Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 May 2020
In animals that maintain body temperature within a tight range (homeotherms), thermoregulation represents the balance between heat production (thermogenesis) and heat loss. Thermogenesis occurs as a result of metabolic activity, particularly in skeletal muscle, the kidneys, the brain, the liver and (in infants) adipose tissue. Body heat is lost by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation (Table 24.1). Cold-induced hypothalamic stimulation activates autonomic, extra-pyramidal, endocrine and behavioural mechanisms to maintain the core temperature.