Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-z5d2w Total loading time: 0.407 Render date: 2021-12-04T15:57:21.917Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

24 - Gender identity disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 August 2009

Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
Affiliation:
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Christopher Gillberg
Affiliation:
Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden
Richard Harrington
Affiliation:
University of Manchester
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
Affiliation:
Universität Zürich
Get access

Summary

Gender identity disorder: general aspects

Introduction

A newborn does not yet have self-awareness of his or her sex and gender. Such self-awareness evolves gradually in early childhood. Children learn to make consistent and systematic use of genital information as a criterion for the classification of their own and other's sex. Interestingly, long before they do so, they appear to have knowledge about gender stereotypes and display either female or male gender role behaviour. Toy and game preferences as well as preferences for same-sex peers are expressed much earlier than a complete understanding of the various aspects of gender is reached.

Nature as well as nurture play important parts in the shaping of gender role behaviour. Adults and children influence gender development directly by reinforcing or discouraging sex-typed behaviours and indirectly by offering role models. However, from animal and human research, it has been found that sex hormones also play a significant role in the development of sex-typed behaviour and characteristics.

In most cases, sex, gender identity and gender role usually develop in accordance with each other. Sometimes a discrepancy exists between gender identity and role, and biological sex. Parents or children who are confronted with such a divergence often seek professional help. Because the issues in the management of gender identity problems are very different when dealing with children than when dealing with adolescents we will discuss the clinical management of both age groups separately.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

, P. T. Cohen-Kettenis & , F. Pfafflin, Making Choices. Transgenderism and intersexuality in childhood and adolescence. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003).
Coolidge, F. L., Thede, L. & Young, S. E., The heritability of gender identity disorder in a child and adolescent twin sample. Behaviour Genetics, 32 (2002), 251–7.Google Scholar
, D. Di Ceglie & , D. Freedman (eds.), A Stranger in my own Body. Atypical Gender Identity Development and Mental Health. (London: Karnac Books, 1998).
, D. Di Ceglie, , C. Sturge & , A. Sutton, Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Guidelines for Management. Council Report CR63. (London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, 1998).
, S. Golombok & , R. Fivush, Gender Development. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
, R. Green, The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the Development of Homosexuality. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
, G. Herdt, Third Sex, Third Gender. Beyond the Dimorphism in Culture and History. (New York: Zone Books, 1994).
W. Meyer (Chairperson), W. O. Bockting, P. T. Cohen-Kettenis et al., Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders of The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA), Sixth Version. International Journal of Transgenderism, 5 (2001), http://www.symposion.com/ijt/soc_2001/index/htm.
, M. Rottnek (ed.), Sissies and Tomboys. Gender Noncomformity and Homosexual Childhood. (New York: New York University Press, 1999).
Wren, B., Early physical intervention for young people with atypical gender identity development. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5 (2000), 220–31.Google Scholar
, K. J. Zucker & , S. J. Bradley, Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. (New York, London: Guilford Press, 1995).

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×