Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 November 2022
Over the past decade, there have been massive developments in web-based and internet technologies, along with the introduction of smartphones. Smartphones represent a new generation of mobile technology that has fundamentally changed telecommunications (Abboudi and Amin 2011). They are equipped with immense computing capabilities that allow constant access to the internet and they enable more than just voice- and text-based communication. Smartphones are generally regarded as handheld computers rather than merely mobile telephones (Abboudi and Amin 2011). The release of Apple’s iPhone in 2007 most likely sparked a revolution in the telecommunications and information technology arena. The launch of the Apple App Store in July 2008 is also regarded as a pivotal moment in the advancement of smartphone technologies (Payne et al. 2012). The store enables users to download smartphone-based applications (apps) – computer programs that give smartphones capabilities and functions beyond accessing the internet.