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10 - Long-term evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced activities in small cell networks

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 December 2015

Qi Jiang
Affiliation:
Alcatel-Lucent
Jinsong Wu
Affiliation:
Alcatel-Lucent
Lu Zhang
Affiliation:
Alcatel-Lucent
Shengjie Zhao
Affiliation:
Tongji University
Alagan Anpalagan
Affiliation:
Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto
Mehdi Bennis
Affiliation:
University of Oulu, Finland
Rath Vannithamby
Affiliation:
Intel Corporation, Portland, Oregon
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Summary

Introduction

The general definition of a small cell is the low-powered radio access node operating in licensed and unlicensed spectrum with the smaller coverage of ten meters to one or two kilometers, compared to a mobile macro cell with a range of a few tens of kilometers. With the introduction of this new concept, the heterogeneous network (HetNet) constructed with different layers of small cells and large cells can deliver the increased bandwidths, reduced latencies, and higher uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) throughput to end users. Since 2009, the standard evolution of the small cell related topics has been studied in 3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project) LTE (long-term evolution) and LTE-Advanced. The following sections in this chapter will introduce the standardization progress of LTE and LTE-Advanced in small cells.

Definition of small cells in 3GPP LTE-Advanced

In 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced, small cells can generally be characterized as either relay nodes, or pico cells (also referred to as hotzone cells), controlled by a pico eNodeB, or femto cells, controlled by a Home evolved NodeB (HeNB). The common features among the relays, pico cells, and femto cells are low transmission power node and independent eNB functionality, while the typical different features can be summarized as follows:

1. Relay node [1, 2]. A relay node (RN) is a network node connected wirelessly to a source eNodeB, called the donor eNodeB. According to the different implementation types of the relay node into wireless network, the roles of the relay node played are also different.

2. Pico cell. A pico cell usually controls multiple small cells, which are planned by:

  1. a. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which unites six telecommuni-cations standard development organizations (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TTA, and TTC), known as organizational partners, and provides their members with a stable environment to produce the highly successful reports and specifications that define 3GPP technologies.

  2. b. The evolved Node B could be abbreviated as eNodeB or eNB by the network operator in a similar way as the macro cells [3]. The pico cell is usually open to all users (open subscriber group (OSG))[4].

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2015

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References

[1] Loa, K., Wu, C., Sheu, S., Yuan, Y., Chion, M., Huo, D., and Xu, L. (August 2010). “IMT-advanced relay standards,” IEEE Communications Magazine 48(8), 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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[3] Okino, K., Nakayama, T., Yamazaki, C., Sato, H., and Kusano, K. (June 2011). “Pico cell range expansion with interference mitigation toward LTE-Advanced heterogeneous networks,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) Communications Workshops.
[4] Mukherjee, S. (June 2011). “UE coverage in LTE macro network with mixed CSG and open access femto overlay,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) Communications Workshops.
[5] Andrews, J. G., Claussen, H., Dohler, M., Rangan, S., and Reed, M. C. (Apr. 2012). “Femtocells: past, present, and future,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 30(3), 497–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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[7] 3GPP2 (Jan. 2013). “UTRA repeater radio transmission and reception (Release 11),” 3GPP Technical Specification 25.106 V11.1.0, www.3gpp.org.
[8] 3GPP3 (Mar. 2013). “FDD repeater radio transmission and reception (Release 11),” 3 GPP Technical Specification 36.106 V11.2.0, www.3gpp.org.
[9] 3GPP4 (June 2008). “R1-082024 A discussion on some technology components for LTE-Advanced.”
[10] 3GPP5 (June 2008). “R1-082397 Discussion on the various types of relays,” Panasonic, 3GPP TSG RAN1 WG Meeting #54, Warsaw, Poland, www.3gpp.org.
[11] 3GPP6 (Mar. 2010). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects (Release 9),” 3GPP Technical Report 36.814 V9.0.0, www.3gpp.org.
[12] 3GPP7 (Sept. 2013). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) and evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2 (Release 11),” 3GPP Technical Specification 36.300 V11.7.0,” www.3gpp.org.
[13] 3GPP9 (2009). “Study item: enhanced inter-cell interference control (ICIC) for non-carrier aggregation (CA) based deployments of heterogeneous networks for LTE,” 3GPP Features and Study Items (Rel-10), www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/FeatureListFrameSet.htm.
[14] 3GPP8 (2010). “Study item: further enhanced non CA-based ICIC for LTE,” 3 GPP Features and Study Items (Rel-11), www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/FeatureListFrameSet.htm.
[15] 3GPP10 (Apr. 2010). “R1-101874 Co-channel control channel performance for HetNet,” Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #60bis, Beijing, P. R. China, www.3gpp.org.
[16] 3GPP11 (Sept. 2013). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN); X2 application protocol (X2AP) (release 11).”
[17] Qin, M., Liu, L., Lan, C., and Takeda, K. (June 2013). “Search space design in enhanced physical downlink control channel for LTE-Advanced,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring).
[18] Damnjanovic, A., Montojo, J., Wei, Y.et al. (June 2011). “A survey on 3GPP heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 18(3), 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[19] 3GPP12 (Mar. 2013). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); requirements for support of radio resource management Release 11,” 3GPP Technical Specification 36.133 V12.3.0, www.3gpp.org.
[20] 3GPP13 (Sept. 2013). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); radio resource control (RRC); protocol specification,” 3GPP Technical Specification 36.331 V12.1.0, www.3gpp.org.
[21] 3GPP14 (Sept. 2012). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); FDD Home eNode B (HeNB) radio frequency (RF) requirements analysis,” 3GPP Technical Report 36.921 V11.0.0, www.3gpp.org.
[22] 3GPP15 (Sept. 2012). “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); TDD Home eNode B (HeNB) radio frequency (RF) requirements analysis,” 3GPP Technical Report 36.922 V11.0.0, www.3gpp.org.
[23] 3GPP16 (Sept. 2013). “Small cell enhancements for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: physical layer aspects (Release 12),” 3GPP Technical Report 36.872 V12.0.0, www.3gpp.org.
[24] 3GPP17 (June 2013). “Study on small cell enhancements for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: higher layer aspects (Release 12).”

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