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3 - Displacement, Conflict, and HLP Rights

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2011

Scott Leckie
Affiliation:
Displacement Solutions, Geneva
Chris Huggins
Affiliation:
Land Conflict Research, Ottawa
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Summary

POPULATION DISPLACEMENT: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

Population displacement, especially that caused by conflict, is by no means a new phenomenon. History, including holy books such as the Bible and the Koran, are replete with examples of forced displacement during wartime. It has been argued, however, that the nineteenth century saw a massive increase in the numbers of people displaced around the world, in part because of innovations in technology: improvements in both means of transport and the machinery of war.

World War I led to the displacement and migration of some 10 million people, some 10 million Germans were expelled from Central and Eastern Europe in the years following World War II, and 15 million people moved as a result of the Partition of India in 1946. According to some estimates, the total number of people internally displaced globally was relatively low during the 1960s but increased significantly during the 1970s, before rising exponentially during the 1980s. However, the data should be treated with caution, because internal displacement in particular was not comprehensively monitored or studied until relatively recently.

The increase in population displacement during the 1970s and particularly the 1980s was caused, to a degree, by the proliferation of civil conflicts related to the Cold War. The Vietnam war led to massive internal displacement during the 1970s, and the people of neighboring Cambodia also suffered major displacement.

Type
Chapter
Information
Conflict and Housing, Land and Property Rights
A Handbook on Issues, Frameworks and Solutions
, pp. 92 - 120
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

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References

Fitzpatrick, Daniel (2007) Addressing Land Issues after Natural Disasters, UN-HABITAT.Google Scholar
Lewis, Daniel (2004) “Challenges to Sustainable Peace: Land Disputes Following Conflict,” Symposium on Land Administration in Post Conflict Areas, UN-Habitat.Google Scholar
Robinson, Courtland (2003) Risks and Rights: The Causes, Consequences, and Challenges of Development-Induced Displacement, Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Sahel, and Club, West Africa (2007) Land, Agricultural Change and Conflict in West Africa: Regional Issues from Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cote D'Ivoire.
South, Ashley (2007) Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma, COHRE.Google Scholar
,UN Habitat (2007) Handbook on Land Administration and Post Conflict Peacebuilding: From Emergency to Reconstruction, UN Habitat.Google Scholar
,USAID (2004) Land & Conflict – A Toolkit for Intervention, USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation.Google Scholar

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