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Section 1 - Left-to-Right Shunts

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 September 2021

Laura K. Berenstain
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
James P. Spaeth
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
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Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia
A Case-based Approach
, pp. 9 - 32
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

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Suggested Reading

Abdulhai, S. A., Glenn, I. C., and Ponsky, T. A. Incarcerated pediatric hernias. Surg Clin North Am 2017; 97: 129–45.
Corno, A. F. and Festa, P. Ventricular septal defect. In Congenital Heart Defects: Decision Making for Cardiac Surgery. Volume 3: CT Scan and MRI. Heidelberg: Steinkopff, 2003; 4955.
Latham, G. J. and Yung, D. Current understanding and perioperative management of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Anesth 2019; 29: 441–56.
Minette, M. S. and Sahn, D. J. Ventricular septal defects. Circulation 2006; 114: 2190–7.
Rosenthal, D. N. and Hammer, G. B. Cardiomyopathy and heart failure in children: anesthetic implications. Pediatr Anesth 2011; 21: 577–84.
Taylor, D. and Habre, W. Risk associated with anesthesia for noncardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease. Pediatr Anesth 2019; 29: 426–34.

Suggested Reading

Aoki, M., Forbess, J. M., Jonas, R. A., et al. Results of biventricular repair for double-outlet right ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 107: 338–49.
Kotwani, M., Rayaburg, V., and Tendolkar, B. A. Anaesthetic management in a patient of uncorrected double outlet right ventricle for emergency surgery. Indian J Anaesth 2017; 61: 87–8.
Spaeth, J. P. Perioperative management of DORV. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2014; 18: 281–9.
Walters, H. L., Mavroudis, C., Tchervenkov, C. I., et al. Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project: double outlet right ventricle. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69: S249–63.

Suggested Reading

Calkoen, E. E., Hazekamp, M. G., Blom, N. A., et al. Atrioventricular septal defect: from embryonic development to long-term follow-up. Int J Cardiol 2016; 202: 784–95.
Davey, B. T. and Rychik, J. The natural history of atrioventricular valve regurgitation throughout fetal life in patients with atrioventricular canal defects. Pediatr Cardiol 2016; 37: 50–4.
Krupickova, S., Morgan, G. J., Cheang, M. H., et al. Symptomatic partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defect repaired in infancy. Heart 2018; 104: 1411–16.
Mery, C. M., Zea-Vera, R., Chacon-Portillo, M. A., et al. Contemporary results after repair of partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019; 157: 1117–27.
Ross, F. J., Nasr, V. G., Joffe, D., et al. Perioperative and anesthetic considerations in atrioventricular septal defect. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2017; 21: 221–8.
Tishler, B., Gauvreau, K., Colan, S. D., et al. Technical performance score predicts partial/transitional atrioventricular septal defect outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg 2018; 105: 1461–8.


Owens, G. E., Gomez-Fifer, C., Gelehrter, S., et al. Outcomes for patients with unbalanced atrioventricular septal defects. Pediatr Cardiol 2009; 30: 431–5.
Craig, B. Atrioventricular septal defect: from fetus to adult. Heart 2006; 48: 1879–85.

Suggested Reading

Backer, C. L. and Mavroudis, C. Atrioventricular canal defects. In Mavroudis, C., and Backer, C. L., eds., Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2013; 342–60.
Cetta, F., Minich, L. L., Maleszewski, J. J., et al. Atrioventricular septal defects. In Allen, H., Driscoll, D. J., Shaddy, R. E., et al. eds. Moss and Adams’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013; 691712.
Mitchell, M. E., Litwin, S. B., and Tweddell, J. S. Complex atrioventricular canal. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Ann 2007; 10: 3241.
Nicolson, S. C., Steven, J. M., Diaz, L. K., et al. Anesthesia for the patient with a single ventricle. In Andropoulos, D. B., Stayer, S., Mossad, E. B. et al. eds. Anesthesia for Congenital Heart Disease, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015; 567–97.
Sassalos, P., Si, M. S., Ohye, R. G., et al. Atrioventricular septal defects. In Ungerleider, R. M., Meliones, J. N., McMillan, K. N., et al. eds. Critical Heart Disease in Infants and Children, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Mosby Elsevier, 2019; 606–14.

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