Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 May 2020
Cardiac surgery is a major insult to homeostasis. Attempts have been made to reduce the inflammatory response to cardiac surgery by limiting the stimulus. The two biggest stimuli to this inflammation are thought to be surgical tissue destruction and the interaction with the extracorporeal circuit. Therefore, techniques have been developed to reduce these stimuli – either by minimizing them (minimally invasive surgery) or eliminating them completely (off-pump surgery).