Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-jbqgn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-15T19:32:07.200Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

1 - Theorizing the Governance of Higher Education

Beyond the ‘Republic of Scholars’ Ontology

from Part I - Theorizing Governance in Higher Education

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 November 2020

Giliberto Capano
Università degli Studi, Bologna, Italy
Darryl S. L. Jarvis
The University of Hong Kong
Get access


Scholarship on higher education has been dominated by organizational and functionalist literatures, leading to a ‘republic of scholars’ ontology which has denuded the prospects for theory development or explanatory models to account for the configuration and changing patterns of higher education governance. This chapter proposes three correctives to traditional analogical frameworks. First, abandoning standpoint-guildism perspectives and adopting political economy and market segmentation lenses of inquiry. Second, abandoning methods of enquiry that situate the locus of change in higher education governance in mechanistic institutional-group processes and instead adopting frameworks that focus on the sociology of goods, their classification, and value construction as central drivers in market stratification and coextensive processes of divergence and convergence. And third, adopting more analytically rigorous conceptions of convergence and governance to overcome what we view as a false empiricism – the tendency to conflate policy labels and political rhetoric with policy instruments and governance tools to produce over-inflated images of convergent higher-education governance trajectories.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Amaral, A., and Magalhães, A. (2013) Higher education research between policy and practice. In Kehm, B. M. and Musselin, C (Eds), The development of higher education research in Europe: 25 years of CHER (pp. 4359). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
Ball, S. J. (2010) Global education, heterarchies, and hybrid organizations. In Mok, K. H. (Ed.), The search for new governance in higher education in Asia (pp. 1328). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Becher, T. (1989) Academic tribes and territories: Intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines. Bristol: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Beckert, J., and Musselin, C. (2013) Introduction. In Beckert, J and Musselin, C (Eds), Constructing quality: The classification of goods in markets (pp. 128). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benavides, M., Arellano, A., and Zárate Vásquez, J. (2019) Market- and government-based higher education reforms in Latin America: The cases of Peru and Ecuador, 2008–2016. Higher Education, 77(6), 10151030. doi:10.1007/s10734-018-0317-3Google Scholar
Berger, S., and Dore, R. P. (1996) National diversity and global capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bevir, M. (2013) A theory of governance. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
Bevir, M., and Krupicka, B. (2011) On two types of governance theory. A response to B. Guy Peters. Critical Policy Studies, 5(4), 450453. doi:10.1080/19460171.2011.628069Google Scholar
Bladh, A. (2007) Institutional autonomy with increasing dependency on outside actors. Higher Education Policy, 20(3), 243259. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanco, I., Lowndes, V., and Pratchett, L. (2011) Policy networks and governance networks: Towards greater conceptual clarity. Political Studies Review, 9(3), 297308. doi:10.1111/j.1478-9302.2011.00239.xGoogle Scholar
Bleiklie, I., and Kogan, M. (2007). Organization and governance of universities. Higher Education Policy, 20, 477493. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300167Google Scholar
Bowey, A. (1976) The sociology of organisations. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
Brennan, J. (2007) On researching ourselves: The difficult case of autonomy in researching higher education. In Kayrooz, C, Akerlind, G, and Tight, M (Eds), Autonomy in social science university research: The view from the UK and Australian universities (pp. 167182). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Brennan, J. (2010) Burton Clark’s the higher education system: Academic organization in cross-national perspective. London Review of Education, 8(3), 229237. doi:10.1080/14748460.2010.515122Google Scholar
Brenner, N., Peck, J., and Theodore, N. (2010) Variegated neoliberalization: Geographies, modalities, pathways. Global Networks, 10(2), 182222. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2009.00277.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busch, P.-O., and Jörgens, H. (2005) The international sources of policy convergence: Explaining the spread of environmental policy innovations. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(5), 860884. doi:10.1080/13501760500161514Google Scholar
Cantwell, B., and Kauppinen, I. (2014) Academic capitalism in the age of globalization: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, X. (2012) Global networks and domestic policy convergence: A network explanation of policy changes. World Politics, 64(3), 375425. doi:10.1017/S0043887112000081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capano, G. (2011) Government continues to do its job: A comparative study of governance shifts in the higher education sector. Public Administration, 89(4), 16221642. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.2011.01936.xGoogle Scholar
Capano, G., Howlett, M., and Ramesh, M. (Eds). (2015) Varieties of governance: Dynamics, strategies, capacities. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Castells, M., and Cloete, N. (2017) Universities as dynamic systems of contradictory functions. In Muller, J (Ed.), Castells in Africa: Universities and development. (pp. 206223). Oxford: African Books Collective: African Books Collective.Google Scholar
Christaller, W., and Baskin, C. W. (1966) Central places in southern Germany. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Clark, B. R. (1983) The higher education system: Academic organization in cross-national perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Cloete, N. (2006) Transformation in higher education: Global pressures and local realities: Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
Croucher, G., and Woelert, P. (2016) Institutional isomorphism and the creation of the unified national system of higher education in Australia: An empirical analysis. Higher Education, 71(4), 439453. doi:10.1007/s10734-015-9914-6Google Scholar
Davis, J. (2016) The market oriented university transforming higher education. Northampton: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Deem, R. (2010) Globalisation, new managerialism, academic capitalism and entrepreneurialism in universities: Is the local dimension still important? Comparative Education, 37(1), 720. doi:10.1080/03050060020020408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deem, R., and Brehony, K. J. (2005) Management as ideology: The case of ‘new managerialism’ in higher education. Oxford Review of Education, 31(2), 217235. doi:10.1080/03054980500117827Google Scholar
Dill, D. (1997) Higher education markets and public policy. Higher Education Policy, 10(3/4), 167186.Google Scholar
Dill, D. (1998) Evaluating the ‘evaluative state’: Implications for research in higher education. European Journal of Education, 33(3), 361377.Google Scholar
Dill, D. (2014) Public policy design and university reform: Insights into academic change. In Musselin, C and Teixeira, P. N. (Eds), Reforming higher education: Public policy design and implementation (pp. 2137). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, P. J., and Powell, W. W. (1983) The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147160. doi:10.2307/2095101Google Scholar
Dobbins, M., Knill, C., and Vögtle, E. M. (2011) An analytical framework for the cross-country comparison of higher education governance. Higher Education, 62(5), 665683. doi:10.1007/s10734-011-9412-4Google Scholar
Donaldson, L. (2010) Organisational sociology. In Crothers, C (Ed.), Historical developments and theoretical approaches in sociology (Vol. II, pp. 3246). Oxford: EOLSS Publishers.Google Scholar
Douglass, J. A. (2009) Higher education’s new global order: How and why governments are creating structured opportunity markets. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.09. Scholar
Douglass, J. A. (2012) The rise of the for-profit sector in US higher education and the Brazilian effect. European Journal of Education, 47(2), 242259. doi:10.1111/j.1465-3435.2012.01521.xGoogle Scholar
Douglass, J. A., King, C. J., and Feller, I. (2009) A room with a view: Globalizations, universities, and the imperative of a broader US perspective. In Douglass, J. A., King, C. J., and Feller, I (Eds), Globalization’s muse: Universities and higher education systems in a changing world (pp. 114). Berkeley: Berkeley Public Policy Press.Google Scholar
EHEA. (n.d.) The Bologna Process: European Higher Education Arena (EHEA): Scholar
Eldridge, J. E. T. (1974) A sociology of organisations. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Elken, M. (2017) Standardization of (higher) education in Europe – policy coordination 2.0? Policy and Society, 36(1), 127142. doi:10.1080/14494035.2017.1278873Google Scholar
Enders, J. (2004) Higher education, internationalisation, and the nation-state: Recent developments and challenges to governance theory. Higher Education, 47(3), 361382. doi:10.1023/b:high.0000016461.98676.30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enders, J., de Boer, H., and Weyer, E. (2013) Regulatory autonomy and performance: The reform of higher education re-visited. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 65(1), 523. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9578-4Google Scholar
Enders, J., Kehm, B. M., and Schimank, U. (2015) Turning universities into actors on quasi-markets: How new public management reforms affect academic research. In Jansen, D and Pruisken, I (Eds), The changing governance of higher education and research: Multilevel perspectives (pp. 89103). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erkkilä, T., and Piironen, O. (2018) Rankings and global knowledge governance: Higher education, innovation and competitiveness. Cham: Springer, Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Espeland, W. N., and Sauder, M. (2012) The dynamism of indicators. In Davis, Kevin, Fisher, Angelina, Kingsbury, Benedict, and Engle Merry, Sally (Eds), Governance by indicators: Global power through quantification and rankings (pp. 86109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Espinoza, O. (2017) Paulo Freire’s ideas as an alternative to higher education neo-liberal reforms in Latin America. Journal of Moral Education, 46(4), 435448. doi:10.1080/03057240.2017.1363601Google Scholar
Etzioni, A. (1966) Studies in social change. New York/London: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
Fawcett, P., and Daugbjerg, C. (2012) Explaining governance outcomes: Epistemology, network governance and policy network analysis. Political Studies Review, 10(2), 195207. doi:10.1111/j.1478-9302.2012.00257.xGoogle Scholar
Fischer, F., and Mandell, A. (2018) The neo-liberal transformation of the university. Critical Policy Studies, 12(1), 103. doi:10.1080/19460171.2018.1441942Google Scholar
Fligstein, N. (2001). The architecture of markets: An economic sociology of twenty-first century capitalist societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fligstein, N., and Dauter, L. (2007) The sociology of markets. Annual Review of Sociology, 33(1), 105128. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freidson, E. (2001) Professionalism: The third logic. Cambridge: Polity Press; Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
Gachon, N. (2013) Model convergence and the global higher education market: The challenge to US exceptionalism. Dimensión empresarial, 11(1), 1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gipouloux, F. (2011) Gateways to globalisation: Asia’s international trading and finance centres. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Goedegebuure, L., and Van Vught, F. (1996) Comparative higher education studies: The perspective from the policy sciences. Higher Education, 32(4), 371394. doi:10.1007/BF00133253Google Scholar
Goldfinch, S., and Wallis, J. (2010) Two myths of convergence in public management reform. Public Administration, 88(4), 10991115.Google Scholar
Gornitzka, Å., and Stensaker, B. (2014) The dynamics of European regulatory regimes in higher education – challenged prerogatives and evolutionary change. Policy and Society, 33(3), 177188.Google Scholar
Gumport, P. J., and Snydman, S. K. (2006) Higher education evolving forms and emerging markets. In Powell, W. W. and Steinberg, R (Eds), The nonprofit sector (pp. 462484). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Hazelkorn, E. (2011) Rankings and the reshaping of higher education: The battle for world-class excellence. Houndmills; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Hazelkorn, E. (2014) Reflections on a decade of global rankings: What we’ve learned and outstanding issues. European Journal of Education, 49(1), 1228. doi:10.1111/ejed.12059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hazelkorn, E. (2017) Global rankings and the geopolitics of higher education: Understanding the influence and impact of rankings on higher education, policy and society. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Holzinger, K., and Knill, C. (2005) Causes and conditions of cross-national policy convergence. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(5), 775796. doi:10.1080/13501760500161357Google Scholar
Howlett, M., and Ramesh, M. (2002) The policy effects of internationalization: A subsystem adjustment analysis of policy change. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 4(1), 3150. doi:10.1023/A:1014971422239Google Scholar
Huang, Y., Pang, S.-K., and Yu, S. (2018) Academic identities and university faculty responses to new managerialist reforms: experiences from China. Studies in Higher Education, 43(1), 154172. doi:10.1080/03075079.2016.1157860Google Scholar
Jarvis, D. S. L. (2011) Race for the money: International financial centres in Asia. Journal of International Relations & Development, 14(1), 6095.Google Scholar
Jarvis, D. S. L. (2014) Policy transfer, neo-liberalism or coercive institutional isomorphism? Explaining the emergence of a regulatory regime for quality assurance in the Hong Kong higher education sector. Policy and Society, 33(3), 237257.Google Scholar
Jarvis, D. S. L. (2017) Exogeneity and convergence in policy formulation: Contested theories, approaches and perspectives. In Howlett, M and Mukherjee, I (Eds), Elgar handbook of policy formulation (pp. 394409). Cheshire: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Jarvis, D. S. L., and Mok, K. H. (2019) The political economy of higher education governance in Asia: Challenges, trends and trajectories. In Jarvis, D. S. L. and Mok, K. H. (Eds), Transformations in higher education governance in Asia: Policy, politics and progress (pp. 146). Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K. (2001) Globalization and the changing architecture of the state: The regulatory state and the politics of negative co-ordination. Journal of European Public Policy, 8(1), 101123.Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K. (2008) Regionalising the state: Political topography of regulatory regionalism. Contemporary Politics, 14(1), 2135. doi:10.1080/13569770801933270Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K. (2009) Learning by the market: Regulatory regionalism, Bologna, and accountability communities. Conference Papers – International Studies Association, New York, 15–19 February, 124.Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K. (2015a) Constituting market citizenship: Regulatory state, market making and higher education. Higher Education, 70(6), 113. doi:10.1007/s10734-015-9879-5Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K. (2015b) Transforming the public university: Market citizenship and higher education regulatory projects. In Thorton, M (Ed.), Through a glass darkly: The social sciences look at the neoliberal university (pp. 89102). Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
Jayasuriya, K., and Robertson, S. L. (2010) Regulatory regionalism and the governance of higher education. Globalisation, Societies & Education, 8(1), 16. doi:10.1080/14767720903573993Google Scholar
Jessop, B. (2017) Varieties of academic capitalism and entrepreneurial universities. Higher Education, 73(6), 853870. doi:10.1007/s10734-017-0120-6Google Scholar
Jessop, B. (2018) On academic capitalism. Critical Policy Studies, 12(1), 104109. doi:10.1080/19460171.2017.1403342Google Scholar
Jones, P. (2010) Cultural political economy and the international governance of education: A theoretical framework. International Perspectives on Education and Society, 12, 1956. doi:10.1108/S1479-3679(2010)0000012005Google Scholar
Kail, M. (2011) The university reform movement in France: A failure in terms of any immediate political effectiveness. L’Homme et la société, 178(4), 85119. doi:10.3917/lhs.178.art07Google Scholar
King, R. (2007) The regulatory state in an age of governance: Soft words and big sticks. Houndmills/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
King, R. (2009) Governing universities globally: Organizations, regulation and rankings. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
King, R. (2010) Policy internationalization, national variety and governance: Global models and network power in higher education states. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 60(6), 583594.Google Scholar
Knill, C. (2005) Introduction: Cross-national policy convergence: concepts, approaches and explanatory factors. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(5), 764774. doi:10.1080/13501760500161332Google Scholar
Kosmützky, A., and Krücken, G. (2014) Growth or steady state? A bibliometric focus on international comparative higher education research. Higher Education, 67(4), 457472. doi:10.1007/s10734-013-9694-9Google Scholar
Lapworth, S. (2004) Arresting decline in shared governance: Towards a flexible model for academic participation. Higher Education Quarterly, 58(4), 299314. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2273.2004.00275.xGoogle Scholar
Lie, J. (1997) Sociology of markets. Annual Review of Sociology, 23(1), 341360. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.23.1.341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucas, L. (2014) Academic resistance in the UK: Challenging quality assurance processes in higher education. Policy and Society, 33(3), 215224.Google Scholar
Magalhães, A., Veiga, A., Ribeiro, F. M., Sousa, S., and Santiago, R. (2013) Creating a common grammar for European higher education governance. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 65(1), 95112. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9583-7Google Scholar
Mandell, A. (2018) Tensions within the neoliberal university: Sources of change and hope. Critical Policy Studies, 12(1), 116120. doi:10.1080/19460171.2017.1403344Google Scholar
March, J. G., and Olsen, J. P. (1989) Rediscovering institutions. The organizational basis of politics. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
Marginson, S. (2007) Prospects of higher education: Globalization, market competition, public goods and the future of the university. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
Marginson, S. (2014) University rankings and social science. European Journal of Education, 49(1), 4559. doi:10.1111/ejed.12061Google Scholar
Marsh, D., and Sharman, J. C. (2009) Policy diffusion and policy transfer. Policy Studies, 30(3), 269288. doi:10.1080/01442870902863851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, G., Song, X., and Jayasuriya, K. (2017) The proletarianisation of academic labour in Australia. Higher Education Research and Development, 36(5), 10171030. doi:10.1080/07294360.2016.1263936Google Scholar
Miller, B. (2014) Free to manage? A neo-liberal defence of academic freedom in British higher education. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 36(2), 143154. doi:10.1080/1360080X.2013.861055Google Scholar
Mok, K.-H. (2010) The search for new governance of higher education in Asia (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Mok, K. H., and Cheung, A. B. L. (2011) Global aspirations and strategising for world-class status: New form of politics in higher education governance in Hong Kong. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 33(3), 231251. doi:10.1080/1360080X.2011.564998Google Scholar
Morrissey, J. (2013) Governing the academic subject: Foucault, governmentality and the performing university. Oxford Review of Education, 39(6), 797810. doi:10.1080/03054985.2013.860891Google Scholar
Musselin, C. (2010) Universities and pricing on higher education markets. In Mattheou, D (Ed.), Changing educational landscapes: Educational policies, schooling systems and higher education – a comparative perspective (pp. 7590), Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
Musselin, C. (2012) Redefinition of the relationships between academics and their university. Higher Education, 65(1), 2537. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9579-3Google Scholar
Musselin, C. (2014) Research issues and institutional prospects for higher education studies. Studies in Higher Education, 39(8), 13691380. doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.950449Google Scholar
Neal, Z. P. (2008) From central places to network bases: A transition in the US urban hierarchy, 1900–2000. GaWC Research Bulletin 267: Scholar
Nelson, A. R. (2013) Regionalisation and internationalisation in higher education and development: A historical perspective, c. 1950–1970. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 35(3), 238248. doi:10.1080/1360080X.2013.786858Google Scholar
Öberg, S. A., and Bringselius, L. (2014) Professionalism and organizational performance in the wake of new managerialism. European Political Science Review, 7(4), 499523. doi:10.1017/S1755773914000307Google Scholar
Obinger, H., Schmitt, C., and Starke, P. (2013) Policy diffusion and policy transfer in comparative welfare state research. Social Policy and Administration, 47(1), 111129. doi:10.1111/spol.12003Google Scholar
OECD (2019) Spending on tertiary education (indicator). doi:10.1787/a3523185-en. Scholar
Olsen, J. P. (2007) The institutional dynamics of the European university. In Maassen, P and Olsen, J. P. (Eds), University dynamics and European integration (pp. 2554). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
Parreira Do Amaral, M. (2010) Regime theory and educational governance: The emergence of an international education regime. International Perspectives on Education and Society, 12, 5778. doi:10.1108/S1479-3679(2010)0000012006Google Scholar
Peck, J. (2011) Geographies of policy: From transfer-diffusion to mobility-mutation. Progress in Human Geography, 35(6), 773797. doi:10.1177/0309132510394010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peck, J., and Theodore, N. (2015) Geographies of policy. In Peck, J and Theodore, N (Eds), Fast policy (pp. 329). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Peters, B. G. (2001) Institutional theory in political science: The new institutionalism. London and New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Peters, B. G. (2011) Governance as political theory. Critical Policy Studies, 5(1), 6372. doi:10.1080/19460171.2011.555683Google Scholar
Peters, B. G. (2012) Institutional theory in political science: The new institutionalism (3rd ed.). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Pilkington, M. (2014) Converging higher education systems in a global setting: The example of France and India. European Journal of Education, 49(1), 113126. doi:10.1111/ejed.12057Google Scholar
Pollitt, C. (2001) Convergence: The useful myth? Public Administration, 79(4), 933947. doi:10.1111/1467-9299.00287Google Scholar
Provini, O. (2018) Negotiating higher education policies in East Africa: Experiences from Tanzania and Kenya. Higher Education, 77, 323342.Google Scholar
Pusser, B. (2015) A critical approach to power in higher education. In Martínez-Alemán, A. M., Pusser, B, and Bensimon, E. M. (Eds), Critical approaches to the study of higher education: A practical introduction (pp. 5979). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1999) A theory of justice (Rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Belknap; Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Reed, M. (2002) New managerialism, professional power and organisational governance in UK universities: A review and assessment. In Amaral, A, Jones, G. A., and Karseth, B (Eds), Governing higher education: National perspectives on institutional governance (pp. 163186). Dordrecht: Kluwer Press.Google Scholar
Rip, A., and Kulati, T. (2015) Multilevel dynamics in universities in changing research landscapes. In Jansen, D and Pruisken, I (Eds), The changing governance of higher education and research: Multilevel perspectives (pp. 105115). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
Robertson, S. L. (2010) The EU, ‘regulatory state regionalism’ and new modes of higher education governance. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 8(1), 2337. doi:10.1080/14767720903574033Google Scholar
Robertson, S. L., Olds, K., Dang, Q. A., and Dale, R. (2016) Global regionalisms and higher education: Projects, processes, politics. Northampton: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Sam, C., and Sijde, P. (2014) Understanding the concept of the entrepreneurial university from the perspective of higher education models. Higher Education, 68(6), 891908. doi:10.1007/s10734-014-9750-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandel, M. J. (2012) What money can’t buy: The moral limits of markets. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
Shahjahan, R. A., and Kezar, A. J. (2013) Beyond the ‘national container’: Addressing methodological nationalism in higher education research. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 2029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silverman, D. (1970) Theory of organisations: A sociological framework. London: Heinemann Educational.Google Scholar
Slaughter, S., and Leslie, L. L. (1997) Academic capitalism: Politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Slaughter, S., and Rhoades, G. (2004) Academic capitalism and the new economy: Markets, state, and higher education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Smeenk, S., Teelken, C., Eisinga, R., and Doorewaard, H. (2009) Managerialism, organizational commitment, and quality of job performances among European university employees. Research in Higher Education, 50(6), 589607. doi:10.1007/s11162-009-9132-0Google Scholar
Sultana, R. G. (2012) Higher education governance: A critical mapping of key themes and issues. European Journal of Higher Education, 2(4), 345369. doi:10.1080/21568235.2012.719672Google Scholar
Taylor, B. J., Webber, K. L., and Jacobs, G. J. (2013) Institutional research in light of internationalization, growth, and competition. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2013(157), 522. doi:10.1002/ir.20036Google Scholar
Teichler, U. (1996) Comparative higher education: Potentials and limits. Higher Education, 32(4), 431465. doi:10.1007/BF00133257Google Scholar
Teichler, U. (2014) Opportunities and problems of comparative higher education research: The daily life of research. Higher Education, 67(4), 393408. doi:10.1007/s10734-013-9682-0Google Scholar
Thorkelson, E. (2019) A campus fractured: Neoliberalization and the clash of academic democracies in France. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 50(1), 97113. doi:10.1111/aeq.12279Google Scholar
Tollefson, C., Zito, A. R., and Gale, F. (2012) Symposium overview: Conceptualizing new governance arrangements. Public Administration, 90(1), 318. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.2011.02003.xGoogle Scholar
Treib, O., Bähr, H., and Falkner, G. (2007) Modes of governance: Towards a conceptual clarification. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(1), 120. doi:10.1080/135017606061071406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voegelin, E. (2003) The theory of governance and other miscellaneous papers, 1921–1938. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.Google Scholar
Waks, L. J. (2007) In the shadow of the Runis: Globalisation and the rise of corporate universities. In Marginson, S (Ed.), Prospects for higher education: Globalisation, market competition, public goods and the future of the university (pp. 101120). Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
Welch, A. (2017) Higher education and the developmental state: The view from the East and South East Asia. In Carroll, T and Jarvis, D. S. L. (Eds), Asia after the developmental state: Disembedding autonomy (pp. 359387). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Westerheijden, D. F. (2018) University governance in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Japan: Autonomy and shared governance after new public management reforms. Nagoya Journal of Higher Education, 18, 199220.Google Scholar
Williams, G. (2010) Perspectives on higher education after a quarter of a century. London Review of Education, 8(3), 239249. doi:10.1080/14748460.2010.515123Google Scholar
Wiseman, A. W., Pilton, J., and Lowe, J. C. (2010) International educational governance models and national policy convergence. International Perspectives on Education and Society, 12, 318. doi:10.1108/S1479-3679(2010)0000012004Google Scholar
Woo, J. J. (2016) Singapore as an international financial centre: History, policy and politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O., Shavelson, R. J., and Kuhn, C. (2015) The international state of research on measurement of competency in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 40(3), 393411. doi:10.1080/03075079.2015.1004241Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats