Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-28T14:01:16.254Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 29 - Hypovolemic shock

from Section 4 - The clinical setting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2016

Robert G. Hahn
Linköpings Universitet, Sweden
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Barcroft, H, Edholm, OG, McMichael, J, Sharpey-Schafer, EF. Posthaemorrhagic fainting; study by cardiac output and forearm flow. Lancet 1944; 1: 489–91.Google Scholar
Gordh, T. Postural circulatory and respiratory changes during ether and intravenous anesthesia. Acta Chir Scand 1945; Suppl. 92.Google Scholar
Jenstrup, M, Ejlersen, E, Mogensen, T, Secher, NH. A maximal central venous oxygen saturation (SvO2max) for the surgical patient. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995; 39 (Suppl. 107): 2932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, Jørgensen, CC, Secher, NH, Kehlet, H. Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 464–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, Secher, NH, Kehlet, H. “Liberal” vs. “restrictive” perioperative fluid therapy – a critical assessment of the evidence. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53: 843–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cushing, HW. On routine determination of arterial tension in operating room and clinic. Boston Med Surg J 1903; 148: 250–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schadt, JC, Ludbrook, J. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to acute hypovolaemia in conscious animals. Am J Physiol 1991; 260: H305–18.Google Scholar
Krantz, T, Laurizen, T, Cai, Y, Warberg, J, Secher, NH. Accurate monitoring of a blood loss: thoracic electrical impedance during haemorrhage in the pig. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44: 598604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perko, M, Jarnvig, IL, Højgaard-Rasmussen, N, Eliasen, K, Arendrup, H. Electric impedance for evaluation of body fluid balance in cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001; 15: 44–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beecher, HK. Resuscitation and Anesthesia for Wounded Men. The Management of Traumatic Shock. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas, 1949.Google Scholar
Wiggers, CJ. Physiology of Shock. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1950.Google Scholar
Secher, NH, Pawelczyk, JA, Ludbrook, J (eds.) Blood Loss and Shock. London: Edward Arnold, 1994.Google Scholar
Secher, NH, Jacobsen, J, Friedman, DB, Matzen, S. Bradycardia during reversible hypovolaemic shock: associated neural reflex mechanisms and clinical implications. Clin Exp Pharm Physiol 1992; 19: 733–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brøndum, E, Hasenkam, JM, Secher, NH, et al. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetised giraffe. Am J Physiol 2009; 297: R1058–65.Google Scholar
Pedersen, M, Madsen, P, Klokker, M, Olesen, HL, Secher, NH. Sympathetic influence on cardiovascular responses to sustained head-up tilt in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1995; 155: 435–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murrell, C, Cotter, JD, George, K, et al. Influence of age on syncope following prolonged exercise: differential responses but similar orthostatic intolerance. J Physiol 2009; 587: 5959–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, RH, Thomson, LJ, Bowers, JA, Albreight, CD. Hemodynamic effects of graded vasodepressor syncope induced by lower body negative pressure. Am Heart J 1968; 76: 799811.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sander-Jensen, K, Secher, NH, Astrup, A, et al. Hypotension induced by passive head-up tilt: endocrine and circulatory mechanisms. Am J Physiol 1986; 251: R742–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Jacobsen, TN, Jost, CMT, Converse, RL, Victor, RG. Cardiovascular sensors: the bradycardic phase in hypovolaemic shock. In: Secher, NH, Pawelczyk, JA, Ludbrook, J. Blood Loss and Shock, eds. London: Edward Arnold, 1994: 310.Google Scholar
Matzen, S, Secher, NH, Knigge, U, Bach, FW, Warberg, J. Pituitary-adrenal responses to head-up tilt in humans: effect of H1- and H2- receptor blockade. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: R156–63.Google ScholarPubMed
Sander-Jensen, K, Secher, NH, Bie, P, Warberg, J, Schwartz, TW. Vagal slowing of the heart during haemorrhage: observations from 20 consecutive hypotensive patients. Br Med J 1986; 292: 364–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mair, RV. Hypovolemic shock. In: Fauci, AS, Braunwald, E, Kasper, DL, et al., eds. Harrison's Online. 17th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.Google Scholar
Secher, NH, Bie, P. Bradycardia during reversible haemorrhagic shock – a forgotten observation? Clin Physiol 1985; 5: 315–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guarini, S, Cainazzo, MM, Giuliani, D, et al. Adrenocorticotropin reverses hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized rats through the rapid activation of a vagal anti-inflammatory pathway. Cardiovasc Res 2004; 63: 357–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sawdon, M, Ohnishi, M, Little, RA, Kirkman, E. Naloxone does not inhibit the injury-induced attenuation of the response to severe haemorrhage in the anaesthetized rat. Exp Physiol 2009; 94: 641–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsen, J, Hansen, OB, Sztuk, F, Warberg, J, Secher, NH. Enhanced heart rate response to haemorrhage by ileus in the pig. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 149: 293301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ogoh, S, Volianitis, S, Raven, PB, Secher, NH. Carotid baroreflex function ceases during vasovagal syncope. Clin Auton Res 2004; 14: 30–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bie, P, Secher, NH, Astrup, A, Warberg, J. Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to head-up tilt and vasopressin infusion in man. Am J Physiol 1986; 251: R735–41.Google Scholar
Sander-Jensen, K, Secher, NH, Astrup, A, et al. Angiotensin II attenuates reflex decrease in heart rate and sympathetic activity in man. Clin Physiol 1988; 8: 3140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abrahamsson, H, Thorén, P. Vomiting and reflex vagal relaxation of the stomach elicited from heart receptors in the cat. Acta Physiol Scand 1973; 88: 822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, Holte, K, Secher, NH, Kehlet, H. Monitoring of perioperative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51: 331–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Öberg, B, White, S. The role of vagal cardiac nerves and arterial baroreceptors in the circulatory adjustments to hemorrhage in the cat. Acta Physiol Scand 1970; 80: 395403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobsen, J, Søfelt, S, Fernandes, A, et al. Reduced left ventricular size at onset of bradycardia during epidural anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992; 36: 831–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morita, H, Vatner, SF. Effects of hemorrhage on renal nerve activity in conscious dogs. Circ Res 1985; 57: 788–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobsen, J, Secher, NH. Heart rate during haemorrhagic shock. Clin Physiol 1992; 12: 659–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matzen, S, Perko, GE, Groth, S, Friedman, DB, Secher, NH. Blood volume distribution during head-up tilt induced central hypovolaemia in man. Clin Physiol 1991; 11: 411–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Lieshout, JJ, Harms, MPM, Pott, F, Jenstrup, M, Secher, NH. Stroke volume and central vascular pressures during tilt in humans. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49: 1287–92.Google ScholarPubMed
Marik, PE, Baram, M, Vahid, B. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systemic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares. Chest 2008; 134: 172–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thys, DM, Hillel, Z, Goldman, ME, Mindich, BP, Kapland, JA. A comparison of hemodynamic indices derived by invasive monitoring and two-dimensional echocardiography. Anesthesiology 1987; 67: 630–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Lieshout, JJ, Wieling, W, Karemaker, JM, Secher, NH. Syncope, cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 833–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jans, Ø, Tollund, C, Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, et al. Goal-directed fluid therapy: stroke volume optimization and cardiac dimensions in healthy humans. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 536–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, Sørensen, H, Dalsgaard, M, Rasmussen, P, Secher, NH. Relationship between stroke volume, cardiac output and filling of the heart during tilt. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53: 1324–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M, Jørgensen, CC, Kehlet, H, Secher, NH. Normovolaemia defined according to cardiac stroke volume in healthy supine humans. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2010; 30: 318–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Secher, NH, Volianitis, S. Are the arms and legs in competition for cardiac output? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 1797–803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nissen, P, Pacino, H, Frederiksen, HJ, Novovic, S, Secher, NH. Near-infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of cerebral autoregulation during orthotopic liver transplantation. Neurocrit Care 2009; 11: 235–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murkin, JM, Adams, SJ, Novick, RJ, et al. Monitoring brain oxygen saturation during coronary bypass surgery: a randomized, prospective study. Anesth Analg 2007; 104: 51–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murkin, JM, Arango, M. Near-infrared spectroscopy as index of brain and tissue oxygenation. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103 (Suppl. 1): 313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snyder, EM, Beck, HC, Diez, NM, et al. Arg 16 Gly polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor is associated with differences in cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in humans. J Physiol 2006; 571: 121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krantz, T, Warberg, J, Secher, NH. Venous oxygen saturation during normovolaemic haemodilution in the pig. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49: 1149–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
González-Alonso, J, Mortensen, S, Dawson, EA, et al. Erythrocyte and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin. J Physiol 2006; 572: 295305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zaar, M, Secher, NH, Johansson, PI, et al. Effects of a recombinant FVIIa analogue, NN1731, on blood loss and survival after liver trauma in the pig. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103: 840–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rasmussen, KC, Johansson, PI, Højskov, M, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces coagulation competence and increases blood loss during major surgery: results from a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2014; 259: 249–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johansson, PI, Ostrowski, SR, Secher, NH. Management of major blood loss: an update. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 1039–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats