Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-n9d2k Total loading time: 0.623 Render date: 2021-10-20T08:30:15.150Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

20 - Jewish archaeology in late antiquity: art, architecture, and inscriptions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 March 2008

Lee Levine
Affiliation:
Department of Jewish History and Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Steven T. Katz
Affiliation:
Boston University
Get access

Summary

INTRODUCTION

The appearance of Jewish art, architecture, and inscriptions increased enormously in the course of antiquity. Their use and variety were peripheral in Israelite-Jewish society of the first millennium bce and were restricted to a very small number of items and sites for much of the First and Second Temple periods. It was only in late antiquity that uniquely Jewish edifices, artifacts, symbols, and inscriptions multiplied geometrically in Jewish communities throughout the world. Was this because only then did Jews begin to develop artistic and architectural forms of their own? and if this was indeed the case, why did it not happen beforehand? Moreover, if, indeed, the widespread appearance of Jewish art and architecture was a development of the late Roman and Byzantine eras, what were the reasons for these changes in this particular historical context?

Our goal in this chapter is twofold. We shall first describe the most significant remains of Jewish art and architecture from late antiquity, and then present some of the major issues that have emerged in the wake of these discoveries, not the least of which will be an attempt to answer the questions raised above.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Avi-Yonah, M., Oriental Art in Roman Palestine (Rome, 1961).
Avigad, N., Beth Sheèarim, III (New Brunswick, 1976).
Avigad, N., Discovering Jerusalem (Nashville, 1983).
Avi‘am, M., “The Ancient Synagogues of Baram,” Qadmoniot 35/124 (2002) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Bar, D., “Settlement and Economy in Eretz-Israel during the Late Roman and the Byzantine Periods (70–640 CE),” Cathedra 107 (2003) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Bar, D., “Was There a 3rd-C. Economic Crisis in Palestine?” in Humphrey, J. H. (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East, III, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 49 (2002).Google Scholar
Bonz, M. P., “Differing Approaches to Religious Benefaction: The Late Third-Century Acquisition of the Sardis Synagogue,” Harvard Theological Review 86 (1993).Google Scholar
Bonz, M. P., “The Jewish Community of Ancient Sardis: A Reassessment of Its Rise to Prominence,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 93 (1990).Google Scholar
Cross, F. M., “The Hebrew Inscriptions from Sardis,” Harvard Theological Review 95 (2002).Google Scholar
Dothan, M., Hammath Tiberias, I: Early Synagogues and Hellenistic and Roman Remains (Jerusalem, 1983).
Fine, S., “Art and the Liturgical Context of the Sepphoris Synagogue Mosaic,” in Meyers, E. M. (ed.), Galilee Throughout the Centuries: Confluence of Cultures (Winona Lake, 1999).Google Scholar
Fine, S., This Holy Place: On the Sanctity of Synagogues During the Greco-Roman Period (Notre Dame, 1997).
Fine, S.,(ed.), Sacred Realm: The Emergence of the Synagogue in the Ancient World (New York, 1966).
Foerster, G., “Has There Indeed Been a Revolution in the Dating of the Galilean Synagogue?” in Levine, L. I. (ed.), Continuity and Renewal: Jews and Judaism in Byzantine-Christian Palestine (Jerusalem, 2004) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Foerster, G., “The Ancient Synagogues of the Galilee,” in Levine, L. I. (ed.), The Galilee in Late Antiquity (New York and Jerusalem, 1992).Google Scholar
Foerster, G., Late Antiquity (New York and Jerusalem, 1992).
Goldman, B. M., The Sacred Portal: A Primary Symbol in Ancient Judaic Art (Detroit, 1966).
Goodenough, E., Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 13 vols. (New York, 19531968).
Grabar, A., Christian Iconography: A Study in Its Origins (Princeton, 1968).
Groh, D. E., “The Stratigraphic Chronology of the Galilean Synagogue from the Early Roman Period through the Early Byzantine Period (ca. 420 CE),” in Urman, D. and Flesher, P. V. M. (eds.), Ancient Synagogues: Historical Analysis and Archaeological Discovery, I (Leiden, 1995).Google Scholar
Gutmann, J., The Synagogue: Studies in Origins, Archaeology and Architecture (New York, 1975).
Gutmann, J.,(ed.), Ancient Synagogues: The State of Research (Chico, 1981).
Gutmann, J.,(ed.), The Dura-Europos Synagogue: A Re-evaluation (1932–1972) (Missoula, 1973).
Hachlili, R., “The Zodiac in Ancient Jewish Art: Representation and Significance,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 228 (1977).Google Scholar
Hachlili, R., Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora (Leiden, 1998).
Hachlili, R., Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Land of Israel (Leiden, 1988).
Hanfmann, G. M. A. (ed.), Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times (Cambridge, MA, 1983).
Kessler, H., “The Sepphoris Mosaic and Christian Art,” in Levine, L. I. and Weiss, Z. (eds.), From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 40 (Portsmouth, RI, 2000).Google Scholar
Kraabel, A. T., “Impact of the Discovery of the Sardis Synagogue,” in Hanfmann, G. M. A. (ed.), Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times (Cambridge, MA, 1983).Google Scholar
Kraeling, C. H., The Excavations at Dura-Europos, Final Reports, VIII/I: The Synagogue (New Haven, 1956; augmented ed., New York, 1979).
Kraeling, C. H., The Excavations of Dura-Europos, VIII/12 (New Haven, 1956; repr. New York, 1979).
Kroll, J. H., “The Greek Inscriptions of the Sardis Synagogue,” Harvard Theological Review 94 (2001).Google Scholar
Ku¨hnel, B., “The Synagogue Floor Mosaic in Sepphoris: Between Paganism and Christianity,” in Levine, L. I. and Weiss, Z. (eds.), From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 40 (Portsmouth, RI, 2000).Google Scholar
Leon, H. J., The Jews of Ancient Rome (Peabody, 1995, 1960).
Leon, H. J., The Jews of Ancient Rome (Philadelphia, 1960).
Levi, D., Antioch Mosaic Pavements (Princeton, 1947).
Levine, L. I., “Ancient Synagogues,” in Stern, E. (ed.), New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, 4 vols. (Jerusalem, 1993), IV.Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., “Contextualizing Jewish Art: The Synagogues of Hammat Tiberias and Sepphoris,” in Kalmin, R. and Schwartz, S. (eds.), Jewish Culture and Society in the Christian Roman Empire (Leuven, 2003).Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., “Figural Art in Ancient Judaism,” Ars Judaica 1 (2005).Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., “The Finds from Beth-She‘arim and Their Importance for the Study of the Talmudic Period,” Eretz Israel 18 (1985) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., “The Hellenistic-Roman Diaspora CE 70‐CE 235: The Archaeological Evidence,” The Cambridge History of Judaism (Cambridge, 1984–) III.Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., “The History and Significance of the Menorah in Antiquity,” in Levine, L. I. and Weiss, Z. (eds.), From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity Journal of Roman Archaeology Supp. Ser. (2000).Google Scholar
Levine, L. I., Caesarea Under Roman Rule (Leiden, 1975).
Levine, L. I., Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 BC E–70 CE) (Philadelphia, 2002).
Levine, L. I., Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity (Seattle, 1998).
Levine, L. I., The Ancient Synagogue: The First Thousand Years, rev. ed. (New Haven, 2005).
Levine, L. I.,(ed.), The Galilee in Late Antiquity (New York and Jerusalem, 1992).
Levine, L. I.,(ed.), The Synagogue in Late Antiquity (Philadelphia, 1987).
Lieberman, S., Greek in Jewish Palestine (New York, 1942).
Lieberman, S., Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York, 1950).
Magness, J., “A Response to Eric M. Meyers and James F. Strange,” in Avery-Peck, A. J. and Neusner, J. (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity, Part 3: Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism, IV: The Special Problem of the Synagogue (Leiden, 2001).Google Scholar
Magness, J., “The Question of the Synagogue: The Problem of Typology,” in Avery-Peck, A. J. and Neusner, J. (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity, Part 3: Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism, IV: The Special Problem of the Synagogue (Leiden, 2001).Google Scholar
Ma‘oz, Z., “The Synagogue at Capernaum: A Radical Solution,” in Humphrey, J. (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East, II: Some Recent Archaeological Research, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 31 (1999).Google Scholar
Mazar, B., Beth She‘arim, I: Catacombs 1–4 (Jerusalem, 1973).
Meyers, E. M., “The Current State of Galilean Synagogue Studies,” in Levine, L. I. (ed.), The Synagogue in Late Antiquity (Philadelphia, 1987).Google Scholar
Meyers, E. M., “The Dating of the Gush Halav Synagogue: A Response to Jodi Magness,” in Avery-Peck, A. J. and Neusner, J. (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity, Part 3: Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism, IV: The Special Problem of the Synagogue (Leiden, 2001).Google Scholar
Naveh, J., “Seven New Tombstones from Zoar,” Tarbiz 69 (2001) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Naveh, J., “The Zoar Tombstones,” Tarbiz 64 (1995) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Naveh, J., On Stone and Music: The Aramaic and Hebrew Inscriptions from Ancient Synagogues (Jerusalem, 1978) (Hebrew).
Perkins, A. L., The Art of Dura Europos (Oxford, 1973).
Roussin, L., “The Zodiac in Synagogue Decoration,” in Edwards, D. and McCollough, C. T. (eds.), Archaeology and the Galilee: Texts and Contexts in the Graeco-Roman and Byzantine Periods (Atlanta, 1997).Google Scholar
Rutgers, L. V., The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).
Rutgers, L., The Hidden Heritage of Diaspora Judaism (Leuven, 1998).
Rutgers, L., The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).
Safrai, Z. (ed.), The Ancient Synagogue: Selected Studies (Jerusalem, 1986) (Hebrew).
Schwartz, S., Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 BCE to 640 CE (Princeton, 2001).
Seager, A. R., “The Building History of the Sardis Synagogue,” American Journal of Archaeology 76 (1972).Google Scholar
Seager, A. R., and Kraabel, A. T., “The Synagogue and the Jewish Community,” in Hanfmann, G. M. H. (ed.), Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times (Cambridge, MA, 1983).Google Scholar
Stern, S., “New Tombstones from Zoar,” Tarbiz 68 (1999) (Hebrew).Google Scholar
Strange, J. F., “Synagogue Typology and Khirbet Shema‘: A Response to Jodi Magness,” in Avery-Peck, A. J. and Neusner, J. (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity, Part 3: Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism, IV: The Special Problem of the Synagogue (Leiden, 2001).Google Scholar
Sukenik, E. L., The Ancient Synagogue of Beth Alpha (Jerusalem, 1932).
Sukenik, E. L., The Synagogue of Dura Europos and Its Frescoes (Jerusalem, 1947) (Hebrew).
Urman, D., and Flesher, P. V. M. (eds.), Ancient Synagogues: Historical Analysis and Archaeological Discovery, 2 vols. (Leiden, 1995).
Weiss, Z., and Netzer, E., Promise and Redemption: A Synagogue Mosaic from Sepphoris (Jerusalem, 1996).
Wischnitzer, R., The Messianic Theme in the Paintings of the Dura Synagogue (Chicago, 1948).

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×