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The Causes of Epilepsy The Causes of Epilepsy
Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children
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Chapter 75 - Emerging and less common central nervous system viral encephalitides

from Section 3 - Symptomatic epilepsy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2012

Simon D. Shorvon
Affiliation:
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London
Frederick Andermann
Affiliation:
Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute
Renzo Guerrini
Affiliation:
Child Neurology Unit, Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Florence
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Summary

This chapter focuses on the emerging and less common viruses that cause encephalitis and seizures. It presents emerging encephalitides such as Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Nipah virus, enterovirus 71, dengue virus, human herpesvirus 6, Chandipura virus and Monkeypox virus. The chapter discusses the other uncommon encephalitides such as rabies, Tick-borne encephalitis, LaCrosse encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Murray Valley encephalitis. Most viral infections of the central nervous system cause acute brain parenchymal inflammation with perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell cuffing and infiltration, ballooning and death of neurons leading to subsequent gliosis. Tick-borne encephalitis virus first infects the Langerhans cells before invading the lymphoid and reticulo endothelial system, and finally causes inflammation not just in the brain, but also in the spinal cord and the leptomeninges. The Venezuelan and Eastern equine viruses, Nipah and Hendra viruses cause widespread vasculitic changes and microvascular infarcts.
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The Causes of Epilepsy
Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children
, pp. 528 - 536
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

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