencies affecting outcomes (Bovens and t’Hart, 1996). However, a commitment to the potential for policy to be more than a ‘fuzzy gamble’ (Dror, 1986, p. 168) on outcomes and the lives of citizens can be retained. Building on the heuristics of policy design in the opening chapters, this chapter returns to the notion of power as positive sum, non-dominating and relational set out in Chapter One to explore the vision and grammar of coproductive policy design. Chapter Three considers the possibility of introducing co-productive elements into conventional policy design through vision and grammar.
Thinking through the vision and grammar of co-productive policy design and the possibilities for introducing such elements resonates with wider debates on co-production. In its origins, and in the sense used in this book, co-production is a term associated with the research of Elinor Ostrom. In her work on the management of common-pool resources, such as access to water, Ostrom (1996, p. 1073) used ‘co-production’ to describe a process through which ‘inputs from individuals who are not “in” the same organisation are transformed into goods and services’. The term ‘co-production’ suggests a relationship between ‘regular producers’ (policy makers and practitioners) and ‘clients’ (service users) (Ostrom, 1999), specifically where the ‘client’ acts not as a ‘consumer’ of services, but as a ‘co-producer’ of them. The implication here is that citizens can play an active role in producing public goods and services of consequence to them (Ostrom, 1996, p. 1073). Co-production has become a ubiquitous term in contemporary policy, which builds on a rich, diverse and contested lineage of theory and experimentation. Chapter Three considers this background before looking at how ideas of co-production can help to inform the vision and grammar of more co-productive policy design.
To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.
To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.
To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.