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4 - Post-Charter Developments

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2011

M. Cherif Bassiouni
Affiliation:
DePaul University, Chicago
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Summary

Mens aequa in ardius

Introduction

A number of international legal instruments that contain CAH provisions have been adopted since the London Charter, but so far, no specialized convention on CAH has been developed. Substantive post-Charter legal developments have all been part of the same continuum as the Charter, which remains the matrix for all internationally adopted legal formulations. Thus, to understand what has occurred since the London Charter, it is indispensable to understand what occurred before the Charter, and what occurred as part of the Law of the Charter (discussed in Chapter 3).

Some of the legal developments in CAH can be directly traced to the London Charter; others are a logical consequence of the development of ICL. These conventional law developments do not have the same legal weight, nor do they establish proscribing norms requiring states to individually and/or collectively enforce CAH. Some developments in the field of international human rights establish enforceable prescriptive norms giving rise to civil and administrative remedies, whereas others fall into the category of what is called “soft law” and are, in essence, standard-setting.

Post-Charter legal developments apply to the substance of CAH as well as to procedural or enforcement aspects related to ICL. There are also other substantive specific conflicts and institutions norms that encompass the same protected interests as CAH, such as: genocide, war crimes, torture, slavery and slave-related practices, and some aspects of terror-violence (terrorism).

Type
Chapter
Information
Crimes against Humanity
Historical Evolution and Contemporary Application
, pp. 167 - 295
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

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References

Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The “Nuremberg Legacy:” Historical Assessment Fifty Years Later, in War Crimes: The Legacy of Nuremberg (Belinda Cooper ed., 1997) [hereinafter Bassiouni, The “Nuremberg Legacy”]
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Das Vermächtnis von Nürnberg: Eine historische Bewertung fünfzig Jahre danach, in Strafgerichte gegen Menschheitsverbrechen (Hankel & Stuby eds., 1995)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Nuremberg Forty Years After: An Introduction, 18 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 261 (1986)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, 1–3 The Legislative History of the International Criminal Court: Introduction, Analysis, and Integrated Text, (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 2005) [hereinafter Bassiouni, The Legislative History of the ICC].
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The History of the Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind, 27 Isr. L. Rev. 1 (1993)
Gross, Leo, Some Observations on the Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind, 15 Isr. Y.B. Hum. Rts. 224 (1985)
Mueller, Gerhard O.W., The United Nations Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind: An American Evolution, International Criminal Law 597 (Gerhard O.W. Mueller & Edward M. Wise eds., 1965).
Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich, Development and Future Prospects of International Criminal Law, in International Criminal Law 83 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 2d rev. ed. 1999)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The Proscribing Function of International Criminal Law in the Processes of International Protection of Human Rights, 9 Yale J. World Pub. Ord. 193 (1982)
Lillich, Richard B., International Human Rights: Problems of Law, Policy, and Practice (2d ed. 1991).
Report of the ILC, U.N. G.A.O.R. Supp. (No. 10) (A/38/10) 15–17 citing, G.A.O.R. 898 (IX) (Dec. 4, 1954)
see also First Report on the Draft Code of Offences against the Peace and Security of Mankind by Mr. Doudou Thiam, Special Rapporteur, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/364, reprinted in [1983] Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n. 2.
Bassiouni, Cherif, From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish an International Criminal Court, 10 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 11, 49–57 (1997).
Question of defining aggression, U.N. G.A.O.R. 688 (VII) (Dec. 20, 1952)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The Definition of Aggression in International Law: The Crime Against Peace, in 1 International Criminal Law: Sources, Subjects and Contents 159 (M. Cherif Bassiouni & V.P. Nanda eds., 1973) [hereinafter Bassiouni, 1 ICL].
Fourth Report of Mr. Doudou Thiam, Special Rapporteur, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/398, reprinted in [1986] 2 Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n. 53
Reprinted in [1985] Report of the ILC at 171.
Id; see also Fourth Report of Mr. Doudou Thiam, reprinted in [1986], 2 Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n. 53
McCaffrey, Stephen C., Criminalization of Environmental Protection, in, 1 International Criminal Law: Sources, Subjects and Contents 1013 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 3d rev ed. 2008).
Bassiouni, M. Cherif (with Peter Manikas), The Law of International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1996) [hereinafter Bassiouni, The Law of the ICTY]
Morris, Virginia & Scharf, Michael, I--II An Insider's Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1995).
Akravan, Payam, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The Politics and Pragmatics of Punishment, 90 Am. J. Int'l L. 501 (1996).

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