Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-hr8xl Total loading time: 0.343 Render date: 2022-01-21T16:00:47.787Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

5 - Anxiety disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 August 2009

Laura D. Seligman
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA Department of Psychology University of Toledo, OH, USA
Christopher Gillberg
Affiliation:
Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden
Richard Harrington
Affiliation:
University of Manchester
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
Affiliation:
Universität Zürich
Get access

Summary

Introduction

The anxiety disorders constitute a broad spectrum of syndromes ranging from very circumscribed anxiety to pervasive, sometimes ‘free-floating’ anxiety or worry. As such, they are the most common group of psychiatric illnesses in children and adolescents (as well as adults). With the most recent editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; APA, 1994) and, similarly, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10; WHO, 1992), the symptoms of children, adolescents and adults can be categorized by eight major but separate diagnostic syndromes associated with anxiety: panic disorder with agoraphobia, panic disorder without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.

Additionally, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 specify one anxiety disorder specific only to childhood: separation anxiety disorder. Earlier versions of the DSM included two additional anxiety diagnoses specific to childhood, namely avoidant disorder and overanxious disorder. In the most recent revision, however, avoidant disorder and overanxious disorder have been subsumed under the categories of social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. Considerable evidence suggests that avoidant disorder and overanxious disorder are not distinct syndromes nor sufficiently different from their adult counterparts to merit separate diagnostic categories. For example, it has been shown that children and adolescents with avoidant disorder are no different from those with social phobia on a variety of sociodemographic variables including race, socioeconomic status or age at intake.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (1997), 69–84.
Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M. & Perwein, A. R., Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996), 1110–19.Google Scholar
Birmaher, B., Axelson, D. A., , K. Monket al., Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (2003), 415–23.Google Scholar
Chambless, D. L. & Ollendick, T. H., Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology 52 (2001), 685–716.Google Scholar
Grills, A. E. & Ollendick, T. H., Multiple informant agreement and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule of Parents and Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (2003), 30–40.Google Scholar
King, N. J., Tonge, B. J., Heyne, D.et al., Cognitive–behavioral treatment of school refusing children: a controlled evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37 (1998), 395–403.Google Scholar
Last, C. G., Hansen, C. & Franco, N., Anxious children in adulthood: a prospective study of adjustment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (1997), 645–52.Google Scholar
, S. G. Mattis & , T. H. Ollendick, Panic Disorder and Anxiety in Adolescence. (Oxford: British Psychological Society, 2002).
Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Ollendick, T. H., King, N. J. & Bogie, N., Three traditional and three new childhood anxiety questionnaires: their reliability and validity in a normal adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy 40 (2002), 753–72.Google Scholar
, T. H. Ollendick & , J. A. Cerny, Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children. (New York: Plenum Press, 1981).
Ollendick, T. H. & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry 51 (2002), 44–58.Google Scholar
, T. H. Ollendick & , J. S. March (eds.), Phobic and Anxiety Disorders: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Ollendick, T. H., Grills, A. E. & King, N. J., Applying developmental theory to the assessment and treatment of childhood disorders: Does it make a difference?Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 8 (2001), 304–15.Google Scholar
Ollendick, T. H., King, N. J. & Muris, P., Fears and phobias in children: phenomenology, epidemiology, and aetiology. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 7 (2002), 98–106.Google Scholar
Prins, P. M. J. & Ollendick, T. H., Cognitive change and enhanced coping: missing mediational links in cognitive behavior therapy with anxiety-disordered children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6 (2003), 87–105.Google Scholar
Rynn, M. A., Siqueland, A. L. & Rickels, K., Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of children with GAD. American Journal of Psychiatry 158 (2001), 2008–14.Google Scholar
RUPP Anxiety Study Group. Fluovoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001), 1279–85.
L. D. Seligman & T. H. Ollendick, Anxiety disorders. In , H. C. Steinhauser & , F. Verhulst (eds.), Risks and Outcomes in Developmental Psychopathology. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 103–20.
Seligman, L. D. & Ollendick, T. H., Co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: an integrative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 1 (1998), 125–44.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×