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4 - Dr No in Switzerland

Bern as a Chinese Intelligence Hub

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 April 2022

Ariane Knüsel
Affiliation:
University of Fribourg
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Summary

From the 1950s to at least the 1970s, China established and operated a variety of intelligence networks from Switzerland. The chapter relies on thousands of files by the Federal Police as well as Chinese memoirs, biographies, commemorative volumes of former agents, and publications on the history of Chinese intelligence to discuss different forms of intelligence activities carried out by Chinese diplomats in Switzerland. Showing just how intertwined Chinese foreign policy and intelligence were, the chapter argues that diplomatic staff were so often also active as intelligence agents that it could be argued that the Chinese used a hybrid form of diplomat–agent in Switzerland. Some of the national, international, and transnational intelligence networks that the Chinese operated from Switzerland show that Switzerland functioned as a Chinese intelligence hub in Cold War Europe. These include a network of UN officials, ethnic Chinese students and scientists, Chinese restaurants, and Chinese Indonesians. The chapter also describes the Swiss Federal Police’s counterintelligence measures as a reaction to the Chinese intelligence activities. The chapter begins with a discussion of the development of Communist Chinese intelligence in the 1930s and 1940s in order to show how this contributed to Chinese intelligence activities in Europe.

Type
Chapter
Information
China's European Headquarters
Switzerland and China during the Cold War
, pp. 194 - 269
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

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  • Dr No in Switzerland
  • Ariane Knüsel, University of Fribourg
  • Book: China's European Headquarters
  • Online publication: 21 April 2022
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009169486.005
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  • Dr No in Switzerland
  • Ariane Knüsel, University of Fribourg
  • Book: China's European Headquarters
  • Online publication: 21 April 2022
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009169486.005
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Dr No in Switzerland
  • Ariane Knüsel, University of Fribourg
  • Book: China's European Headquarters
  • Online publication: 21 April 2022
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009169486.005
Available formats
×