Published online by Cambridge University Press: 22 April 2022
Argued December 11, 2002.Decided April 7, 2003.
Justice M. MATSUDA delivered the opinion of the Court.1
A central question this case presents is whether words have power and consequences. See Mari J. Matsuda et al., Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment (1993). We answer that question in the affirmative and hold that racist speech in the form of a burning cross is properly constrained by the Commonwealth of Virginia.