Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-zzcdp Total loading time: 1.604 Render date: 2021-12-05T04:22:17.744Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

7 - Cosmochemical and geochemical fractionations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

Harry Y. McSween, Jr
Affiliation:
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Gary R. Huss
Affiliation:
University of Hawaii, Manoa
Get access

Summary

Overview

Various processes that lead to the separation of elements from each other, or isotopes of the same element from each other, are considered. Examples of such processes are evaporation and condensation (which separate elements based on volatility), melting and crystallization, physical mixing and unmixing of components, and changes in redox conditions. We explain the basics of equilibrium condensation and how condensation sequences are calculated, and discuss the applicability of the condensation theory to the early solar nebula. We explore whether processes that separated elements as a function of their volatility occurred under equilibrium conditions, or were kinetically controlled. Isotopic fractionations may accompany volatility-controlled fractionations under specific conditions and can be diagnostic to inferring the formation conditions for various objects. The roles of other types of elemental fractionations in the solar system are also discussed, including the physical sorting and segregation of chondrite components and the element fractionations resulting from melting, crystallization, and planetary differentiation. Finally, we explore how light stable isotopes have been fractionated in the nebula, in the interstellar medium, and in planetesimals and planets, and show why elemental fractionations are critical for using radioactive isotopes as chronometers.

What are chemical fractionations and why are they important?

The solar system formed from a well-mixed collection of gas and dust inherited from its parent molecular cloud. The bulk composition of this material, as best we can know it, is given by the solar system abundances of elements and isotopes (Tables 4.1 and 4.2).

Type
Chapter
Information
Cosmochemistry , pp. 192 - 229
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Davis, A. M. and Richter, F. M. (2004) Condensation and evaporation of solar system materials. In Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 1: Meteorites, Comets and Planets, ed. Davis, A. M.Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 407–430. A good recent discussion of the processes of condensation and evaporation and associated isotopic effects and their applications to solar system materials.Google Scholar
Ebel, D. S. (2006) Condensation of rocky material in astrophysical environments. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System, II, eds. Lauretta, D. S. and McSween, H. Y., Jr. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 253–277. A good summary of the modern condensation calculations and modeling of solar system processes.Google Scholar
Grossman, L. (1972) Condensation in the primitive solar nebula. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 36, 597–619. This paper describes the first comprehensive calculations of equilibrium condensation under nebula conditions.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robert, F., Gautier, D. and Dubrulle, B. (2000) The solar system D/H ratio: observations and theories. Space Science Reviews, 92, 201–224. This paper reviews what is known about hydrogen isotopes and what they can tell us about the history of the solar system.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharp, Z. (2007) Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 344 pp. A good recent textbook covering the basics of isotope fractionation and its application to geochemistry and cosmochemistry.Google Scholar
Wänke, H. and Dreibus, G. (1988) Chemical composition and accretion history of terrestrial planets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A325, 545–557. This paper describes how chemical fractionations resulted from accretion of different materials to form the terrestrial planets.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, C. M. O'. D., Grossman, J. N., Ebel, D. S. and Ciesla, F. J. (2008) The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites. Science, 320, 1617–1619.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asphaug, E., Agnor, C. B. and Williams, Q. (2006) Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature, 439, 155–160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cameron, A. G. W. (1962) The formation of the Sun and planets. Icarus 1, 13–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, A. J., Humayun, M., Meibom, A., Krot, A. N. and Keil, K. (2001) Origin of zoned metal grains in the QUE94411 chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clayton, R. N. (2002) Self-shielding in the solar nebula. Nature, 415, 860–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clayton, R. N. and Mayeda, T. K. (1984) The oxygen isotope record in Murchison and other carbonaceous chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 67, 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clayton, R. N. and Mayeda, T. K. (1999) Oxygen isotope studies of carbonaceous chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 2089–2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clayton, R. N., Grossman, L. and Mayeda, T. K. (1973) A component of primitive nuclear composition in carbonaceous chondrites. Science, 182, 485–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly, H. C., Jr., Huss, G. R. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2001) On the formation of Fe-Ni metal in CR2 meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 4567–4588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, A. M. (2006) Volatile element evolution and loss. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System, II, eds. Lauretta, D. S. and McSween, H. Y., Jr. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 295–307.Google Scholar
Ebel, D. S. and Grossman, L. (2000) Condensation in dust-enriched systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fegley, B. (1999) Chemical and physical processing of presolar materials in the solar nebula and the implications for preservation of presolar materials in comets. Space Science Reviews, 72, 311–326.Google Scholar
Grossman, L. and Larimer, J. W. (1974) Early chemical history of the solar system. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 12, 71–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haack, H. and McCoy, T. J. (2004) Iron and stony-iron meteorites. In Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 1: Meteorites, Comets and Planets, ed. Davis, A M.Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 325–345.Google Scholar
Herbst, E. (2003) Isotopic fractionation by ion-molecule reactions. Space Science Reviews, 106, 293–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huss, G. R. (2004) Implications of isotopic anomalies and presolar grains for the formation of the solar system. Antarctic Meteorite Research, 17, 132–152.Google Scholar
Huss, G. R., Meshik, A. P., Smith, J. B. and Hohenberg, C. M. (2003) Presolar diamond, silicon carbide, and graphite in carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for thermal processing in the solar nebula. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 4823–4848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huss, G. R., Rubin, A. E. and Grossman, J. N. (2006) Thermal metamorphism in chondrites. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System, II, eds. Lauretta, D. S. and McSween, H. Y., Jr. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 295–307.Google Scholar
Jungck, M. H. A., Shimamura, T. and Lugmair, G. W. (1984) Ca isotope variations in Allende. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 2651–2658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kallemeyn, G. W. and Wasson, J. T. (1981) The compositional classification of chondrites-I. The carbonaceous chondrite groups. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45, 1217–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kallemeyn, G. W., Rubin, A. E., Wang, D. and Wasson, J. T. (1989) Ordinary chondrites: bulk composition, classification, lithophile-element fractionations, and composition-petrographic type relationships. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2747–2767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kallemeyn, G. W., Rubin, A. E. and Wasson, J. T. (1994) The compositional classification of chondrites: VI. The CR carbonaceous chondrite group. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 2873–2888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krähenbühl, U., Morgan, J. W., Ganapathy, R. and Anders, E. (1973) Abundances of 17 trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 1353–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuebler, K. E., McSween, H. Y., Carlson, W. D. and Hirsch, D. (1999) Sizes and masses of chondrules and metal-troilite grains in ordinary chondrites: possible implications for nebular sorting. Icarus, 141, 96–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larimer, J. W. and Anders, E. (1967) Chemical fractionations in meteorites-II. Abundance patterns and their interpretation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 31, 1239–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larimer, J. W. and Anders, E. (1970) Chemical fractionations in meteorites-III. Major element fractionations in chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 34, 367–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leshin, L. A. (2000) Insights into Martian water reservoirs from analyses of Martian meteorite QUE 94201. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 2017–2020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lodders, K. and Fegley, B. (1998) The Planetary Scientist's Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, 371 pp.Google Scholar
McCoy, T. J., Keil, K., Muenow, D. W. and Wilson, L. (1997a) Partial melting and melt migration in the acapulcoite-lodranite parent body. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 639–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKeegan, K. D., Jarzebinski, G. J.et al. (2008) A first look at oxygen in a Genesis concentrator sample (abstr.). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, CD #2020.
Niederer, F. R., Papanastassiou, D. A. and Wasserburg, G. J. (1981) The isotopic composition of titanium in the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45, 1017–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petaev, M. I. and Wood, J. A. (1998) The condensation with partial isolation (CWPI) model of condensation in the solar nebula. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 33, 1123–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richter, F. M., Davis, A. M., Ebel, D. S. and Hashimoto, A. (2002) Elemental and isotopic fractionation of Type B CAIs: Experiments, theoretical considerations, and constraints on their thermal evolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 521–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rotaru, M, Birck, J. L. and Allegre, C. J. (1992) Clues to early solar-system history from chromium isotopic in carbonaceous chondrites. Nature, 358, 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rushmer, T., Minarik, W. G. and Taylor, G. J. (2000) Physical processes of core formation. In Origin of the Earth and Moon, eds. Canup, R. M. and Righter, K.Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 227–243.Google Scholar
Tachibana, S. and Huss, G. R. (2005) Sulfur isotope composition of putative primary troilite in chondrules from Bishunpur and Semarkona. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 3075–3097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, G. J. (1992) Core formation in asteroids. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 14717–14726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiemens, M. H. (2006) History and applications of mass-independent isotope effects. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 34, 217–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiemens, M. H. and Heidenreich, J. E. III (1983) The mass-independent fractionation of oxygen: a novel isotope effect and its possible cosmochemical implications. Science, 219, 1073–1075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wai, C. M. and Wasson, J. T. (1977) Nebular condensation of moderately volatile elements and their abundances in ordinary chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 36, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, D. and Agee, C. B. (1988) Ureilite compaction. Meteoritics, 23, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warren, P. H. (2008) A depleted, not ideally chondritic bulk Earth: The explosive-volcanic basalt loss hypothesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 2217–2235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wasson, J. T. (1985) Meteorites. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 267 pp.Google Scholar
Wilson, L. and Keil, K. (1991) Consequences of explosive eruptions on small solar-system bodies: the case of the missing basalts on the aubrite parent body. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 104, 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, J. A. and Hashimoto, A. (1993) Mineral equilibrium in fractionated nebular systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 2377–2388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, J., Goldstein, J. F. and Scott, E. R. D. (2007) Iron meteorite evidence for early catastrophic disruption of protoplanets. Nature, 446, 888–891.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yin, Q.-Z. (2005) From dust to planets: the tale told by moderately volatile elements. In Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, ASP Conference Series 341, eds. Krot, A. N., Scott, E. R. D. and Reipurth, B.San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, pp. 632–644.Google Scholar
Yoneda, S. and Grossman, L. (1995) Condensation of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 liquids from cosmic gases. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 3413–3444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×