Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-18T05:26:22.692Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

4 - Being There

Foundations, Theory, Method

from Section 1 - The Co-emergence of Culture, Mind, and Brain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2020

Laurence J. Kirmayer
McGill University, Montréal
Carol M. Worthman
Emory University, Atlanta
Shinobu Kitayama
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Robert Lemelson
University of California, Los Angeles
Constance A. Cummings
The Foundation for Psychocultural Research
Get access


This chapter explores dual senses of “being there,” as existential fact and corollary method, and suggests some reasons why and how an ecological framework provides an effective approach to unpacking the culture–mind–brain nexus. First, an ecological analysis brings the lens of evolutionary design to bear on human biology (brain), function (mind), and behavior (culture). Second, it taps reliance of developmental processes on nested timelines of interaction with context that drive physical (body/brain), functional (mind), and behavioral (enculturation) development across the life course. Third, it hones in on conditions created by humans’ reliance on culture, thereby creating their own ecologies that, in turn, generate tremendous human diversity. Being there can also play a valuable research role. Three case studies explore that role in interaction with existing bodies of knowledge, major societal and scientific questions, and studies with novel human cultures and ecologies. They also sketch an arc of inquiry that integrates biomarkers and health outcomes with measures of psychosocial dynamics and life course development into population research embedded in community and cultural settings. A dialectical ecologically informed approach that fluidly deploys diverse modes of research may be particularly effective for tackling the large questions and challenges that humans confront.

Culture, Mind, and Brain
Emerging Concepts, Models, and Applications
, pp. 120 - 158
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adair, L. S., Fall, C. H., Osmond, C., Stein, A. D., Martorell, R., Ramirez-Zea, M., Sachdev, H. S., Dahly, D. L., Bas, I., Norris, S. A., Micklesfield, L., Hallal, P., & Victora, C. G., for the COHORTS group. (2013). Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: Findings from five birth cohort studies. Lancet, 382(9891), 525–34.–6736(13)60103-8Google Scholar
Allis, C. D., & Jenuwein, T. (2016). The molecular hallmarks of epigenetic control. Nature Reviews Genetics, 17(8), 487500. Scholar
Arnett, J. J. (2008). The neglected 95%: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63(7), 602–14. ScholarPubMed
Bachrach, C. A., & Abeles, R. P. (2004). Social science and health research: Growth at the National Institutes of Health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 22–8. Scholar
Balcerak, A., Trebinska-Stryjewska, A., Konopinski, R., Wakula, M., & Grzybowska, E. A. (2019). RNA-protein interactions: Disorder, moonlighting and junk contribute to eukaryotic complexity. Open Biology, 9(6), 190096. ScholarPubMed
Baldwin, J. M. (1896). A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist, 30(354–355), 441–51, 536–53. Scholar
Benedict, R. (1934). Patterns of culture. Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Bernard, H. R. (2013). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (2nd ed.). SAGE.Google Scholar
Betancourt, T. S., Borisova, I., Williams, T. P., Meyers-Ohki, S. E., Rubin-Smith, J. E., Annan, J., & Kohrt, B. A. (2013). Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers: A systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(1), 1736. Scholar
Bhutta, Z. A., Das, J. K., Rizvi, A., Gaffey, M. F., Walker, N., Horton, S., Webb, P., Lartey, A., Black, R. E., The Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review Group, & the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. (2013). Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: What can be done and at what cost? Lancet, 382(9890), 452–77.–6736(13)60996-4Google Scholar
Black, R. E., Victora, C. G., Walker, S. P., Bhutta, Z. A., Christian, P., de Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Grantham-McGregor, S., Katz, J., Martorell, R., Uauy, R., & the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. (2013). Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet, 382(9890), 427–51.–6736(13)60937-XGoogle Scholar
Blurton-Jones, N. (1986). Bushman birth spacing: A test for optimal interbirth intervals. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7(2), 91105. Scholar
Boas, F. (1896). The limitations of the comparative method of anthropology. Science, 4(3), 901908. Scholar
Boas, F. (1911). The mind of primitive man. Macmillan.Google Scholar
Boas, F. (1912). Changes in the bodily form of descendants of immigrants. American Anthropologist, 14(3), 530–62. Scholar
Bongaarts, J. (2009). Human population growth and the demographic transition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1532), 2985–90. Scholar
Bonner, J. T. (1974). On development: The biology of form. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
British Association for the Advancement of Science. (1874). Notes and queries on anthropology: For the use of travellers and residents in uncivilized lands. Edward Stanford.Google Scholar
Bulatao, R. A., & Lee, R. D. (Eds.). (1983). Determinants of fertility in developing countries (Vols. 1–2). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Cavalli, G., & Heard, E. (2019). Advances in epigenetics link genetics to the environment and disease. Nature, 571(7766), 489–99.–019-1411-0Google Scholar
Champagne, F. A., & Curley, J. P. (2009). Epigenetic mechanisms mediating the long-term effects of maternal care on development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(4), 593600. Scholar
Changeux, J.-P., & Chavaillon, J. (Eds.). (1995). Symposia of the Fyssen Foundation. Origins of the human brain. Clarendon Press. Scholar
Charnov, E. L. (1993). Life history invariants: Some explorations of symmetry in evolutionary ecology. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Clifford, J., & Marcus, G. E. (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Cole, S. W. (2014). Human social genomics. PLoS Genetics, 10(8), e1004601. Scholar
Cooper, P. J., Vally, Z., Cooper, H., Radford, T., Sharples, A., Tomlinson, M., & Murray, L. (2014). Promoting mother-infant book sharing and infant attention and language development in an impoverished South African population: A pilot study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(2), 143–52.–013-0591-8Google Scholar
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). SAGE.Google Scholar
Dahl, R. E. (2016). The developmental neuroscience of adolescence: Revisiting, refining, and extending seminal models. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 101102. Scholar
Dahl, R. E., Allen, N. B., Wilbrecht, L., & Suleiman, A. B. (2018). Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective. Nature, 554(7693), 441–50. Scholar
Damasio, A. (2009). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Harcourt.Google Scholar
Damasio, A., & Carvalho, G. B. (2013). The nature of feelings: Evolutionary and neurobiological origins. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(2), 143–52. Scholar
de Oliveira, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2017). Culture changes how we think about thinking: From ‘human inference’ to ‘geography of thought.’ Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 782–90. Scholar
de Onis, M., Dewey, K. G., Borghi, E., Onyango, A. W., Blössner, M., Daelmans, B., Piwoz, E., & Branca, F. (2013). The World Health Organization’s global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: Rationale and proposed actions. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 9(S2), 626. Scholar
Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the brain: The new science of how we read. Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Del Giudice, M., Hinnant, J. B., Ellis, B. J., & El-Sheikh, M. (2012). Adaptive patterns of stress responsivity: A preliminary investigation. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 775–90. Scholar
Dethlefsen, L., McFall-Ngai, M., & Relman, D. A. (2007). An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human-microbe mutualism and disease. Nature, 449(7164), 811–18. Scholar
Dodge, K. A., Goodman, W. B., Murphy, R., O’Donnell, K., & Sato, J. (2013). Toward population impact from home visiting. Zero to Three, 33(3), 1723. Scholar
Ellis, B. J., & Del Giudice, M. (2019). Developmental adaptation to stress: An evolutionary perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 111–39. Scholar
Ellison, P. T. (1994). Advances in human reproductive ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 255–75. Scholar
Fox, S. E., Levitt, P., & Nelson, C. A. III. (2010). How the timing and quality of early experiences influence the development of brain architecture. Child Development, 81(1), 2840. Scholar
Friederici, A. D., Chomsky, N., Berwick, R. C., Moro, A., & Bolhuis, J. J. (2017). Language, mind and brain. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(10), 713–22.–017-0184-4Google Scholar
Garson, J. G., & Read, C. H. (1892). Notes and queries on anthropology (2nd ed.). Harrison and Sons.Google Scholar
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. Basic Books.Google Scholar
Gluckman, P. D., & Hanson, M. A. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental origins of health and disease. Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Gould, S. J. (1977). Ontogeny and phylogeny. Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., & Strupp, B. (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet, 369(9555), 6070.–6736(07)60032-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gravlee, C. C., Bernard, H. R., & Leonard, W. R. (2003). Heredity, environment, and cranial form: A reanalysis of Boas’s immigrant data. American Anthropologist, 105(1), 125–38. Scholar
Greenhalgh, S. (1996). The social construction of population science: An intellectual, institutional, and political history of twentieth-century demography. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 38(1), 2666. Scholar
Gunnar, M. R., Doom, J. R., & Esposito, E. A. (2015). Psychoneuroendocrinology of stress: Normative development and individual differences. In Lamb, M. E. & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Socioemotional processes (7th ed.,Vol. 3, pp. 106–51). John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Gurven, M., Fuerstenberg, E., Trumble, B., Stieglitz, J., Beheim, B., Davis, H., & Kaplan, H. (2017). Cognitive performance across the life course of Bolivian forager-farmers with limited schooling. Developmental Psychology, 53(1), 160–76. Scholar
Hacking, I. (1999). The social construction of what? Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Hanson, M. A., & Gluckman, P. D. (2014). Early developmental conditioning of later health and disease: Physiology or pathophysiology? Physiological Reviews, 94(4), 1027–76. Scholar
Harkness, S., Super, C. M., & Mavridis, C. J. (2011). Parental ethnotheories about children’s socioemotional development. In Chen, X. & Rubin, K. H. (Eds.), Socioemotional development in cultural context (pp. 7398). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Harkness, S., Super, C. M., Mavridis, C. J., Barry, O., & Zeitlin, M. (2013). Culture and early childhood development: Implications for policy and programs. In Britto, P. R., Engle, P. L., & Super, C. M. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood development research and its impact on global policy (pp. 142–60). Oxford University Press. Scholar
Harkness, S., Super, C. M., Moscardino, U., Rha, J.-H., Blom, M., Huitrón, B., Johnston, C., Sutherland, M. A., Hyun, O.-K., Axia, G., & Palacios, J. (2007). Cultural models and developmental agendas: Implications for arousal and self-regulation in early infancy. Journal of Developmental Processes, 1(2), 539.Google Scholar
Hay, M. C. (Ed.) (2016). Methods that matter: Integrating mixed methods for more effective social science research. University of Chicago Press. Scholar
Henrich, J., Boyd, R., Bowles, S., Camerer, C., Fehr, E., & Gintis, H. (Eds.). (2004). Foundations of human sociality: Economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. Oxford University Press. Scholar
Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 6183. Scholar
Hill, K., & Kaplan, H. (1999). Life history traits in humans: Theory and empirical studies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 397430. Scholar
Hobcraft, J., McDonald, J. W., & Rutstein, S. (1983). Child-spacing effects on infant and early child mortality. Population Index, 49(4), 585618. Scholar
Howell, N. (1979). Demography of the Dobe !Kung. Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Howie, P. W., & McNeilly, A. S. (1982). Effect of breast-feeding patterns on human birth intervals. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 65(2), 545–57. Scholar
Irwin, M. R., & Cole, S. W. (2011). Reciprocal regulation of the neural and innate immune systems. Nature Reviews Immunology, 11(9), 625–32. Scholar
Jablonka, E. (2013). Epigenetic inheritance and plasticity: The responsive germline. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 111(2–3), 99107. Scholar
Jablonka, E. (2017). The evolutionary implications of epigenetic inheritance. Interface Focus, 7(5), 20160135. Scholar
Jaeggi, A. V., Hooper, P. L., Beheim, B. A., Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2016). Reciprocal exchange patterned by market forces helps explain cooperation in a small-scale society. Current Biology, 26(16), 2180–7. Scholar
Jordans, M. J. D., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., Kohrt, B. A., Luitel, N. P., Macy, R. D., & de Jong, J. T. V. M.(2010). Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(7), 818–26. Scholar
Karki, R., Kohrt, B. A., & Jordans, M. J. D. (2009). Child led indicators: Pilot testing a child participation tool for psychosocial support programmes for former child soldiers in Nepal. Intervention, 7(2), 92109. Scholar
Kitayama, S. (2017). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and social cognition [Editorial]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(3), 357–60. Scholar
Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. R. (Eds.). (1994). Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence. American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Kitayama, S., & Park, J. (2017). Emotion and biological health: The socio-cultural moderation. Current Opinion in Psychology, 17, 99105. Scholar
Kitayama, S., Varnum, M. E. W., & Salvador, C. E. (2019). Cultural neuroscience. In Cohen, D. & Kitayama, S. (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology (2nd ed., pp. 79118). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kohrt, B. (2013). Social ecology interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder: What can we learn from child soldiers? British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(3), 165–7. Scholar
Kohrt, B. A., Jordans, M. J. D., Tol, W. A., Perera, E., Karki, R., Koirala, S., & Upadhaya, N. (2010). Social ecology of child soldiers: Child, family, and community determinants of mental health, psychosocial well-being, and reintegration in Nepal. Transcultural Psychiatry, 47(5), 727–53. Scholar
Kohrt, B. A., Jordans, M. J. D., Tol, W. A., Speckman, R. A., Maharjan, S. M., Worthman, C. M., & Komproe, I. H. (2008). Comparison of mental health between former child soldiers and children never conscripted by armed groups in Nepal. [Erratum appears in JAMA (2010), 303(20), 2034]. JAMA, 300(6), 691702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohrt, B. A., Perera, E., Jordans, M. J. D., Koirala, S., Karki, R., Karki, R., Shrestha, P., Tol, W. A., & Upadhaya, N. (2010). Psychosocial support model for children associated with armed forces and armed groups in Nepal. Transcultural Psychosocial Organization-Nepal/UNICEF.Google Scholar
Kohrt, B. A., Worthman, C. M., Adhikari, R. P., Luitel, N. P., Arevalo, J. M. G., Ma, J., McCreath, H., Seeman, T. E., Crimmins, E. M., & Cole, S. W. (2016). Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(29), 8156–61. Scholar
Konner, M. J. (1972). Aspects of the developmental ethology of a foraging people. In Jones, N. B. (Ed.), Ethological studies of child behaviour (pp. 285304). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Konner, M. J. (1977). Infancy among the Kalahari Desert San. In Leiderman, P. H., Tulkin, S. R., & Rosenfeld, A. (Eds.), Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience (pp. 287328). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Konner, M., & Worthman, C. (1980). Nursing frequency, gonadal function, and birth spacing among !Kung hunter-gatherers. Science, 207(4432), 788–91. Scholar
Kuzawa, C. W., & Bragg, J. M. (2012). Plasticity in human life history strategy: Implications for contemporary human variation and the evolution of genus Homo. Current Anthropology, 53(S6), S369S382. Scholar
Kuzawa, C. W., & Thayer, Z. M. (2011). Timescales of human adaptation: The role of epigenetic processes. Epigenomics, 3(2), 221–34. Scholar
Laland, K. N., Uller, T., Fellman, M. W., Sterelny, K., Müller, G. B., Moczek, A., Jablonka, E., & Odling-Smee, J. (2015). The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1813), 20151019. Scholar
le Roux, I. M., le Roux, K., Comulada, W. S., Greco, E. M., Desmond, K. A., Mbewu, N., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2010). Home visits by neighborhood Mentor Mothers provide timely recovery from childhood malnutrition in South Africa: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 9, 56. Scholar
le Roux, I. M., Tomlinson, M., Harwood, J. M., O’Connor, M. J., Worthman, C. M., Mbewu, N., Stewart, J., Hartley, M., Swendeman, D., Comulada, W., Weiss, R., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2013). Outcomes of home visits for pregnant mothers and their infants: A cluster randomized controlled trial. AIDS, 27(9), 1461–71. Scholar
Lee, R. B. (1972). Population growth and the beginnings of sedentary life among the !Kung Bushmen. In Spooner, B. (Ed.), Population growth: Anthropological implications (pp. 329–42). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Lee, R. B., & DeVore, I. (Eds.). (1976). Kalahari hunter-gatherers: Studies of the !Kung San and their neighbors. Harvard University Press. Scholar
Luitel, N. P., Jordans, M. J. D., Sapkota, R. P., Tol, W. A., Kohrt, B. A., Thapa, S. B., Komproe, I. H., & Sharma, B. (2013). Conflict and mental health: A cross-sectional epidemiological study in Nepal. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(2), 183–93.–012-0539-0Google Scholar
Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 434–45. Scholar
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–53. Scholar
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), 420–30. Scholar
Maternal Child Nutrition Study Group. (2013). Maternal and child nutrition: Building momentum for impact. Lancet, 382(9890), 372–5.–6736(13)60988-5Google Scholar
McDade, T. W., Ryan, C., Jones, M. J., MacIsaac, J. L., Morin, A. M., Meyer, J. M., Borja, J. B., Miller, G. E., Kobor, M. S., & Kuzawa, C. W. (2017). Social and physical environments early in development predict DNA methylation of inflammatory genes in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(29), 7611–16. Scholar
Mead, M. (1928). Coming of age in Samoa: A psychological study of primitive youth for Western civilization. William Morrow & Company.Google Scholar
Mead, M. (1930). Growing up in New Guinea: A comparative study of primitive education. William Morrow & Company.Google Scholar
Mead, M., & Macgregor, F. C. (1951). Growth and culture: A photographic study of Balinese childhood. Putnam.Google Scholar
Miller, A. H., & Raison, C. L. (2016). The role of inflammation in depression: From evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nature Reviews Immunology, 16(1), 2234. Scholar
Miska, E. A., & Ferguson-Smith, A. C. (2016). Transgenerational inheritance: Models and mechanisms of non-DNA sequence-based inheritance. Science, 354(6308), 5963. Scholar
Murray, D. R., Haselton, M. G., Fales, M., & Cole, S. W. (2019). Subjective social status and inflammatory gene expression. Health Psychology, 38(2), 182–6. Scholar
National Institutes of Health. (1994). NIH guidelines on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research.–100.htmlGoogle Scholar
Newen, A., De Bruin, L., & Gallagher, S. (Eds.). (2018). The Oxford handbook of 4E cognition. Oxford University Press. Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. (1993). Violence and U. S. regional culture. American Psychologist, 48(4), 441–9. Scholar
Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2), 291310. Scholar
Noel, G. L., Suh, H. K., & Frantz, A. G. (1974). Prolactin release during nursing and breast stimulation in postpartum and nonpostpartum subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 38(3), 413–23. Scholar
Nusslock, R., & Miller, G. E. (2016). Early-life adversity and physical and emotional health across the lifespan: A neuroimmune network hypothesis. Biological Psychiatry, 80(1), 2332. Scholar
O’Neil, S., & van Broeckhoven, K. (Eds.). (2018). Cradled by conflict: Child involvement with armed groups in contemporary conflict. United Nations University.Google Scholar
Odling-Smee, F. J., Laland, K. N., & Feldman, M. W. (1996). Niche construction. American Naturalist, 147(4), 641–8. Scholar
Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Knudtson, M. D., Anson, E., Smith, J. A., & Cole, R. (2014). Effect of home visiting by nurses on maternal and child mortality: Results of a 2-decade follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(9), 800806. Scholar
Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., O’Brien, R., Luckey, D. W., Pettitt, L. M., Henderson, C. R. Jr., Ng, R. K., Sheff, K. L., Korfmacher, J., Hiatt, S., & Talmi, A. (2002). Home visiting by paraprofessionals and by nurses: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 110(3), 486–96. Scholar
Ortner, S. B. (1984). Theory in anthropology since the Sixties. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(1), 126–66. Scholar
Ortner, S. B. (2016). Dark anthropology and its other: Theory since the eighties. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 6(1), 4773. Scholar
Park, J., Kitayama, S., Miyamoto, Y., & Coe, C. L. (2019). Feeling bad is not always unhealthy: Culture moderates the link between negative affect and diurnal cortisol profiles. Emotion. Advance online publication. Scholar
Paul, B. D. (Ed.) (1955). Health, culture, & community: Case studies of public reaction to health programs. Russell SAGE Foundation.Google Scholar
Paul, R. A. (2015). Mixed messages: Cultural and genetic inheritance in the constitution of human society. University of Chicago Press. Scholar
Pertea, M., Shumate, A., Pertea, G., Varabyou, A., Breitwieser, F. P., Chang, Y.-C., Madugundu, A. K., Pandey, A., & Salzberg, S. L. (2018). CHESS: A new human gene catalog curated from thousands of large-scale RNA sequencing experiments reveals extensive transcriptional noise. Genome Biology, 19(1), 208.–018-1590-2Google Scholar
Petrosini, L., De Bartolo, P., Foti, F., Gelfo, F., Cutuli, D., Leggio, M. G., & Mandolesi, L. (2009). On whether the environmental enrichment may provide cognitive and brain reserves. Brain Research Reviews, 61(2), 221–39. Scholar
Pocheville, A. (2015). The ecological niche: History and recent controversies. In Hearns, T., Huneman, P., Lecointre, G., & Silberstein, M. (Eds.), Handbook of evolutionary thinking in the sciences (pp. 547–86). Springer. Scholar
Pressman, S. D., Jenkins, B. N., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2019). Positive affect and health: What do we know and where next should we go? Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 627–50. Scholar
Ramstead, M. J. D., Veissière, S. P. L., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2016). Cultural affordances: Scaffolding local worlds through shared intentionality and regimes of attention. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1090. Scholar
Reeve, H. K., & Sherman, P. W. (1993). Adaptation and the goals of evolutionary research. Quarterly Review of Biology, 68(1), 132. Scholar
Rollins, N. C., Bhandari, N., Hajeebhoy, N., Horton, S., Lutter, C. K., Martines, J. C., Piwoz, E. G., Richter, L. M., Victora, C. G., & The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group. (2016). Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? Lancet, 387(10017), 491504.–6736(15)01044-2Google Scholar
Rosaldo, R. (1989). Culture & truth: The remaking of social analysis. Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Rotheram-Borus, M. J., le Roux, I. M., Tomlinson, M., Mbewu, N., Comulada, W. S., le Roux, K., Stewart, J., O’Connor, M. J., Hartley, M., Desmond, K., Greco, E., Worthman, C. M., Idemundia, F., & Swendeman, D. (2011). Philani Plus (+): A mentor mother community health worker home visiting program to improve maternal and infants’ outcomes. Prevention Science, 12(4), 372–88.–011-0238-1Google Scholar
Ruben, R. J. (1997). A time frame of critical/sensitive periods of language development. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 117(2), 202–5. Scholar
Save the Children. (2012). Nutrition in the first 1,000 days: State of the world’s mothers 2012. Save the Children.Google Scholar
Sawyer, S. M., Azzopardi, P. S., Wickremarathne, D., & Patton, G. C. (2018). The age of adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2(3), 223–8.–4642(18)30022-1Google Scholar
Schneider, J., & Schneider, P. (1984). Demographic transition in a Sicilian rural town. Journal of Family History, 9(3), 245–72. Scholar
Shore, B. (1996). Culture in mind: Cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shostak, M. (1981). Nisa, the life and words of a !Kung woman. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Shweder, R. A. (1990). Ethical relativism: Is there a defensible version? Ethos, 18(2), 205–18. Scholar
Shweder, R. A., Minow, M., & Markus, H. (2002). Engaging cultural differences: The multicultural challenge in liberal democracies. Russell SAGE Foundation.Google Scholar
Simons, R. C., & Hughes, C. C. (1985). The culture-bound syndromes: Folk illnesses of psychiatric and anthropological interest. D. Reidel. Scholar
Stearns, S. C. (1992). The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stevens, E. E., Patrick, T. E., & Pickler, R. (2009). A history of infant feeding. Journal of Perinatal Education, 18(2), 32–9. Scholar
Stevens, J. S., & Jovanovic, T. (2019). Role of social cognition in post-traumatic stress disorder: A review and meta-analysis. Genes, Brain, & Behavior, 18(1), e12518. Scholar
Stotz, K. (2014). Extended evolutionary psychology: The importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. Scholar
Strauss, C., & Quinn, N. (1997). A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Super, C. M., Axia, G., Harkness, S., Welles-Nyström, B., Zylicz, P. O., Parmar, P., Bonichini, S., Bermúdez, M. R., Moscardino, U., Kolar, V., Palacios, J., Andrzej, E., & McGurk, H. (2008). Culture, temperament, and the “difficult child”: A study in seven Western cultures. European Journal of Developmental Science, 2(1–2), 136–57. Scholar
Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface of child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9(4), 545–69. Scholar
The Women’s Health Initiative Study Group. (1998). Design of the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study. Controlled Clinical Trials, 19, 61109.–2456(97)00078-0Google Scholar
Theise, N. D., & Kafatos, M. C. (2013). Complementarity in biological systems: A complexity view. Complexity, 18(6), 1120. Scholar
Tomlinson, M., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Harwood, J., le Roux, I. M., O’Connor, M., & Worthman, C. (2015). Community health workers can improve child growth of antenatally-depressed, South African mothers: A cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 225.–015-0606-7Google Scholar
Tomlinson, M., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., le Roux, I. M., Youssef, M., Nelson, S. H., Scheffler, A., Weiss, R. E., O’Connor, M., & Worthman, C. M. (2016). Thirty-six-month outcomes of a generalist paraprofessional perinatal home visiting intervention in South Africa on maternal health and child health and development. Prevention Science, 17(8), 937–48.–016-0676-xGoogle Scholar
Trevathan, W. R., Smith, E. O., & McKenna, J. J. (2008). Evolutionary medicine and health: New perspectives. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96(3), 506–20. Scholar
Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom (Vol. 1). John Murray.Google Scholar
Tyson, J. E., Friesen, H. G., & Anderson, M. S. (1972). Human lactational and ovarian response to endogenous prolactin release. Science, 177(4052), 897900. Scholar
Uchida, Y., Kitayama, S., Akutsu, S., Park, J., & Cole, S. W. (2018). Optimism and the conserved transcriptional response to adversity. Health Psychology, 37(11), 1077–80. Scholar
UNICEF. (2007). Paris principles: Principles and guidelines on children associated with armed forces and armed conflict. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.Google Scholar
Victora, C. G., Bahl, R., Barros, A. J. D., França, G. V. A., Horton, S., Krasevec, J., Murch, S., Sankar, M. J., Walker, N., Rollins, N. C., & The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet, 387(10017), 475–90.–6736(15)01024-7Google Scholar
Victora, C. G., de Onis, M., Hallal, P. C., Blössner, M., & Shrimpton, R. (2010). Worldwide timing of growth faltering: Revisiting implications for interventions. Pediatrics, 125(3), e473e480. Scholar
Vitzthum, V. J. (2009). The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140(S49), 95136. Scholar
Walker, S. P., Wachs, T. D., Grantham-McGregor, S., Black, M. M., Nelson, C. A., Huffman, S. L., Baker-Henningham, H., Chang, S. M., Hamadani, J. D., Lozoff, B., Gardner, J. M. M., Powell, C. A., Rahman, A., & Richter, L. (2011). Inequality in early childhood: Risk and protective factors for early child development. Lancet, 378(9799), 1325–38.–6736(11)60555-2Google Scholar
Walker, S. P., Wachs, T. D., Gardner, J. M., Lozoff, B., Wasserman, G. A., Pollitt, E., & Carter, J. A. (2007). Child development: Risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries. Lancet, 369(9556), 145–57.–6736(07)60076-2Google Scholar
West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003). Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Whiting, J. W. M. (1994). Culture and human development: The selected papers of John Whiting. Chasdi, E. H. (Ed.). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Whiting, B. B., & Edwards, C. P. (1988). Children of different worlds: The formation of social behavior. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Whiting, J. W. M., & Child, I. L. (1953). Child training and personality: A cross-cultural study. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Whiting, J. W. M., Child, I. L., Lambert, W. W., & the Field Teams for the Six Cultures series. (1966). Field guide for a study of socialization. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Worthman, C. M. (1978). Psychoneuroendocrine study of human behavior: Some interactions of steroid hormones with affect and behavior in the !Kung San [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Harvard University.Google Scholar
Worthman, C. M. (2010). The ecology of human development: Evolving models for cultural psychology. Journal for Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(4), 546–62. Scholar
Worthman, C. M. (2016). Ecocultural theory: Foundations and applications. In Hay, M. C. (Ed.), Methods that matter: Integrating mixed methods for more effective social science research (pp. 1338). University of Chicago Press. Scholar
Worthman, C. M., & Costello, E. J. (2009). Tracking biocultural pathways in population health: The value of biomarkers. Annals of Human Biology, 36(3), 281–97. Scholar
Worthman, C. M., Tomlinson, M., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2016). When can parents most influence their child’s development? Expert knowledge and perceived local realities. Social Science & Medicine, 154, 62–9. Scholar
Worthman, C. M., & Trang, K. (2018). Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence. Nature, 554(7693), 451–7. Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats