Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-l8tfn Total loading time: 0.556 Render date: 2022-06-28T21:13:03.093Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

19 - Papilloma and polyoma viruses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 December 2009

Goura Kudesia
Affiliation:
Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Tim Wreghitt
Affiliation:
Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge
Get access

Summary

The viruses

Human papilloma viruses (HPV) and polyoma viruses are DNA viruses and belong to the family Papovaviridae. There are over a hundred known genotypes of HPV, some of which are oncogenic.

The envelope proteins E6 and E7 are transforming proteins and associated with initiating cancer by the oncogenic HPV genotypes.

Papilloma viruses

Epidemiology

Route of spread

  • Sexual: the main route of spread for genital warts is sexual, and therefore it is a sexually transmitted infection.

  • Vertical: laryngeal papilloma or warts in children are usually due to transmission to the baby at the time of delivery if the mother has genital warts.

  • Direct contact with infected material: usually introduced through abraded skin (e.g. sharing towels, swimming pools, walking barefoot). Common skin warts are normally transmitted by this route.

Prevalence

Infection is prevalent worldwide. Human papilloma viruses 1–4 cause skin lesions, HPV 4 typically causes plantar warts and HPV 1 papillomatous lesions on fingers and trunks. Human papilloma viruses 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts and cause respiratory papilloma in children. Human papilloma viruses 16, 18 and other higher numbered genotypes also cause genital infection, which is directly linked to cervical cancer.

Most of the HPV prevalence figures are around genital infection. Human papilloma virus infection is the commonest sexually transmitted infection, and 25–40% of women between the ages of 15–25 years have evidence of HPV infection. There are an estimated 400 million cases of genital HPV infection worldwide. It is estimated that 250000 women die of cervical cancer each year with 500000 new diagnoses each year, 80% of which occur in the developing world.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×