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Chapter Five - Cross-Linguistic Effects of Bilingualism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2023

John W. Schwieter
Affiliation:
Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario
Julia Festman
Affiliation:
University College of Teacher Education Tyrol
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Summary

For bilinguals, the use and knowledge of one language affects how they process the other. Various cross-linguistic influences (CLI) can be observed in both language production and comprehension across all domains of linguistics. We start by broadly exploring the concept of transfer, both negative and positive, and forward and reverse. In doing so, we identify various classifications of CLI. Following this, we review key studies on phonological, lexical, morphological, and syntactic transfer along with other types such as discursive, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic. We find that there are a number of factors that can determine the degree to which transfer emerges or whether it happens at all. We then review studies investigating the ability to switch between the two language systems. In doing so, we look at theoretical models that explain what facilitates language switching and what empirical studies tell us about the neural and electrophysiological activity that arises in language switching. Finally, we discuss dreaming and bilingualism and argue that dreaming in an L2, contrary to popular belief, does not necessarily imply fluency in that language.

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Chapter
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

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References

Further Reading

Elgort, I., Siyanova-Chanturia, A., & Brysbaert, M. (Eds.). (2023). Cross-language influences in bilingual processing and second language acquisition. Benjamins.Google Scholar
Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A. (2008). Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. Routledge.Google Scholar
Schwieter, J. W. (Ed.). (2015). The Cambridge handbook of bilingual processing. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tokowicz, A. (2015). Lexical processing and second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

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