Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-rlmms Total loading time: 0.685 Render date: 2021-10-19T22:38:39.047Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

2 - Death and resurrection of Caribbean coral reefs: a palaeoecological perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

William F. Precht
Affiliation:
PBS&J, Miami
Richard B. Aronson
Affiliation:
University of South Alabama
Isabelle M. Côté
Affiliation:
Simon Fraser University, British Columbia
John D. Reynolds
Affiliation:
Simon Fraser University, British Columbia
Get access

Summary

INTRODUCTION

In the last three decades reef corals have suffered catastrophic levels of mortality throughout the tropics, a trend which has been especially pronounced in the Caribbean and western Atlantic region (Ginsburg, 1994 Gardner et al., 2003 Ginsburg and Lang, 2003). Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, the structure of most Caribbean reefs has changed dramatically, with a fundamental shift in dominance from corals to macroalgae (Knowlton, 1992). This phase shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated benthic reef communities has been driven largely by a drastic reduction in the abundance of branching elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) corals (Aronson and Precht, 2001a, 2001b), coupled with reduced herbivory (Glynn, 1990 Carpenter, 1997).

Although the temporal and spatial signals of recent change in the Caribbean are relatively straightforward (Aronson and Precht, 2001b Gardner et al., 2003 Ginsburg and Lang, 2003 Kramer, 2003), the causes remain controversial. A number of hypotheses have been developed, with top–down (over-fishing), bottom–up (eutrophication and pollution) and side–in (habitat destruction and global change) models dominating the literature. Reliance on weak inference in many of these studies, however, has hindered the progress of reef science and confounded the direction and emphasis of ecosystem management. In this chapter, we examine the principal models and evaluate their utility as explanations of the ecological changes that have been observed on Caribbean reefs.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andréfouët, S., Mumby, P. J., McField, M., Hu, C. and Muller-Karger, F. E. (2002). Revisiting coral reef connectivity. Coral Reefs, 21, 43–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andres, N. G. and Witman, J. D. (1995). Trends in community structure on a Jamaican reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 118, 305–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonius, A. (1977). Coral mortality in reefs: a problem for science and management. Proceedings 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 617–23Google Scholar
Antonius, A. (1981). The ‘band’ diseases in coral reefs. Proceedings 4th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 6–14Google Scholar
Aronson, R. B. (1990). Onshore–offshore patterns of human fishing activity. Palaios, 5, 88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B. (2001). The limits of detectability: short-term events and short-distance variation in the community structure of coral reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69, 331–2Google Scholar
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F. (1997). Stasis, biological disturbance, and community structure of a Holocene coral reef. Paleobiology, 23, 326–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F. (2000). Herbivory and algal dynamics on the coral reef at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 251–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F. (2001a). Evolutionary paleoecology of Caribbean coral reefs. In Evolutionary Paleoecology: The Ecological Context of Macroevolutionary Change, eds. Allmon, W. D. and Bottjer, D. J., pp. 171–233. New York: Columbia University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F. (2001b). White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia, 460, 25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F. (2001c). Applied paleoecology and the crisis on Caribbean coral reefs. Palaios, 16, 195–62.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Edmunds, P. J., Precht, W. F., Swanson, D. W. and Levitan, D. R. (1994). Large-scale, long-term monitoring of Caribbean coral reefs: simple, quick, inexpensive techniques. Atoll Research Bulletin, 421, 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Macintyre, I. G., Precht, W. F., Wapnick, C. M. and Murdoch, T. J. T. (2002a). The expanding scale of species turnover events on coral reefs in Belize. Ecological Monographs, 72, 233–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Precht, W. F., Toscano, M. A. and Koltes, K. H. (2002b). The 1998 bleaching event and its aftermath on a coral reef in Belize. Marine Biology, 141, 435–47Google Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Bruno, J. F., Precht, W. F.et al. (2003). Causes of reef degradation. Science, 302, 1502CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aronson, R. B., Macintyre, I. G., Wapnick, C. M. and O'Neill, M. W. (2004). Phase shifts, alternative states, and the unprecedented convergence of two reef systems. Ecology, 85, 1876–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Macintyre, I. G. and Precht, W. F. (2005a). Event preservation in lagoonal reef systems. Geology, 33, 717–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aronson, R. B., Precht, W. F., Murdoch, T. J. T. and Robbart, M. L. (2005b). Long-term persistence of coral assemblages on the Flower Garden Banks, northwestern Gulf of Mexico: implications for science and management. Gulf of Mexico Science, 23, 84–94Google Scholar
Bascompte, J., Meli´n, C. J. and Sala, E. (2005). Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102, 5443–7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauer, J. C. and Agerter, C. J. (1987). Isolation of bacteria pathogenic for the sea urchin Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 40, 161–5Google Scholar
Baum, J. K., Myers, R. A., Kehler, D. G.et al. (2003). Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the northwest Atlantic. Science, 299, 389–92CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baums, I. B., Miller, M. W. and Szmant, A. M. (2003). Ecology of a corallivorous gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, on two scleractinian hosts. I. Population structure of snails and corals. Marine Biology, 142, 1083–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechtel, J. D., Gayle, P. and Kaufman, L. (2006). The return of Diadema antillarum to Discovery Bay: patterns of distribution and abundance. Proceedings 10th International Coral Reef Symposium (in Press)
Bellwood, D. R., Hughes, T. P., Folke, C. and Nyström, M. (2004). Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature, 429, 827–33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bjorndal, K. A. and Jackson, J. C. (1997). Foraging ecology and nutrition of sea turtles. In The Biology of Sea Turtles, eds. Lutz, P. L. and Musick, J. A., pp. 259–74. Boca Raton, FL: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
Boss, S. K. and Liddell, W. D. (1987). Back-reef and fore-reef analogs in the Pleistocene of north Jamaica: implications for facies recognition and sediment flux in fossil reefs. Palaios, 2, 219–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, B. E. (1997). Disturbances to reefs in recent times. In Life and Death of Coral Reefs, ed. Birkeland, C., pp. 354–79. New York: Chapman and HallCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruckner, A. W. (2002). Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora Workshop: Potential Application of the US Endangered Species Act as a Conservation Strategy, Technical Memorandum NOAA-OPR-24. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Bruckner, A. W. and Bruckner, R. J. (1997) The persistence of black-band disease in Jamaica: impact on community structure. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 601–6Google Scholar
Bruckner, R. J., Bruckner, A. W. and Williams, E. H. Jr (1997). Life history strategies of Coralliophila abbreviata Lamarck (Gastropoda: Coralliophilidae) on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 627–32Google Scholar
Bruno, J. F. and Bertness, M. D. (2001). Habitat modification and facilitation in benthic marine communities. In Marine Community Ecology, eds. Bertness, M. D., Hay, M. E. and Gaines, S. D., pp. 201–18. Sunderland, MA: SinauerGoogle Scholar
Bruno, J. F., Petes, L. E., Harvell, C. D. and Hettinger, A. (2004). Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases. Ecology Letters, 6, 1056–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buddemeier, R. W., Kleypas, J. A. and Aronson, R. B. (2004). Coral Reefs and Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
Bythell, J. C. and Sheppard, C. (1993). Mass mortality of Caribbean shallow corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 296–7Google Scholar
Bythell, J. C., Hillis-Starr, Z. M. and Rogers, C. S. (2000). Local variability but landscape stability in coral reef communities following repeated hurricane impacts. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 204, 93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bythell, J. C., Pantos, O. and Richardson, L. (2004). White plague, white band, and other ‘white’ diseases. In Coral Health and Disease, eds. Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y., pp. 351–65. Berlin: Springer-VerlagCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, R. C. (1986). Partitioning herbivory and its effects on coral-reef algal communities. Ecological Monographs, 56, 345–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, R. C. (1988). Mass mortality of Caribbean sea urchin: immediate effects on community metabolism and other herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 85, 511–14CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, R. C. (1990a). Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum. I. Long-term effects on sea urchin population dynamics and coral reef algal communities. Marine Biology, 104, 67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, R. C. (1990b). Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum. II. Effects on population densities and grazing intensity of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. Marine Biology, 104, 79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, R. C. (1997). Invertebrate predators and grazers. In Life and Death of Coral Reefs, ed. Birkeland, C., pp. 198–229. New York: Chapman and HallCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, L. L. and Woodley, J. D. (2002). Recovery of reefs at Discovery Bay, Jamaica and the role of D. antillarum. Proceedings 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 331–8Google Scholar
Connell, J. H. (1997). Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages. Coral Reefs, 16, S101–S113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curran, H. A., Smith, D. P., Meigs, L. C., Pufall, A. E. and Greer, M. L. (1994). The health and short-term change of two coral patch reefs, Fernandez Bay, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. In Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History, compiled R. N. Ginsburg, pp. 147–53. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami
D'Elia, C. F., Webb, K. L. and Porter, J. W. (1981). Nitrate-rich groundwater inputs to Discovery Bay, Jamaica: a significant source of N to local reefs?Bulletin of Marine Science, 31, 903–10Google Scholar
Ruyter van Steveninck, E. D. and Bak, R. P. M. (1986). Changes in abundance of coral-reef bottom components related to mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarium. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 34, 87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruyter van Steveninck, E. D., Mulekon, L. L. and Breenan, A. M. (1988). Growth inhibition of Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley by scleractinian corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 115, 169–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domning, D. P. (2001). Sirenians, seagrasses, and the Cenozoic ecological change in the Caribbean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 166, 27–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Done, T. J. (1992). Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance. Hydrobiologia, 247, 121–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donovan, S. K. and Gordon, C. M. (1993). Echinoid taphonomy and the fossil record: supporting evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Caribbean. Palaios, 8, 304–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmunds, P. J. (1991). Extent and effect of black-band disease on a Caribbean reef. Coral Reefs, 10, 161–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmunds, P. J. and Bruno, J. F. (1996). The importance of sampling scale in ecology: kilometer-wide variation in coral reef communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 143, 165–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmunds, P. J. and Carpenter, R. C. (2001). Recovery of Diadema antillarum reduces macroalgal cover and increases abundances of juvenile corals on a Caribbean reef. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 5067–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Nyström, M.et al. (2003). Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 488–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elner, R. W. and Vadas, R. L. (1990). Inference in ecology: the sea urchin phenomenon in the northwestern Atlantic. American Naturalist, 136, 108–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epstein, P. R., Sherman, B., Spanger-Siegfried, E.et al. (1998). Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Diseases as Indicators of Change, Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Medical SchoolGoogle Scholar
Fitt, W. K., Brown, B. E., Warner, M. E. and Dunne, R. P. (2001). Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals. Coral Reefs, 20, 51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, T. A., Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Grant, A. and Watkinson, A. R. (2003). Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science, 301, 958–60CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, T. A., Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Grant, A. and Watkinson, A. R. (2005). Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: impacts, recovery patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology, 86, 174–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garzón-Ferreira, J., Gil-Agudelo, D. L., Barrios, L. M. and Zea, S. (2001). Stony coral diseases observed in southwestern Caribbean reefs. Hydrobiologia, 460, 65–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ginsburg, R. N. (compiler) (1994). Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
Ginsburg, R. N. and Lang, J. C. (2003). Foreword: Status of coral reefs in the western Atlantic – results of initial surveys, Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) Program. Atoll Research Bulletin, 496, ⅶ–ⅻⅰGoogle Scholar
Gittings, S. R., Bright, T. J. and Hagman, D. K. (1994). Protection and monitoring of reefs on the Flower Garden Banks, 1972–1992. In Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History, compiled Ginsburg, R. N., pp. 181–7. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
Gladfelter, W. B. (1982). White band disease in Acropora palmata: implications for the structure and growth of shallow reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 32, 639–43Google Scholar
Glynn, P. W. (1983). Extensive bleaching and death of reef corals on the Pacific coast of Panama. Environmental Conservation, 10, 149–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynn, P. W. (1990). Feeding ecology of selected coral-reef macroconsumers: patterns and effects on coral community structure. In Ecosystems of the World, vol. 25, Coral Reefs, ed. Dubinsky, Z., pp. 365–400. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
Glynn, P. W. (1991). Coral reef bleaching in the 1980s and possible connections with global warming. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 175–9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glynn, P. W. (1993). Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs, 12, 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynn, P. W. (1996). Coral reef bleaching: facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology, 2, 495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynn, P. W. and D'Croz, L. (1990). Experimental evidence for high temperature stress as the cause of El Niño-coincident coral mortality. Coral Reefs, 8, 181–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, C. M. and Donovan, S. K. (1992). Disarticulated echinoid ossicles in paleoecology and taphonomy: the last interglacial Falmouth Formation of Jamaica. Palaios, 7, 157–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goreau, T. F. (1959). The ecology of Jamaican coral reefs. I. Species composition and zonation. Ecology, 40, 67–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goreau, T. F. and Goreau, N. I. (1973). The ecology of Jamaican coral reefs. II. Geomorphology, zonation and sedimentary phases. Bulletin of Marine Science, 23: 399–464Google Scholar
Goreau, T. J., Cervino, J., Goreau, N.et al. (1998). Rapid spread of diseases in Caribbean coral reefs. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 46(Suppl. 5), 157–71Google Scholar
Green, E. and Bruckner, A. W. (2000). The significance of coral disease epizootiology for coral reef conservation. Biological Conservation, 96, 347–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigg, R. W. (1995). Coral reefs in an urban embayment in Hawaii: a complex case history controlled by natural and anthropogenic stress. Coral Reefs, 14, 253–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvell, D., Aronson, R., Baron, N.et al. (2004). The rising tide of ocean diseases: unsolved problems and research priorities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvell, C. D., Kim, K., Burkholder, J. M.et al. (1999). Emerging marine diseases: climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science, 285, 1505–10CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hay, M. E. (1984). Patterns of fish and urchin grazing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typical?Ecology, 65, 446–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, M. L., Bonaventura, J., Mitchell, T. P.et al. (2001). How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?Hydrobiologia, 460, 213–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (1999). Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research, 50, 839–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2004). Coral reefs and projections of future change. In Coral Health and Disease, eds. Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y., pp. 463–84. Berlin: Springer-VerlagCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubbard, D. K., Zankl, H., Heerden, I. and Gill, I. P. (2005). Holocene reef development along the northeastern St Croix shelf, Buck Island, US Virgin Islands. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 75, 97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P. (1989). Community structure and diversity of coral reefs: the role of history. Ecology, 70, 275–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P. (1994). Catastrophes, phase shifts and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science, 265, 1547–51CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughes, T. P. and Connell, J. H. (1999). Multiple stressors on coral reefs: a long-term perspective. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 932–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P. and Tanner, J. E. (2000). Recruitment failure, life histories, and long-term decline of Caribbean corals. Ecology, 81, 2250–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P., Keller, B. D., Jackson, J. B. C. and Boyle, M. J. (1985). Mass mortality of the echinoid Diadema antillarum in Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 36, 377–84Google Scholar
Hughes, T. P., Reed, D. C. and Boyle, M.-J. (1987). Herbivory on coral reefs: community structure following mass mortalities of sea urchins. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 113, 39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P., Szmant, A. M., Steneck, R., Carpenter, R. and Miller, S. (1999). Algal blooms on coral reefs: what are the causes?Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 1583–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. P., Baird, A. H., Bellwood, D. R. (2003). Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science, 301, 929–33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huston, M. A. (1985). Patterns of species diversity in relation to depth at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 37, 928–35Google Scholar
Idjadi, J. A., Lee, S. C., Bruno, J. F.et al. (2006). Rapid phase-shift reversal on a Jamaican coral reef. Coral Reefs (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C. (1991). Adaptation and diversity of reef corals. BioScience, 41, 475–82Google Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C. (1992). Pleistocene perspectives of coral reef community structure. American Zoologist, 32, 719–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C. (1994). Community unity?Science, 264, 1412–13CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, J. B. C. (1997). Reefs since Columbus. Coral Reefs, 16, S23–S32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C. (2001). What was natural in the coastal oceans?Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 5411–18CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, J. B. C. and Johnson, K. G. (2000). Life in the last few million years. Paleobiology, 26, 221–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C. and Sala, E. (2001). Unnatural oceans. Scientia Marina, 65(suppl. 2), 273–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H.et al. (2001). Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science, 293, 629–38CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jokiel, P. L. (1997). Temperature stress and coral bleaching. In Coral Health and Disease, eds. Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y., pp. 401–25. Berlin: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. P., McCormick, M. I., Srinivasan, M. and Eagle, J. V. (2004). Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 8251–3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, L. (1977). The three spot damselfish: effects on benthic biota of Caribbean coral reefs. Proceedings 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 559–64Google Scholar
Kaufman, L. (1981). There was biological disturbance on Pleistocene coral reefs. Paleobiology, 7, 527–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, L. (1983). Effects of Hurricane Allen on reef fish assemblages near Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Coral Reefs, 2, 43–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleypas, J. A., Buddemeier, R. W. and Gattuso, J.-P. (2001). The future of coral reefs in an age of global change. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau), 90, 426–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowlton, N. (1992). Thresholds and multiple stable states in coral reef community dynamics. American Zoologist, 32, 674–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowlton, N. (2001). The future of coral reefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 5419–25CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knowlton, N., Lang, J. C. and Keller, B. D. (1990). Case study of natural population collapse: post-hurricane predation on Jamaican staghorn corals. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 31, 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kojis, B. L. and Quinn, N. J. (1994). Biological limits to Caribbean reef recovery: a comparison with western South Pacific reefs. In Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History, compiled Ginsburg, R. N., pp. 353–9. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
Koslow, J. A., Hanley, F. and Wicklund, R. (1988). Effects of fishing on reef fish communities at Pedro Bank and Port Royal Cays, Jamaica. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 43, 201–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kramer, P. A. (2003). Synthesis of coral reef health indicators for the western Atlantic: results of the AGRRA Program (1997–2000). Atoll Research Bulletin, 496, 1–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kramer, P. R. (compiler) (2002). Report from the status and trends working group. In Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora Workshop: Potential Application of the US Endangered Species Act as a Conservation Strategy. Technical Memorandum NOAA–OPR-24, ed. Bruckner, A., pp. 28–37. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationGoogle Scholar
Kurlansky, M. (2003). Cod: Biography of the Fish that Changed the World. London: Penguin BooksGoogle Scholar
Lapointe, B. E. (1997). Nutrient thresholds for bottom–up control of macroalgal blooms on coral reefs in Jamaica and southeast Florida. Limnology and Oceanography, 42, 1119–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lapointe, B. E. (1999). Simultaneous top–down and bottom–up forces control macroalgal blooms on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 1586–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lapointe, B. E., Littler, M. M. and Littler, D. S. (1997). Macroalgal overgrowth of fringing coral reefs at Discovery Bay, Jamaica: bottom–up versus top–down control. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 927–32Google Scholar
Lessios, H. A. (1988). Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in the Caribbean: what have we learned?Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 19, 371–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessios, H. A., Robertson, D. R. and Cubit, J. D. (1984). Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science, 226, 335–7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lessios, H. A., Garrido, M. J. and Kessing, B. D. (2001). Demographic history of Diadema antillarum, a keystone herbivore on Caribbean reefs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 268, 2347–53CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levitan, D. R. (1988). Algal–urchin biomass responses following mass mortality of Diadema antillarum Philippi at Saint John, US Virgin Islands. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 119, 167–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitan, D. R. (1992). Community structure in times past: influence of human fishing pressure on algal–urchin interactions. Ecology, 73, 1597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liddell, W. D. and Ohlhorst, S. L. (1986). Changes in benthic community composition following the mass mortality of Diadema antillarum. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 95, 271–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liddell, W. D. and Ohlhorst, S. L. (1987). Patterns of reef community structure, north Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 40, 311–29Google Scholar
Liddell, W. D. and Ohlhorst, S. L. (1993). Ten years of disturbance and change on a Jamaican fringing reef. Proceedings 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 144–50Google Scholar
Liddell, W. D., Ohlhorst, S. L. and Coates, A. G. (1984). Modern and Ancient Carbonate Environments of Jamaica. X. Sedimenta. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
Littler, M. M., Taylor, P. R., Littler, D. S., Sims, R. H. and Norris, J. N. (1987). Dominant macrophyte standing stocks, productivity and community structure on a Belizean barrier reef. Atoll Research Bulletin, 302, 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lugo, A. E., Rogers, C. and Nixon, S. (2000). Hurricanes, coral reefs and rainforests: resistance, ruin and recovery in the Caribbean. Ambio, 29, 106–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClanahan, T. R. and Muthiga, N. A. (1988). Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure and function due to exploitation. Hydrobiologia, 166, 269–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClanahan, T. R. and Muthiga, N. A. (1998). An ecological shift among patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize over 25 years. Environmental Conservation, 25, 122–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClanahan, T. R., Aronson, R. B., Precht, W. F. and Muthiga, N. A. (1999). Fleshy algae dominate remote coral reefs of Belize. Coral Reefs, 18, 61–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClanahan, T. R., Cokos, B. A. and Sala, E. (2002). Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 441–51CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClanahan, T. R., Sala, E., Stickels, P. A.et al. (2003). Interaction between nutrients and herbivory in controlling algal communities and coral condition on Glover's Reef, Belize. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 261, 135–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClanahan, T. R., Sala, E., Mumby, P. J. and Jones, S. (2004). Phosphorous and nitrogen enrichment do not enhance brown frondose ‘macroalgae’. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 196–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCook, L. J., Jompa, J. and Diaz-Pulido, G. (2001a). Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs, 19, 400–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCook, L. J. Wolanski, E., and Spagnol, S. (2001b). Modeling and visualizing interactions between natural disturbances and eutrophication as causes of coral reef degradation. In Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs: Physical and Biological Links in the Great Barrier Reef, ed. Wolanski, E., pp. 113–25. Boca Raton, FL: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
McManus, J. W. and Polsenberg, J. F. (2004). Coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs: ecological and environmental aspects. Progress in Oceanography, 60, 263–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M. W., Hay, M. E., Miller, S. L.et al. (1999). Effects of nutrients versus herbivores on reef algae: a new method for manipulating nutrients on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 1847–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M. W. and Szmant, A. M. (2006). Lessons learned from experimental key-species restoration. In Reef Restoration Handbook: The Rehabilitation of an Ecosystem Under Siege, ed. Precht, W. F.. Boca Raton, FL: CRC PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, D. (1988). Comparing fish and urchin grazing in shallow and deeper coral reef algal communities. Ecology, 69, 1367–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller-Karger, F. E., McClain, C. R., Fisher, T. R., Esaias, W. E. and Varela, R. (1989). Pigment distribution in the Caribbean Sea: observations from space. Progress in Oceanography, 23, 23–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-Gonzalez, J. E.et al. (2004). Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature, 427, 533–6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munro, J. L. (ed.) (1983). Caribbean Coral Reef Fishery Resources. Manila: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources ManagementGoogle Scholar
Nyström, M., Folke, C. and Moberg, F. (2000). Coral reef disturbance and resilience in a human-dominated environment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 413–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogden, J. C. (1995). Coral reef decline in the Caribbean region. Proceedings of the 2nd European Regional Meeting of the International Society for Reef Studies, Publications de la Service Geologique du Luxembourg, 29, 224Google Scholar
Ostrander, G. K., Armstrong, K. M., Knobbe, E. T., Gerace, D. and Scully, E. P. (2000). Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community: the effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 5297–302CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paine, R. T., Tegner, M. J. and Johnson, E. A. (1998). Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises. Ecosystems, 1, 535–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palumbi, S. R. (2002). Marines Reserves: A Tool for Ecosystem Management and Conservation. Arlington, VA: Pew Oceans CommissionGoogle Scholar
Palumbi, S. R. (2005). Germ theory for ailing corals. Nature, 434, 713–14CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pandolfi, J. M. (1999). Response of Pleistocene coral reefs to environmental change over long temporal scales. American Zoologist, 39, 113–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandolfi, J. M. (2001). Pleistocene persistence and the recent decline in Caribbean coral communities. Paleobios, 21 (suppl. 2), 100Google Scholar
Pandolfi, J. M. (2002). Coral community dynamics at multiple scales. Coral Reefs, 21, 13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandolfi, J. M. and Jackson, J. B. C. (1997). The maintenance of diversity on coral reefs: examples from the fossil record. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 397–404Google Scholar
Pandolfi, J. M., Bradbury, R. H., Sala, E.et al. (2003). Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science, 301, 955–8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pandolfi, J. M., Jackson, J. B. C., Baron, N.et al. (2005). Are US coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime?Science, 307, 1725–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pauly, D. W., Christiansen, J., Dahsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. C. Jr (1998). Fishing down marine food webs. Science, 279, 860–3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pennings, S. C. (1997). Indirect interactions on coral reefs. In Life and Death of Coral Reefs, ed. Birkeland, C., pp. 249–72. New York: Chapman and HallCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, E. C. (1997). Diseases of coral reef organisms. In Life and Death of Coral Reefs, ed. Birkeland, C., pp. 114–39. New York: Chapman and HallCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, E. C., Yevich, P. P. and Oprandy, J. J. (1983). Possible causal agent of ‘white band disease’ in Caribbean acroporid corals. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 41, 394–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, E. C., Gassman, N. J., Firman, J. C., Richmond, R. H. and Power, E. A. (1997). Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16, 12–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petraitis, P. S. and Dudgeon, S. R. (2004). Detection of alternate stable states in marine communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 300, 343–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Podestá, G. P. and Glynn, P. W. (1997). Sea surface temperature variability in Panamá and Galápagos: extreme temperatures causing coral bleaching. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 15749–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, M. E., Tilman, D., Estes, J. A.et al. (1996). Challenges in the quest for keystones. BioScience, 46, 609–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Precht, W. F. (1990). Geologic and ecologic perspectives of catastrophic storms and disturbance on coral reefs: lessons from Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts, 22, A331Google Scholar
Precht, W. F. and Aronson, R. B. (2002). The demise of Acropora in the Caribbean: a tale of two reef systems. In Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora Workshop: Potential Application of the US Endangered Species Act as a Conservation Strategy, Technical Memorandum NOAA–OPR-24, ed. Bruckner, A., p. 147. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationGoogle Scholar
Precht, W. F. and Aronson, R. B. (2004). Climate flickers and range shifts of reef corals. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 307–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Precht, W. F. and Hoyt, W. H. (1991). Reef facies distribution patterns, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation, Rio Bueno, Jamaica, W. I. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 75, 656–7Google Scholar
Precht, W. F. and Miller, S. (2006). Ecological shifts along the Florida reef tract: the past as a key to the future. In Geological Approaches to Coral Reef Ecology, ed. Aronson., R. B.New York: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
Precht, W. F., Bruckner, A. W., Aronson, R. B. and Bruckner, R. J. (2002). Endangered acroporid corals of the Caribbean. Coral Reefs, 21, 41–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Precht, W. F., Robbart, M. L. and Aronson, R. B. (2004). The potential listing of Acropora species under the US Endangered Species Act. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 534–6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, L. L. (1998). Coral diseases: what is really known?Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 438–43CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, L. L. and Aronson, R. B. (2002). Infectious diseases of reef corals. Proceedings 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 1225–30Google Scholar
Risk, M. J. (1999). Paradise lost: how marine science failed the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research, 50, 831–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritchie, K. B. and Smith, G. W. (1998). Type II white-band disease. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 46(Suppl. 5), 199–203Google Scholar
River, G. F. and Edmunds, P. J. (2001). Mechanisms of interaction between macroalgae and scleractinians on a coral reef in Jamaica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 261, 159–72CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, C. M. (1995). Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology, 9, 988–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, C. M. (1997). Connectivity and management of Caribbean coral reefs. Science, 278, 1454–7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, D. R. (1991). Increases in surgeonfish populations after mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Panama indicate food limitation. Marine Biology, 111, 437–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, A. (1973). Natural vs. visitor-related damage to shallow water corals: recommendations for visitor management and the design of underwater nature trails in the Virgin Islands. National Park Service, Unpublished internal report, US Department of the Interior, St Thomas, US Virgin IslandsGoogle Scholar
Rogers, C. S. (2000). Is Acropora palmata (elkhorn coral) making a comeback in the Virgin Islands?Reef Encounter, 27, 15–17Google Scholar
Rogers, C. S. and Beets, J. (2001). Degradation of marine ecosystems and decline of fishery resources in marine protected areas in the US Virgin Islands. Environmental Conservation, 28, 312–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, C., Gladfelter, W., Hubbard, D. et al. (2002). Acropora in the US Virgin Islands: a wake or an awakening? In Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora Workshop: Potential Application of the US Endangered Species Act as a Conservation Strategy, Technical Memorandum NOAA–OPR-24, ed. Bruckner, A., pp. 95–118. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, E. and Ben-Haim, Y. (2002). Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environmental Microbiology, 4, 318–26CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rützler, K. and Macintyre, I. G. (1982). The habitat distribution and community structure of the barrier reef complex at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, vol. 1, Structure and Communities, eds. Rützler, K. and Macintyre, I. G., pp. 9–45. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press
Rylaarsdam, K. W. (1983). Life histories and abundance patterns of colonial corals on Jamaican reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 13, 249–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sala, E., Boudouresque, C. F. and Harmelin-Vivien, M. (1998). Fishing, trophic cascades, and the structure of algal assemblages: evaluation of an old but untested paradigm. Oikos, 83, 425–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sammarco, P. W. (1982). Echinoid grazing as a structuring force in coral communities: whole reef manipulations. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 61, 31–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sammarco, P. W., Levinton, J. S. and Ogden, J. C. (1974). Grazing and control of coral reef community structure by Diadema antillarum Philippi (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): a preliminary study. Journal of Marine Research, 32, 47–53Google Scholar
Santavy, D. L. and Peters, E. C. (1997). Microbial pests: coral diseases in the western Atlantic. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 607–12Google Scholar
Scheffer, M. and Carpenter, S. R. (2003). Catastrophic regime shifts in ecosystems: linking theory to observation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 648–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J. A., Folke, C. and Walker, B. (2001). Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature, 413, 591–6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sebens, K. P. (1994). Biodiversity of coral reefs: what are we losing and why?American Zoologist, 34, 115–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheppard, C. (1993). Coral reef environmental science: dichotomies, not the Cassandras, are false. Reef Encounter, 14, 12–13Google Scholar
Shinn, E. A. (1989). What is really killing the corals?Sea Frontiers, 35, 72–81Google Scholar
Shinn, E. A., Smith, G. W., Prospero, J. M.et al. (2000). African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3029–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simberloff, D. (1998). Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era?Biological Conservation, 83, 247–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobel, J. and Dahlgren, C. (2004). The cautionary tale of Caribbean reef decline. In Marine Reserves: A Guide to Science, Design, and Use, eds. Sobel, J. and Dahlgren, C., pp. 43–50. Washington, DC: Island PressGoogle Scholar
Steneck, R. S. (1994). Is herbivore loss more damaging to reefs than hurricanes? Case studies from two Caribbean reef systems. In Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History, compiled Ginsburg, R. N., pp. 220–6. Miami, FL: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
Steneck, R. S. (1998). Human influences on coastal ecosystems: does overfishing create trophic cascades?Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 429–30CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stokstad, E. (2001). Humans to blame for coral loss. Science, 293, 593Google Scholar
Sutherland, K. P., Porter, J. W. and Torres, C. (2004). Disease and immunity in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 266, 273–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szmant, A. M. (1997). Nutrient effects on coral reefs: a hypothesis on the importance of topographic and trophic complexity to reef nutrient dynamics. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 1527–32Google Scholar
Szmant, A. M. (2002). Nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: is it a major cause of coral reef decline?Estuaries, 25, 743–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tunnicliffe, V. (1981). Breakage and propagation of the stony coral Acropora cervicornis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 78, 2427–31CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tunnicliffe, V. (1983). Caribbean staghorn coral populations: pre-Hurricane Allen conditions in Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33, 132–51Google Scholar
Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P.et al. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389–95CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wapnick, C. M., Precht, W. F. and Aronson, R. B. (2004). Millennial-scale dynamics of staghorn coral in Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Ecology Letters, 7, 354–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, J. R. and Lafferty, K. D. (2004). The elusive baseline of marine diseases: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?Public Library of Science: Biology, 2, 542–7Google ScholarPubMed
Wellington, G. M., Glynn, P. W., Strong, A. E.et al. (2001). Crisis on coral reefs linked to climate change. Eos, 82, 1, 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, E. H. Jr and Bunkley-Williams, L. (1990). The world-wide coral reef bleaching cycle and related sources of coral mortality. Atoll Research Bulletin, 335, 1–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, I. D. and Polunin, N. V. C. (2001). Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs, 19, 358–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, I. D., Polunin, N. V. C. and Hendrick, V. J. (2001). Limits to grazing by herbivorous fishes and the impact of low coral cover on macroalgal abundance on a coral reef in Belize. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 222, 187–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wing, S. R. and Wing, E. S. (2001). Prehistoric fisheries in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs, 20, 1–8Google Scholar
Woodley, J. D. (1992). The incidence of hurricanes on the north coast of Jamaica since 1870: are the classic reef descriptions atypical?Hydrobiologia, 247, 133–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodley, J. D. and Sary, Z. (2002). Development of a locally managed fisheries reserve at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Proceedings 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 627–33Google Scholar
Woodley, J. D., Chornesky, E. A., Clifford, P. A.et al. (1981). Hurricane Allen's impact on Jamaican coral reefs. Science, 214, 749–55CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14
Cited by