Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-727vs Total loading time: 3.164 Render date: 2022-12-01T00:05:40.699Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Part V - Bilingual Acquisition and Processing

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 July 2022

John W. Schwieter
Affiliation:
Wilfrid Laurier University
Zhisheng (Edward) Wen
Affiliation:
Macao Polytechnic University
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Abdallah, F. (2010). The role of phonological memory in L2 acquisition in adults at different L2 proficiency levels. (Thèse de doctorat inédite, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada).Google Scholar
Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2006). Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children: Are they separable? Child Development, 77(6), 16981716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2009). Assessing the relationship of working memory to L2 reading: Does the nature of comprehension process and reading span task make a difference? System, 37, 627639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2010). The role of L1 and L2 working memory in literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 33, 206219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabulary knowledge. In Guthrie, J. T. (Eds.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 77117). International Reading Association.Google Scholar
Archibald, L. M. D., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Nonword repetition: A comparison of tests. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 970983.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Clarendon Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 417423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2010). Working memory. Current Biology, 20, 136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Working memory: Theories, models, and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 129. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100422CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2015). Working memory in second language learning. In Wen, Z. E., Mota, M. B., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 1728). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., Allen, R. J., & Hitch, G. (2010). Investigating the episodic buffer. Psychologica Belgica, 50, 223243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., Gathercole, S., & Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review, 105, 158173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (pp. 4789). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Logie, R. H. (1999). Working memory: The multiple-component model. In Miyake, A. & Shah, P. (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 2862). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., Papagno, C., & Vallar, G. (1988). When long-term learning depends on short-term storage. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 586595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batista, R., & Horst, M. (2016). A new receptive vocabulary size test for FrenchCanadian Modern Language Review72, 211233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blom, E., Küntay, A. C., Messer, M., Verhagen, J., & Leseman, P. (2014). The benefits of being bilingual: Working memory in bilingual Turkish-Dutch children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 128, 105119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bosma, E., Heeringa, W., Hoekstra, E., Versloot, A., & Blom, E. (2017). Verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, G., & Yull, G. (1983). Discourse analysis. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, T. H., Brown, T. L., Vavrus, L. G., & Evans, M. A. (1990). Cognitive skill maps and cognitive skill profiles: Componential analysis of individual differences in children’s reading efficiency. In Carr, T. H. & Levy, B. A. (Eds.), Reading and its development: Component skills approaches (p. 155). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204‑256. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.108.1.204CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coxhead, A., Nation, P., & Sim, D. (2014). Creating and trialling six versions of the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOLANZ Journal, 22, 1327.Google Scholar
Daneman, M., & Green, I. (1986). Individual differences in comprehending and producing words in context. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeBorba, E. (2020). The investigation of temporal order in language learning using behavioural tasks and MMN (Master’s thesis, McMaster University). http://hdl.handle.net/11375/25801Google Scholar
Dunn, L., & Dunn, D. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test (4th ed.) (PPVT-4 scale). American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
Dunn, L. M., Theriault-Whalen, C. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1993). Echelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody [French Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test]. ATM.Google Scholar
Efstathiadi, L. (2016). Vocabulary acquisition by young Greek learners of L2 English: The predictive role of complex working memory in early foreign language learning. Selected Papers on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, 21, 527547.Google Scholar
Engle, R. W., Cantor, J., & Carullo, J. J. (1992). Individual differences in working memory and comprehension: A test of four hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, IS, 972992.Google Scholar
Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory and general fluid intelligence: A latent variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 309331CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fortkamp, M. B. M., & Verçosa, D. M. (2019). Working memory capacity and the retention of L2 vocabulary. Leitura, 1, 5574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foster, J. L., Shipstead, Z., Harrison, T. L., Hicks, K. L., Redick, T. S., & Engle, R. W. (2015). Shortened complex span tasks can reliably measure working memory capacity. Memory and Cognition, 43, 226236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
French, L. M. (2006). Phonological working memory and L2 acquisition: A developmental study of Quebec Francophone children learning English. Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 23, 8394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Nonword repetition and word learning: The nature of the relationship. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 513543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1989). Evaluation of the role of phonological STM in the development of vocabulary in children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 200213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1996). The Children’s Test of Nonword Repetition. Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Gathercole, S. E, Hitch, G. J., Service, E., & Martin, A. J. (1997). Phonological short‐term memory and new word learning in children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 966979.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Assessment of working memory in six- and seven-year-old children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 377390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., Service, E., Hitch, G. J., Adams, A., & Martin, A. J. (1999). Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: Further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 6577.3.0.CO;2-O>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C., Baddeley, A., & Emslie, H. (1994). The Children’s Test of Nonword Repetition: A test of phonological working memory. Memory, 2, 103127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, R. A., Hitch, G. J., & Hartley, T. (2017). Temporal precision and the capacity of auditory-verbal short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(12), 24032418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goswami, U. (2018). A neural basis for phonological awareness? An oscillatory temporal-sampling perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(1), 5663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greidanus, T., Beks, B., & Wakely, R. (2005). Testing the development of French word knowledge by advanced Dutch-and English-speaking learners and native speakersCanadian Modern Language Review62(4), 509532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, P., Jefferies, E., Ehsan, S., Jones, R. W., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2009). Semantic memory is key to binding phonology: Converging evidence from immediate serial recall in semantic dementia and healthy participants. Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 747760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogan, T. P., Adlof, S. M., & Alonzo, C. N. (2014). On the importance of listening comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 199207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howard, D., & Franklin, S. (1988). Missing the meaning? A cognitive neuropsychological study of the processing of words by an aphasic patient. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Jones, G., & Macken, B. (2015). Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning. Cognition, 144, 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.07.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joyce, P. (2019). The relationship between L2 listening proficiency and L2 aural language processing. PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 57, 932.Google Scholar
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. W. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching: Reviews and Studies, 42, 137166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kintsch, W., Patel, V. L., & Ericsson, K. A. (1999). The role of long-term working memory in text comprehension. Psychologia, 42, 186198.Google Scholar
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short term-memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 261271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovács, G., & Racsmány, M. (2008). Handling L2 input in phonological STM: The effect of non-L1 phonetic segments and non-L1 phonotactic sequences on nonword repetition. Language Learning, 58, 597624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Aviad-Levitzky, T. A. M. I. (2017). What type of vocabulary knowledge predicts reading comprehension: Word meaning recall or word meaning recognition? The Modern Language Journal101, 729741.Google Scholar
Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2004). Testing vocabulary knowledge, size, strength, and computer adaptivenessLanguage Learning54, 399436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T. & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 861883. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0565-CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Łockiewicz, M., & Jaskulska, M. (2015). Mental lexicon, working memory and L2 (English) vocabulary in Polish students with and without dyslexia. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 5, 7189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lopez Ricote, M. d. l. A. (2020). Serial order in language learning in bilinguals. (Master’s thesis, McMaster University). http://hdl.handle.net/11375/25799Google Scholar
Lu, Y. (2015). Working memory, cognitive resources and L2 writing performance. In Wen, Z. E., Mota, M., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp.175188). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macken, B., Taylor, J., & Jones, D. (2015). Limitless capacity: A dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory. Frontiers of Psychology, 6, 293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Majerus, S., & Boukebza, C. (2013). Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: New evidence from a novel word learning paradigm. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(4), 811828.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masoura, E. V., & Gathercole, S. E. (2005). Contrasting contributions of phonological short-term memory and long-term knowledge to vocabulary learning in a foreign language. Memory, 13(3-4), 422-429.Google Scholar
Masrai, A. (2020). Exploring the impact of individual differences in aural vocabulary knowledge, written vocabulary knowledge and working memory capacity on explaining L2 learners’ listening comprehension. Applied Linguistics Review. 11, 423-447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matielo, R., Oliveira, R. P. D., & Baretta, L. (2018). Subtitling, working memory, and L2 learning: A correlational study. Revista brasileira de linguística aplicada, 18, 665696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meara, P. (1992). Network structures and vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language. In Arnaud, P. J. L. & Béjoint, H. (Eds.), Vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp. 6270). Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meara, P., & Jones, G. (1990). The Eurocentres Vocabulary Size Tests. 10KA. Eurocentres.Google Scholar
Meara, P., & Milton, J. (2003). X_Lex, The Swansea Levels Test, Express.Google Scholar
Melby-Lervåg, M., Lervåg, A., Lyster, S. A., Klem, M., Hagtvet, B., & Hulme, C. (2012). Nonword-repetition ability does not appear to be a causal influence on children’s vocabulary development. Psychological Science, 23, 10921098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milton, J. 2009. Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nader, M., Simard, D., Fortier, V., & Molokopeeva, T. (2017). Étude de la contribution de la mémoire de travail et de la mémoire phonologique dans la réalisation d’une tâche métasyntaxique chez des enfants de langue d’origine. Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquée/Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 20, 5575.Google Scholar
Nassaji, H. (2004). The relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and L2 learners’ lexical inferencing strategy use and success. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61, 107134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. (1983). Testing and teaching vocabulary. Guidelines, 5, 1225.Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Newbury House.Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31, 913.Google Scholar
Nesdale, A. R., Herriman, M. L., & Tunmer, W. E. (1984). Phonological awareness in children. In Tunmer, W. E., Pratt, C., & Herriman, M. L. (Eds.), Metalinguistic awareness in children (pp. 5672). Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakhill, J. V., & Cain, K. (2004). The development of comprehension skills. In Nunes, T. & Bryant, P. (Eds.), Handbook of children’s literacy (p. 155180). Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakhill, J., Yuill, N., & Garnham, A. (2011). The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilities and children’s reading comprehension. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4, 83106.Google Scholar
Ottem, E. J., Lian, A., & Karlsen, P. J. (2007). Reasons for the growth of traditional memory span across age. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(2), 233270. doi:10.1080/09541440600684653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qian, D. D., & Schedl, M. (2004). Evaluating an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure for assessing reading performance. Language Testing, 21, 2852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Read, J. (1993). The development of a new measure of L2 vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing, 10, 355371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Repovš, G., & Baddeley, A. (2006). The multi-component model of working memory: Explorations in experimental cognitive psychology. Neuroscience, 139(1): 522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, E. N., Riccio, C. A., Gsanger, K. M., & Jarratt, K. P. (2006). Digit span components as predictors of attention problems and executive functioning in children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: The Official Journal of The National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 21, 131139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, N. (2014). Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: What the research showsLanguage Learning64, 913951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., Ng, J., & Garras, J. (2011). The word associates format validation evidence. Language Testing, 28, 105126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D., & Clapham, C. (2001). Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the vocabulary levels test. Language Testing 18, 5588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Service, E. (1989). Phonological coding in working memory and foreign-language learning (Vol. B 9). University of Helsinki, General Psychology.Google Scholar
Service, E. (1992). Phonology, working memory and foreign-language learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 2150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Service, E., & Kohonen, V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign-language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition? Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 155172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Service, E., Yli-Kaitala, H., Maury, S., & Kim, J.-Y. (2014). Adults’ and 8-Year-olds’ learning in a foreign word repetition task: Similar and different. Language Learning, 64(2), 215246. doi:10.1111/lang.12051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simard, D., & Molokopeeva, T. (2019, September). The mediating role of working memory in the relationship between reading comprehension and depth of vocabulary in L2 French. Communication présentée lors du Second Language Research Forum, Lansing, Michigan.Google Scholar
Simard, D., Molokopeeva, T., & Zhang, Q. Y. (2020). Production d’autoreformulations autoamorcées par des apprenants adultes du français et capacité de mémoire de travail. Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquée/Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Snowling, M., Chiat, S., & Hulme, C. (1991). Words, nonwords, and phonological processes: Some comments on Gathercole, Willis, Emslie, and Baddeley. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 369373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
St Clair-Thompson, H. L. (2010). Backwards digit recall: A measure of short-term memory or working memory? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22, 286296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tseng, W.-T., & Schmitt, N. (2008). Toward a model of motivated vocabulary learning: A structural equation modelling approach. Language Learning, 58, 357400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 127154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vafaee, P., & Suzuki, Y. (2020). The relative significance of syntactic knowledge and vocabulary knowledge in second language listening ability. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42, 383410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varol, B., & Erçetin, G. (2016). Effects of working memory and gloss type on L2 text comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning in computer-based reading. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 759768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vermeer, A. (2001). Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z. E. (2016). Phonological and executive working memory in L2 task-based speech planning and performanceThe Language Learning Journal, 44, 418-435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z. E., Borges Mota, M., & McNeill, A. (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamashita, J. (2013). Word recognition subcomponents and passage level reading in a foreign language. Reading in a Foreign Language, 25, 5170.Google Scholar
Yeari, M. (2017). The role of working memory in inference generation during reading comprehension: Retention, (re)activation, or suppression of verbal information? Learning and Individual Differences, 56, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaretsky, E. (2020). Verbal working memory and early literacy acquisition: Do ELLs allocate resources similar to their typical monolingual peers or monolingual children with SLI? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23, 10511070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K. (2009). Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arciuli, J. (2017). The multi-component nature of statistical learning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 372 (20160058).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. (2010). Working memory. Current Biology, 20, R136R140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 4789). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., & Alvarez, G. A. (2009). Compression in visual working memory: Using statistical regularities to form more efficient memory representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 138, 487502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, H. (1996). Nonword span as a unique predictor of second-language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 32, 867873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coady, J. A., & Evans, J. L. (2008). Uses and interpretations of non-word repetition tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). International Journal of Communication Disorders, 43, 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information processing system. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 163191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cowan, N. (2010). The magical mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited, and why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 5157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, N. (2017). The many faces of working memory and short-term storage. Psychological Bulletin Review, 24, 11581170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dale, R., Duran, N. D., & Morehead, J. R. (2012). Prediction during statistical learning, and implications for the implicit/explicit divide. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 8, 196209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bree, E. H., Verhagen, J., Kerkhoff, A. O., Doedens, W. J., & Unsworth, S. (2017). Language learning from inconsistent input: Bilingual and monolingual toddlers compared. Infant and Child Development, 26, e1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C. (1996). Sequencing in SLA: Phonological memory, chunking, and points of order. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 91126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C. (2002). Frequency effects in language processing and acquisition: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C. (2003). Constructions, chunking, and connectionism: The emergence of second language structure. In Doughty, C. J. & Long, M. H. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Ellis, N. C. (2006). Language acquisition as rational contingency learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C., & Collins, L. (2009). Input and second language acquisition: The roles of frequency, form, and function: Introduction to special issue. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 329335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel de Abreu, P. M. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2012). Executive and phonological processes in second-language acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 974986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erickson, L. C., & Thiessen, E. D. (2015). Statistical learning of language: Theory, validity, and predictions of a statistical learning account of language acquisition. Developmental Review, 37, 66108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
French, L. M. (2006). Phonological working memory and second language acquisition: A developmental study of Francophone children learning English in Quebec. Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
French, L. M., & O’Brien, I. (2008). Phonological memory and children’s second language grammar learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 463487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory and Cognition, 23, 8394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gómez, R., & Maye, J. (2005). The developmental trajectory of nonadjacent dependency learning. Infancy, 7, 183206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, P., & MacWhinney, B. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: Computational and neural bases. Brain and Language, 59, 267333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamrick, P. (2014). A role for chunk formation in statistical learning of second language syntax. Language Learning, 64, 247278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamrick, P., Lum, J. G., & Ullman, M. T. (2018). Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(7), 14871492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulstijn, J. H.. (2002). Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge. Second Language Research, 18, 193223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ioup, G., Boustagui, E., El Tigi, M., & Moselle, M. (1994). A case study of successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 7398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isbilen, E. S., McCauley, S. M., Kidd, E., & Christiansen, M. H. (2020). Statistically induced chunking recall: A memory-based approach to statistical learning. Cognitive Science, 44, e12848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jia, G., & Aaronson, D. (2003). A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescents learning English in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 131161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempe, V., & MacWhinney, B. (1998). The acquisition of case-marking by adult learners of Russian and German. Studies in Second Language. Acquisition, 20, 543587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kidd, E. (2012). Implicit statistical learning is directly associated with the acquisition of syntax. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 171184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, W., & Perdue, C. (1997). The basic variety (or: couldn’t natural languages be much simpler?). Second Language Research, 13, 301347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 261271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, H. J., Kin, Y. T., & Yim, D. (2013). Non-word repetition in Korean-English children. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(4), 375382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leseman, P. P. M., Henrichs, L. F., Blom, E. & Verhagen, J. (2019). Young mono- and bilingual children’s exposure to academic language as related to language development and school achievement. In Grøver, V., Ucelli, P., Rowe, M. & Lieven, E. (Eds.), Learning through language (pp. 205217). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P., & MacWhinney, B. (2013). Competition Model. In Chapelle, C. A. (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 35). Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In Kroll, J. F. & de Groot, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 4967). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
MacWhinney, B. (2012). The logic of the unified model. In Gass, S. & Mackey, A. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 211227). Routledge.Google Scholar
Martin, K. I., & Ellis, N. C. (2012). The roles of phonological short-term memory and working memory in L2 grammar and vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 379413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masoura, E. V., & Gathercole, S. E. (1999). Phonological short-term memory and foreign language learning. International Journal of Psychology, 34, 383388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masoura, E. V., & Gathercole, S. E. (2005). Phonological short-term memory skills and new word learning in young Greek children. Memory, 13, 422429.Google Scholar
McCauley, S. M., Isbilen, E. S., & Christiansen, M. H. (2017). Chunking ability shapes sentence processing at multiple levels of abstraction. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2681–2686).Google Scholar
Messer, M. H., Leseman, P. P. M., Boom, J., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). Phonotactic probability effect in nonword recall and its relationship with vocabulary in monolingual and bilingual preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105, 306323CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Messer, M. H., Verhagen, J., Boom, J., Mayo, A. Y., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2015). Growth of verbal short-term memory of nonwords varying in phonotactic probability: A longitudinal study with monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Memory and Language, 84, 2436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Misyak, J. B., & Christiansen, M. H. (2012). Statistical learning and language: An individual differences study. Language Learning, 62, 302331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morales, M., Mundy, P., Delgado, C. E. F., Yale, M., Messinger, D., Neal, R., & Schwartz, H. K. (2000). Responding to joint attention across the 6- to 24-month age period and early language acquisition. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 283298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mundy, P., & Gomes, A. (1998). Individual differences in joint attention skill development in the second year. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 469482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oberauer, K., Lewandowsky, S., Awh, E., Brown, G. D. A., Conway, A., Cowan, N., Donkin, C., Farrell, S. A., Hitch, G. J., Hurlstone, M. J., Ma, W. J., Morey, C. C., Nee, D. E., Schweppe, J., Vergauwe, E., & Ward, G. (2018). Benchmarks for models of short-term and working memory. Psychological Bulletin, 144), 885958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palmer, S. D., & Mattys, S. L. (2016). Speech segmentation by statistical learning is supported by domain-general processes within working memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 23902401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradis, J. (2007). Second language acquisition in childhood. In Hoff, E. & Shatz, M. (Eds.), Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology: Blackwell handbook of language development (pp. 387405). Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of dual language exposure that influence 2-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82(6), 18341849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romberg, A. S. R., & Saffran, J. R. (2010). Statistical learning and language acquisition. WIREs Cognitive Science, 1, 906914.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274, 19261928CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of mono- and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 117140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schumann, J. H. (1978). The acculturation model for second-language acquisition. In Gingras, R.C. (Ed.), Second language acquisition and foreign language teaching. Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Scott, R. M., & Fisher, C. (2012). 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty. Cognition, 122, 163180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Service, E. (1992). Phonology, working memory, and foreign language learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 2150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Service, E., & Kohonen, V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition? Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 155172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherman, B. E., Graves, K. N., & Turke-Brown, N. B. (2020). The prevalence and importance of statistical learning in human cognition and behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 32, 1520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegelman, N., & Frost, R. (2015). Statistical learning as an ability: Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. Journal of Memory and Language, 81, 105120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegelman, N., Bogaerts, L., Christiansen, M. H., & Frost, R. (2017). Towards a theory of individual differences in statistical learning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 372(20160059).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, L. B., Suanda, S. H., & Yu, C. (2014). The unrealized promise of infant statistical word–referent learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18( 5), 251258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Speciale, G., Ellis, N., & Bywater, T. (2004). Phonological sequence learning and short term store capacity determine second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 293320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speidel, G. E. (1993). Phonological short-term memory and individual differences in learning to speak: A bilingual case study. First Language, 13, 6991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speidel, G. E., & Herreshoff, M. J. (1989). Imitation and the construction of long utterances. In Speidel, G. E. & Nelson, K. E. (Eds.), The many faces of imitation in language learning (pp. 181197). Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Custode, S., Kuchirko, Y., Escobar, K., Lo, T. (2019). Routine language: Speech directed to infants during home activities. Child Development, 90(6), 21352152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thiessen, E. D. (2017). What’s statistical about learning? Insights from modelling statistical learning as a set of memory processes. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B, 372, 1711.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thiessen, E. D., & Erickson, L. C. (2013). Beyond word segmentation: A two-process account of statistical learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science22, 239243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiessen, E. D., Kronstein, A. T., & Hufnagle, D. G. (2013). The extraction and integration framework: A two-process account of statistical learning. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 792814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thorn, A. S. C., & Gathercole, S. E. (1999). Language-specific knowledge and short-term memory in bilingual and non-bilingual children. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 52(2), 303324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomasello, M. (1988). The role of joint attentional processes in early language development. Language Sciences, 10, 6988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Treffers-Daller, J., & Calude, A. S. (2015). The role of statistical learning in the acquisition of motion event construal in a second language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 18, 602623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Unsworth, S. (2005). Child L2, Adult L2, Child L1: Differences and similarities. A study on the acquisition of direct object scrambling in Dutch. (Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University).Google Scholar
Unsworth, S. (2014). Comparing the role of input in bilingual acquisition across domains. In Grüter, T. & Paradis, J. (Eds.), Input and experience in bilingual development (pp. 181201).  John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2007). The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity: Active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory. Psychological Review, 114, 104132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Unsworth, N., & Spillers, G. J. (2010). Working memory capacity: Attention control, secondary memory, or both? A direct test of the dual-component model. Journal of Memory and Language, 62, 392406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhagen, J. (2009). Finiteness in Dutch as second language (Doctoral dissertation Free University of Amsterdam).Google Scholar
Verhagen, J., Messer, M. H., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2015). Phonological memory and the acquisition of grammar in child L2 learners. Language Learning, 65, 417448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhagen, J., Boom, J., Mulder, H., de Bree, E. H., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2019). Reciprocal relationships between nonword repetition and vocabulary during the preschool years. Developmental Psychology, 55, 11251137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhagen, J., & de Bree, E. H. (2020). Effects of bilingualism on statistical learning in preschoolers. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 11(5), 611-639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhagen, J. & Leseman, P. P. M. (2016). How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 6582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weizman, Z. O., & Snow, C. E. (2001). Lexical output as related to children’s vocabulary acquisition: Effects of sophisticated exposure and support for meaning. Developmental Psychology, 37, 265279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wulff, S., & Ellis, N. C. (2018). Usage-based approaches to SLA. In Miller, D., Bayram, F., Rothman, J., & Serratrice, L. (Eds.), Bilingual cognition and language: The state of the science across its subfields. (pp. 3756). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zwaan, R. A., & Radvansky, G. A. (1998). Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 162185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

American Psychological Association (2020). APA Dictionary of Psychology. https://dictionary.apa.org/cognitive-abilityGoogle Scholar
Atkins, P. W. B., & Baddeley, A. D. (1998). Working memory and distributed vocabulary learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19(4), 537552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 829839.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. (2017). Modularity, working memory and language acquisition. Second Language Research, 33(3), 299311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., Gathercole, S. E., & Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review, 105, 158173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. VIII, pp. 4790). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, B. A. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: Implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia, 40, 17371743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borges Mota, M. (2003). Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density in L2 speech production. Fragmentos, ( 24 ), 69104.Google Scholar
Carroll, J., & Sapon, S. (1959). Modern language aptitude test. The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Cho, M. (2018). Task complexity, modality, and working memory in L2 task performance. System, 72, 8598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, H. H. & Fox Tree, J. E. (2002). Using “uh” and “um” in spontaneous speaking. Cognition, 84, 73111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cochran, B., McDonald, J. & Parault, S. (1999). Too smart for their own good: The disadvantage of superior processing capacity for adult language learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 3058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coughlan, A. K. & Hollows, S. E. (1985). The Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery (AMIPB): Test manual. Psychology Department, St James’s University Hospital.Google Scholar
Coughlin, C. E., & Tremblay, A. (2013). Proficiency and working memory based explanations of non-native speakers’ sensitivity to agreement in sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 615646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daneman, M. & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doughty, C., Campbell, S., Mislevy, M., Bunting, M., Bowles, A., & Koeth, J. (2010). Predicting near-native ability: The factor structure and reliability of Hi-LAB. In Prior, M., Watanabe, Y, & Lee, S. (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 2008 Second Language Research Forum (pp. 1031). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
Dussias, P. E., & Piñar, P. (2010). Effects of reading span and plausibility in the reanalysis of wh-gaps by Chinese-English L2 speakers. Second Language Research, 26(4), 443472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C. & Sinclair, S. G. (1996). Working memory in the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 234250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R. (2009). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. In Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J. & Reinders, H. (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 325). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engle, R. W. & Kane, M. J. (2004). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. In Ross, B. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 145199). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Fehringer, C., & Fry, C. (2007). Hesitation phenomena in the language production of bilingual speakers: The role of working memory. Folia Linguistica: Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae, 41(1–2), 3772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foote, R. (2011). Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English-Spanish bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 187220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frost, R., Siegelman, N., Narkiss, A., & Afek, L. (2013). What predicts successful literacy acquisition in a second language? Psychological Science, 24, 12431252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., & Thorn, A. (1998). Phonological short-term memory and foreign language learning. In Healy, A. F. & Bourne, L. E. (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 141158). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C., Emslie, H., & Baddeley, A. D. (1991). Nonword repetition, phonological memory, and vocabulary: A reply to Snowling, Chiat, and Hulme. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 375379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grey, S., Cox, J., Serafini, E., & Sanz, C. (2015). The role of individual differences in the study abroad context: Cognitive capacity and language development during short‐term intensive language exposure. Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 137157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grey, S., Sanz, C., Morgan-Short, K., & Ullman, M. (2017). Bilingual and monolingual adults learning an additional language: ERPs reveal differences in syntactic processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 125.Google Scholar
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., & Rebuschat, P. (2015). Individual differences in incidental language learning: Phonological working memory, learning styles, and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 4453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 2538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassin, R. R., Bargh, J. A., Engell, A. D., & McCulloch, K. C. (2009). Implicit working memory. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 18(3), 665678.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Havik, E., Roberts, L., Van Hout, R., Schreuder, R., & Haverkort, M. (2009). Processing subject–object ambiguities in the L2: A self-paced reading study with German L2 learners of Dutch. Language Learning, 59, 73112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, R., & Chan, C. Y. (1997). The partial availability of Universal Grammar in second language acquisition: The “failed functional features hypothesis.” Second Language Research, 13(3), 187226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hummel, K. M. (2009). Aptitude, phonological memory, and second language proficiency in non-novice adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 225249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Indrarathne, B., & Kormos, J. (2018). The role of working memory in processing L2 input: Insights from eye-tracking. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(2), 355374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Issa, B. I. (2019). Examining the relationships between attentional allocation, working memory and second language development: An eye-tracking study. In Leow, R. P. (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of second language research in classroom learning (pp. 464479). Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. W. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 Learning. Language Teaching: Reviews and Studies, 42, 137166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapa, L. L., & Colombo, J. (2014). Executive function predicts artificial language learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 7, 237252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempe, V., & Brooks, P. J. (2008). Second language learning of complex inflectional systems. Language Learning, 58, 703746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempe, V., Brooks, P. J., & Kharkhurin, A. (2010). Cognitive predictors of generalization of Russian grammatical gender categories. Language Learning, 60, 127153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 261271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lado, B. (2017). Aptitude and pedagogical conditions in the early development of a nonprimary language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 38(3), 679701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lado, B., Bowden, H., Stafford, C. & Sanz, C. (2014). A fine-grained analysis of the effects of negative evidence with and without metalinguistic information in language development. Language Teaching Research, 18(3), 320344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lado, B., Bowden, H. W. & Stafford, C. & Sanz, C. (2017). Two birds, one stone, or how learning a foreign language makes you a better language learner. Hispania, 100(3), 361378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40, 387417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S. (2016). The construct validity of language aptitude: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(4), 801842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J. A., Hughes, M., Campbell, S., Silbert, N., Tare, M., Jackson, S., Smith, B., Bunting, M., & Doughty, C. (2013). Hi-LAB: A new measure of aptitude for high-level language proficiency. Language Learning, 63(3), 530566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J.A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 861883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linck, J. A., & Weiss, D. J. (2015). Can working memory and inhibitory control predict second language learning in the classroom? SAGE Open, 5(4), 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, K. I., & Ellis, N. C. (2012). The roles of phonological short-term memory and working memory in l2 grammar and vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34, 379413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martini, M., Sachse, P., Furtner, M. R., & Gaschler, R. (2015). Why should working memory be related to incidentally learned sequence structures? Cortex, 64, 407410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCormick, T. (2020). Early and emergent bilingualism: The role of cognitive control in processing linguistic conflict (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).Google Scholar
McDonough, K., & Trofimovich, P. (2016). The role of statistical learning and working memory in L2 speakers’ pattern learning. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 428445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Misyak, J. B., & Christiansen, M. H. (2012). Statistical learning and language: An individual differences study. Language Learning, 62, 302331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In Healy, A. F. & Bourne, L. E. Jr. (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 339364). Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Morgan-Short, K., Sanz, C., Steinhauer, K., & Ullman, M.T. (2010). Second language acquisition of gender agreement in explicit and implicit training conditions: An event-related potential study. Language Learning, 60(1),154193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newport, E. (1990). Maturational constraints on language learning. Cognitive Science,14(1), 1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 377402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Freed, B., & Collentine, J. (2007). Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 557582.Google Scholar
Papagno, C., Valentine, T., & Baddeley, A. D. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 331347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64, 878912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radulescu, S., Wijnen, F., & Avrutin, S. (2020). Patterns bit by bit: An entropy model for rule induction. Language Learning and Development, 16(2), 109140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S., Walkenfeld, F. F., & Hernstadt, R. (1991). Implicit and explicit learning: Individual differences and IQ. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 888896.Google ScholarPubMed
Robinson, P. (2005a). Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 4573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2005b). Cognitive abilities, chunk-strength, and frequency effects in implicit artificial grammar and incidental L2 learning: Replications of Reber, Walkenfeld, and Hernstadt (1991) and Knowlton and Squire (1996) and their relevance for SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 235268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2010) Implicit artificial grammar and incidental natural second language learning: How comparable are they? Language Learning, 60(2), 245263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagarra, N. (2007). Working memory and L2 processing of redundant grammatical forms. In Han, Z. & Park, E. S. (Eds.), Understanding second language process. Multilingual Matters, 133147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagarra, N. (2017). Longitudinal effects of working memory on L2 grammar and reading abilities. Second Language Research, 33(3), 341363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagarra, N., & Herschensohn, J. (2010). The role of proficiency and working memory in gender and number agreement processing in L1 and L2 Spanish. Lingua, 120, 20222039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santamaria, K., & Sunderman, G. (2015). Working memory in processing instruction: The acquisition of French clitics. In Wen, Z., Borges Mota, M., & McNeill, A., (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 205223). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanz, C., Lin., H., Lado, B., Bowden, H. & Stafford, C. (2016). One size fits all? Learning conditions and working memory capacity in ab initio language development. Applied Linguistics, 37(5), 669692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanz, C., & McCormick, T. (2021). VanPatten 1990’s long and winding story and the nature of replication studies. In Leeser, W. Wong, , & Keating, G., (Eds.), Research on second language processing and processing instruction: Studies in honor of Bill VanPatten (pp. 153181). John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Schmidt, R. W. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serafini, E. J., & Sanz, C. (2016). Evidence for the decreasing impact of cognitive ability on second language development as proficiency increases. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38, 607646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soto, D., & Silvanto, J. (2014). Reappraising the relationship between working memory and conscious awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 520525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tagarelli, K. M., Borges Mota, M. & Rebuschat, P. (2015). Working memory, learning context, and the acquisition of L2 Syntax. In Wen, Z., Borges Mota, M., & McNeill, A., (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing: Theory, research and commentary (pp. 224247). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tagarelli, K. M., Ruiz, S., Moreno, J. L. & Rebuschat, P. (2016). Variability in second language learning: The roles of individual differences, learning conditions, and linguistic complexity. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Special Issue): Cognitive Perspectives on Difficulty and Complexity in SLA, 38(2), 293316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory capacity and fluid abilities: Examining the correlation between operation span and raven. Intelligence, 33, 6781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VanPatten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waters, G. S. & Caplan, D. (1996). The measurement of verbal working memory capacity and its relation to reading comprehension. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49(A), 5179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weissheimer, J., & Borges Mota, M. (2009). Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and the Development of L2 Speech Production. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 17, 3452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z., Biedroń, A., & Skehan, P. (2017). Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Language Teaching, 50, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, J. N. & Lovatt, P. P. (2003). Phonological memory and rule learning. Language Learning, 53, 67121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zalbidea, J. & Sanz, C. (2020). Does learner cognition count on modality? Working memory effects on early L2 morphosyntactic attainment across oral and written tasks. Applied Psycholinguistics, 41(5), 11711196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Baddeley, A. D. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carreiras, M., & Clifton, C. (1993). Relative clause interpretation preferences in Spanish and English. Language and Speech, 36, 353372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Y., Rothman, J., & Cunnings, I. (2021). Parsing preferences and individual differences in nonnative sentence processing: Evidence from eye movements. Applied Psycholinguistics, 42, 129151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coughlin, C. E., & Tremblay, A. (2013). Proficiency and working memory based explanations for nonnative speakers’ sensitivity to agreement in sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 615646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, N. (2017). The many faces of working memory and short-term storage. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 11581170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuetos, F., & Mitchell, D. (1988). Cross-linguistic differences in parsing: Restrictions on the use of the Late Closure strategy in Spanish. Cognition, 30, 73105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunnings, I. (2017). Parsing and working memory in bilingual sentence processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20, 659678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunnings, I., & Fujita, H. (2020). Quantifying individual differences in native and nonnative sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 121.Google Scholar
Dallas, A., DeDe, G., & Nicol, J. (2013). An Event-Related Potential (ERP) investigation of filler-gap processing in native and second language speakers: ERP study of L2 filler-gap processing. Language Learning, 63, 766799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillon, B., Mishler, A., Sloggett, S., & Phillips, C. (2013). Contrasting intrusion profiles for agreement and anaphora: Experimental and modeling evidence. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 85103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dussias, P. E., & Piñar, P. (2010). Effects of reading span and plausibility in the reanalysis of wh-gaps by Chinese-English second language speakers. Second Language Research, 26, 443472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, T. A., Fine, A. B., Misyak, J. B., & Christiansen, M. H. (2017). Reading span task performance, linguistic experience, and the processing of unexpected syntactic events. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 413433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felser, C., & Cunnings, I. (2012). Processing reflexives in a second language: The timing of structural and discourse-level constraints. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 571603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felser, C., & Roberts, L. (2007). Processing wh-dependencies in a second language: A cross-modal priming study. Second Language Research, 23, 936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felser, C., Roberts, L., Marinis, T., & Gross, R. (2003). The processing of ambiguous sentences by first and second language learners of English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 453489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felser, C., Sato, M., & Bertenshaw, N. (2009). The on-line application of binding Principle A in English as a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 485502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foote, R. (2011). Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English–Spanish bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 187220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 2538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedge, C., Powell, G., & Sumner, P. (2018). The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 11661186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemforth, B., Fernandez, S., Clifton, C., Frazier, L., Konieczny, L., & Walter, M. (2015). Relative clause attachment in German, English, Spanish and French: Effects of position and length. Lingua, 166, 4364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopp, H. (2014). Working memory effects in the L2 processing of ambiguous relative clauses. Language Acquisition, 21, 250278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopp, H. (2018). The bilingual mental lexicon in L2 sentence processing. Second Language, 17, 527.Google Scholar
Jäger, L. A., Engelmann, F., & Vasishth, S. (2017). Similarity-based interference in sentence comprehension: Literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 94, 316339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jäger, L. A., Mertzen, D., Van Dyke, J. A., & Vasishth, S. (2020). Interference patterns in subject-verb agreement and reflexives revisited: A large-sample study. Journal of Memory and Language, 111, 104063.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Juffs, A. (2005). The influence of first language on the processing of wh-movement in English as a second language. Second Language Research, 21, 121151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, Marcel A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review, 99, 122149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Just, Marcel Adam, Carpenter, P. A., & Keller, T. A. (1996). The capacity theory of comprehension: New frontiers of evidence and arguments. Psychological Review, 103, 773780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keating, G. D. (2010). The effects of linear distance and working memory on the processing of gender agreement in Spanish. In VanPatten, B. & Jegerski, J. (Eds.), Language acquisition and language disorders (Vol. 53, pp. 113134). John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Kidd, E., Donnelly, S., & Christiansen, M. H. (2018). Individual differences in language acquisition and processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22, 154169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, J. H., & Christianson, K. (2017). Working memory effects on L1 and L2 processing of ambiguous relative clauses by Korean L2 learners of English. Second Language Research, 33, 365388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207, 203205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, R. L., & Vasishth, S. (2005). An activation-based model of sentence processing as skilled memory retrieval. Cognitive Science, 29, 375419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, R. L., Vasishth, S., & Van Dyke, J. A. (2006). Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 447454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 861883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 3554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathy, F., Chekaf, M., & Cowan, N. (2018). Simple and complex working memory tasks allow similar benefits of information compression. Journal of Cognition, 1, 31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonald, J. L. (2006). Beyond the critical period: Processing-based explanations for poor grammaticality judgment performance by late second language learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 55, 381401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McElree, B., Foraker, S., & Dyer, L. (2003). Memory structures that subserve sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 6791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, A. K. (2014). Accessing and maintaining referents in L2 processing of wh -dependencies. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 4, 167191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Pan, H.-Y., & Felser, C. (2011). Referential context effects in L2 ambiguity resolution: Evidence from self-paced reading. Lingua, 121, 221236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, H.-Y., Schimke, S., & Felser, C. (2015). Referential context effects in non-native relative clause ambiguity resolution. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19, 298313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papadopoulou, D., & Clahsen, H. (2003). Parsing strategies in L1 and L2 sentence processing: A study of relative clause attachment in Greek. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 501528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, D., Shvartsman, M., & Van Dyke, J. A. (2017). The cue-based based retrieval theory of sentence comprehension: New findings and new challenges. In Escobar, L., Torrens, V., & Parodi, T. (Eds.), Language processing and disorders (pp. 121144). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
Parsons, S., Kruijt, A.-W., & Fox, E. (2019). Psychological science needs a standard practice of reporting the reliability of cognitive-behavioral measurements. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 2, 378395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pozzan, L., & Trueswell, J. C. (2016). Second language processing and revision of garden-path sentences: A visual word study. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 636643.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shin, J. (2020). A meta-analysis of the relationship between working memory and second language reading comprehension: Does task type matter? Applied Psycholinguistics, 41, 873900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swets, B., Desmet, T., Hambrick, D. Z., & Ferreira, F. (2007). The role of working memory in syntactic ambiguity resolution: A psychometric approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 6481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 127154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Dyke, J. A., & Johns, C. L. (2012). Memory interference as a determinant of language comprehension: Interference in comprehension. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6, 193211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Dyke, J. A., Johns, C. L., & Kukona, A. (2014). Low working memory capacity is only spuriously related to poor reading comprehension. Cognition, 131, 373403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vasishth, S., Nicenboim, B., Engelmann, F., & Burchert, F. (2019). Computational models of retrieval processes in sentence processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23, 968982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, G. S., & Caplan, D. (2003). The reliability and stability of verbal working memory measures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 35, 550564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Witzel, J., Witzel, N., & Nicol, J. (2012). Deeper than shallow: Evidence for structure-based parsing biases in second-language sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 419456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Adams, R., & Shahnazari-Dorcheh, M. (2014). The relationship between working memory and L2 reading comprehension. Applied Research on English Language, 3, 1934.Google Scholar
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2009). Assessing the relationship of working memory to L2 reading: Does the nature of comprehension process and RST make a difference? System, 37, 627639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2010). The role of L1 and L2 working memory in literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 33, 206219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2011). Effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 235266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alptekin, C., Erçetin, G., & Özemir, O. (2014). Effects of variations in RST design on the relationship between working memory capacity and second language reading. Modern Language Journal, 98, 536552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading development in a second language: Theoretical, research and classroom perspectives. Ablex.Google Scholar
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Converting among effect sizes. In Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (Eds.), Introduction to meta-analysis (pp. 4549). John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. I., Fishco, V. V., & Hanna, G. S. (1993). Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G. Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
Choi, S. (2013). Working memory capacity, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension of EFL learners. English Education Research, 25, 2542.Google Scholar
Cowan, N. (2017). The many faces of working memory and short-term storage. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 24, 11581170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 422433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drum, P. A., Calfee, R. C., & Cook, L. K. (1981). The effects of surface structure variables on performance in reading comprehension tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 486514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erçetin, G. (2015). Working memory and L2 reading: Theoretical and methodological issues. ELT Research Journal, 4, 101110.Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontanini, I., & Tomitch, L. M. B. (2009). Working memory capacity and L2 university students’ comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts. International Journal of English Studies, 9, 119.Google Scholar
Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2005). Comparison of four scoring methods for the reading span test. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 581590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glanzer, M., Dorfman, D., & Kaplan, B. (1981). Short-term storage in the processing of text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 656670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Graesser, A. C. (2015). Deeper learning with advances in discourse science and technology. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 4250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammadou Sullivan, J. A. (2002). Advanced foreign language readers’ inferencing. In Hammadou Sullivan, J. A. (Ed.), Literacy and the second language learner (pp. 217238). Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
Herman, E., & Leeser, M. J. (in press). The relationship between lexical coverage and type of reading comprehension in beginning L2 Spanish learners.Google Scholar
Johnson, R. (1970). Recall of prose as a function of the structural importance of linguistic units. Journal of Verbal Learning and Linguistic Behavior, 9, 1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, P. (1984). Prior knowledge and reading comprehension test bias. Reading Research Quarterly,19, 219239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review, 99, 122149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendeou, P., & O’Brien, E. J. (2018). Reading comprehension theories: A view from the top down. In Schober, M. F., Rapp, D. N., & Britt, M. A. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse processes (2nd ed., pp. 721). Routledge.Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1993). Information accretion and reduction in text processing: Inferences. Discourse Processes,16, 193202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (2012). Psychological models of reading comprehension and their implications for assessment. In Sabatini, J. P., Albro, E. R., & O’Reilly, T. (Eds.), Measuring up: Advances in how to assess reading abilities (pp. 2138). Rowman & Littlefield Education.Google Scholar
Kintsch, W., & Kintsch, E. (2005). Comprehension. In Paris, S. G. & Stahl, S. A. (Eds.), Children’s reading comprehension and assessment (pp. 7192). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from the research (2nd ed.). Heinemann.Google Scholar
Lee, J. F. (1986). On the use of the recall task to measure L2 reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8, 201212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leeser, M. J. (2007). Learner-based factors in L2 reading comprehension and processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language Learning, 57, 229270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leeser, M. J., & Sunderman, G. (2016). Methodological implications of working memory tasks for L2 processing research. In Granena, G., Jackson, D. O., & Yilmaz, Y. (Eds.), Cognitive individual differences in second language processing and acquisition (pp. 89-104). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 861883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linderholm, T., & van den Broek, P. (2002). The effects of reading purpose and working memory capacity on the processing of expository text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 778784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lorch, R. F. (2015). What about expository text? In O’Brien, E. J., Cook, A. E., & Lorch, R. F. (Eds.), Inferences during reading (pp. 348-361). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magliano, J., Radvansky, G. A., & Copeland, D. E. (2007). Beyond language comprehension: Situation models as a form of autobiographical memory. In Schmalhofer, F. & Perfetti, C. (Eds.), Higher level language processes in the brain: Inference and comprehension processes (pp. 379391). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNamara, D. S., & Magliano, J. (2009). Toward a comprehensive model of comprehension. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 51, 297384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, D. S., de Vega, M., & O’Reilly, T. (2007). Comprehension skill, inference making, and the role of knowledge. In Schmalhofer, F. & Perfetti, C. A. (Eds.), Higher level language processes in the brain: Inference and comprehension processes (pp. 233251). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
McNamara, D. S., Kintsch, E., Songer, N. B., & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good texts always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 14, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millis, K., Magliano, J., & Todaro, S. (2006). Measuring discourse-level processes with verbal protocols and latent semantic analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 225240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osaka, M., & Osaka, N. (1992). Language-independent working memory as measured by Japanese and English reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 287289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osaka, M., Osaka, N., & Groner, R. (1993). Language-independent working memory: Evidence from German and French reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 117118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, H., Nam, K., & Lee, Y. S. (2016). The role of reading span in factual and inferential comprehension and retention in L2 reading. Linguistic Research, 33, 81106.Google Scholar
Perfetti, C., & Stafura, J. (2014). Word knowledge in a theory of reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64, 878912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rapp, D., & van den Broek, P., McMaster, K., Kendeou, P., & Espin, C. (2007). Higher-order comprehension processes in struggling readers: A perspective for research and intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11, 289312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riley, G. L., & Lee, J. F. (1996). A comparison of recall and summary protocols as measures of second language reading comprehension. Language Testing, 13, 173189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmalhofer, F., McDaniel, M. A., & Keefe, D. (2002). A unified model for predictive and bridging inferences. Discourse Processes, 33, 105132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., Jiang, X., & Grabe, W. (2011). The percentage of words known in a text and reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 95, 2643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shibasaki, H., Tokimoto, S., Ono, Y., Inoue, T., & Tamaoka, K. (2015). English reading comprehension by Japanese high school students: Structural equation modeling including working memory and L1 literacy. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 5, 443458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin, J. (2020). A meta-analysis of the relationship between working memory and second language reading comprehension: Does task type matter? Applied Psycholinguistics, 41, 873900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2007). On the division of short-term and working memory: An examination of simple and complex span and their relation to higher order abilities. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 10381066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Unsworth, N., & Spillers, G. J. (2010). Working memory capacity: Attention control, secondary memory, or both? A direct test of the dual-component model. Journal of Memory and Language, 62, 392406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Heuven, W. J. B., Dijkstra, T., & Grainger, J. (1998). Orthographic neighborhood effects in bilingual word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 458483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Moort, M. L., Koornneef, A., & van den Broek, P. W. (2020). Differentiating text-based and knowledge-based validation processes during reading: Evidence from eye movements. Discourse Processes, 120.Google Scholar
VanPatten, B. (2020). Input processing in adult L2 acquisition. In VanPatten, B., Keating, G. D., & Wulff, S. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (3rd ed., pp. 105127). Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, C. (2004). Transfer of reading comprehension skills to L2 is linked to mental representations of text and to L2 working memory. Applied Linguistics, 25, 315339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waters, G., & Caplan, D. (1996). The measurement of verbal working memory capacity and its relation to reading comprehension. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 5179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, D. (1993). A comparison of assessment tasks used to measure FL reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 473489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zwaan, R. A. (2004). The immersed experiencer: Toward an embodied theory of language comprehension. In: Ross, B. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 44, pp. 3562). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Zwaan, R. A., & Radvansky, G. A. (1998). Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 162185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Ahmadian, M. (2012). The relationship between working memory capacity and L2 oral performance under task-based careful online planning conditions. TESOL Quarterly, 46, 1, 165175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahmadian, M. (2013). Working memory and task repetition in second language oral production. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching. 23, 3755.Google Scholar
Albarqi, G. (2019). Self-monitoring behaviour of L2 learners: Proficiency level, dual task paradigm and working memory capacity (Doctoral dissertation, University of Reading).Google Scholar
Anderson, J. (1995). Learning and memory. John Wiley.Google Scholar
Awwad, A. & Tavakoli, P. (2019). Task complexity, language proficiency, and working memory: Interaction effects on second language speech performance. International Review of Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2018-0378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. (2012). Working memory: Theories, models, and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bui, H. (2014). Task readiness: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence from topic familiarity, strategic planning, and proficiency levels. In Skehan, P. (Ed.). Processing perspectives on task performance (pp. 6394). John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Bui, G. & Skehan, P. (2018). Complexity, accuracy, and fluency. In Nassaji, H. (Ed.), TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching. Wiley.Google Scholar
Bui, G., Skehan, P., & Wang, Z. (2018). Task condition effects on advanced level foreign language performance. Malovrh, P. & Benati, A. (Eds.), Handbook of advanced proficiency in second language acquisition. (pp. 219238). Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bygate, M. (2001). Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (Eds.). Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing (pp. 2348). Longman.Google Scholar
Bygate, M. (2018). Learning language through task repetition. John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, M. (2018). Task complexity, modality, and working memory in L2 task performance. System, 72, 8598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behaviour and Brain Sciences, 24, 87185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crookes, G. & Gass, S. (1993). Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice. Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
DeKeyser, R., & Juffs, A. (2005). Cognitive considerations in L2 learning. In Hinkel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of research: Second language teaching and learning (pp. 437454). Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Duran-Karaoz, Z. (2020). An exploratory study of second language oral performance: Fluence and lexical complexity in L1 Turkish and L2 English (Doctoral dissertation, University of Reading).Google Scholar
Ellis, R., Skehan, P., Li, S., Shintani, N., & Lambert, C. (2020). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R., & Yuan, F. (2005). The effect of careful within-task planning on oral and written task performance. In Ellis, R. (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language. (pp. 167192). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (2013) The effects of post-task activities on the accuracy of language during task performance. Canadian Modern Language Review, 69, 249273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Georgiadou, E., & Roehr-Brackin, K. (2017). Investigating executive working memory and phonological short-term memory in relation to fluency and self-repair behavior in L2 speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46(4), 877895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilabert, R. & Munoz, C. (2010). Differences in attainment and performance in a foreign language: The role of working memory capacity. International Journal of English Studies, 10(1), 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guará-Tavares, M. G. (2013). Working memory capacity and L2 speech performance in planned and spontaneous conditions: A correlational analysis. Trabalhos Em Linguística Aplicada, 52(1), 929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guará-Tavares, M. G. (2016). Learners’ processes during pre-task planning and working memory capacity. Ilha do Desterro, 69(1), 7994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Y. & McDonough, K. (2011). Using pretask modelling to encourage collaborative learning opportunities. Language Teaching Research, 15(2), 183199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kormos, J. (2006). Speech production and second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Kormos, J. & Trebits, A. (2011). Working memory capacity and narrative task performance. In Robinson, P. (Ed.). Second language task complexity (pp. 267285). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, C., Kormos, J., & Minn, D. (2017). Task repetition and second language speech processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(1), 1670150196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levelt, W. J. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Levelt, W. J. (1999). Language production: A blueprint for the speaker. In Brown, C. & Hagoort, P. (Eds.), Neurocognition of language (pp. 83122). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Li, Q. (2014). Get it right in the end: The effects of post-task transcribing on learners’ oral performance. In Skehan, P. (Ed.), Processing perspectives on task performance (pp. 129154). John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Li, S., & Fu, M. (2016). Strategic and unpressured within-task planning and their associations with working memory. Language Teaching Research, 20, 124.Google Scholar
Long, M. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Wiley.Google Scholar
Miller, G. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 8197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mota, M. (2003). Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density in L2 speech production. Fragmentos, 24, 69104.Google Scholar
Nielson, K. (2013). Can planning time compensate for individual differences in working memory capacity? Language Teaching Research, 18(3), 272293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pang, F. & Skehan, P. (2014). Self-reported planning behaviour and second language performance in narrative retelling. In Skehan, P., Processing perspectives on task performance (pp. 95128). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Recio, M. (2011). The effects of task complexity on L2 oral production as mediated by differences in working memory capacity (Master’s thesis, University of Barcelona).Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (Ed.). (2011a). Second language task complexity: Researching the cognition hypothesis of language learning and performance. John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2011b). Second language task complexity, the Cognition Hypothesis, language learning, and performance. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Second language task complexity (pp 338). John BenjaminsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2015). The Cognition Hypothesis, second language task demands, and the SSARC model of pedagogic task sequencing. In Bygate, M. (Ed.). Domains and directions in the development of TBLT. (pp. 87122). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, A. (1998). Elements of human performance. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (2009b). Lexical performance by native and non-native speakers on language-learning tasks. In Richards, B., Daller, H., Malvern, D. D., Meara, & P. (Eds.). Vocabulary studies in first and second language acquisition: The interface between theory and application. (pp. 107124). Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (2013). Nurturing noticing. In Bergsleithner, J., Frota, S. N., & Yoshioka, J. K. (Eds.), Noticing and second language acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt (pp. 169180). National Foreign Language Center.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (2014a). Processing perspectives on task performance. John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (2014b). The context for researching a processing perspective on task performance. In Skehan, P. (Ed.), Processing perspectives on task performance (pp. 126). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (2016). Tasks vs. conditions: Two perspectives on task research and its implications for pedagogy. In Mackey, A. (Ed.), Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (2018). Second language task-based performance: Theory, research, and assessment. Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). The influence of planning and post-task activities on accuracy and complexity in task based learning. Language Teaching Research, 1, 185211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tavakoli, P., & Skehan, P. (2005). Planning, task structure, and performance testing. In Ellis, R. (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language (pp. 239276). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tavakoli, P. & Wright, C. (2020). Second language speech fluency: From research to practice. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z. (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing: The phonological/executive model. In Wen, Z., Mota, N., & McNeill, A. (Eds.). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. (pp. 4162). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, J. (2015). Working memory in SLA research: Challenges and prospects. In Wen, Z., N. Mota, , & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 301308). Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Willis, D. & Willis, J. (2007). Doing task-based teaching. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zalbidea, J. (2017). “One size fits all”? The roles of task complexity, modality, and working memory capacity in L2 performance. Modern Language Journal, 101(2), 335352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

(Studies with asterisks are included in the synthesis)

Abrams, Z. I. (2003). The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German. Modern Language Journal, 87(2), 157167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ahmadian, M. J. (2020). Explicit and implicit instruction of refusal strategies: Does working memory capacity play a role? Language Teaching Research, 24(2), 163188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Neuroscience, 4, 829839.Google ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In Dornic, S. (Ed.), Recent advances in learning and motivation (pp. 4789 ). Academic Press.Google Scholar
*Baralt, M. (2010). Task complexity, the cognition hypothesis, and interaction in CMC and FTF environments (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).Google Scholar
*Baralt, M. (2015). Working memory capacity, cognitive complexity and L2 recasts in online language teaching. In Wen, Z., Mota, M. B., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 248269). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Chen, X. (2013). Chinese EFL learners’ noticing of recasts: Its relation to target structures, uptake, and working memory capacity (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University).Google Scholar
Crookes, G. (1989). Planning and interlanguage variation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11(4), 367383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Dai, B. (2013). Individual differences in learners’ working memory, noticing of L2 forms in recasts and their L2 development in task-based interactions (Doctoral dissertation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong).Google Scholar
Ellis, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge and instruction. In Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J., & Reinders, H. (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 325). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Gass, S. (2003). Input and interaction. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224255). Basil Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gass, S., Behney, J. N., & Uzum, B. (2013). Inhibitory control, working memory, and L2 interaction. In Drozdzial-Szelest, K., & Pawlak, M. (Eds.), Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives on second language learning and teaching (pp. 91114). Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Georgiadou, E., & Roehr-Brackin, K. (2017). Investigating executive working memory and phonological short-term memory in relation to fluency and self-repair behavior in L2 speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46(4), 877895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilabert, R., & Muñoz, C. (2010). Differences in attainment and performance in a foreign language: The role of working memory capacity. International Journal of English Studies, 10(1), 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Goo, J. (2012). Corrective feedback and working memory capacity in interaction-driven L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(3), 445474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Goo, J. (2016). Corrective feedback and working memory capacity. In Granena, G., Jackson, D. O., & Yilmaz, Y. (Eds.), Cognitive individual differences in second language processing and acquisition (pp. 279302). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartsuiker, R. J., Kolk, H. J., & Huiskamp, P. (1999). Priming word order in sentence production. Cognition, 1, 129147.Google Scholar
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44(2), 137166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Kim, Y. J., Jung, Y. J., & Skalicky, S. (2019). Linguistic alignment, learner characteristics, and the production of stranded prepositions in relative clauses: Comparing FTF and SCMC contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(5), 937969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Kim, Y. J., Payant, C., & Pearson, P. (2015). The intersection of task-based interaction, task complexity, and working memory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37(3), 549581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Lai, C., Fei, F., & Roots, R. (2009). The contingency of recasts and noticing. CALICO Journal, 26(1), 7090.Google Scholar
Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. MIT Press.Google Scholar
*Li, S. (2013). The interactions between the effects of implicit and explicit feedback and individual differences in language analytic ability and working memory. Modern Language Journal, 97(3), 634654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Li, S. (2015). The differential roles of language analytic ability and working memory in mediating the effects of two types of feedback on the acquisition of an opaque linguistic structure. In Sanz, C., and Lado, B. (Eds.), Individual differences, L2 development & language program administration: From theory to application (pp. 3252). Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Li, S. (2017). The effects of cognitive aptitudes on the process and product of L2 interaction: A synthetic review. In Gurzynski, L. (Ed.), Expanding individual difference research in the interaction approach: Investigating learners, instructors and researchers (pp. 4170). Benjamins.Google Scholar
*Li, S., Ellis, R., & Zhu, Y. (2019). The associations between cognitive ability and L2 development under five different instructional conditions. Applied Psycholinguistics, 40(3), 693722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S., & Fu, M. (2018). Strategic and unpressured within-task planning and their associations with working memory. Language Teaching Research, 22(2), 230253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21(4), 861883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W. and Bhatia, T. (Eds.), Handbook of language acquisition (Vol. 2): Second language acquisition (pp. 413468). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Long, M. H. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Wiley.Google Scholar
*Mackey, A., Adams, R., Stafford, C., & Winke, P. (2010). Exploring the relationship between modified output and working memory capacity. Language Learning, 60(3), 501533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Mackey, A., & Sachs, R. (2012). Older learners in SLA research: A first look at working memory, feedback, and L2 development. Language Learning, 62(3), 704740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Mackey, A., Philp, J., Egi, T., Fujii, A., & Tatsumi, T. (2002). Individual differences in working memory, noticing of interactional feedback and L2 development. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp.181209). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Martin, A. (2018). How to synchronize? A study of video-based, voice-based, and text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication, working memory, and second language learning (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).Google Scholar
McDonough, K. (2005). Identifying the impact of negative feedback and learners’ responses on ESL question development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 79103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*McDonough, K., Kielstra, P., Crowther, D., & Smith, G. (2016). Structural priming in L2 speech production: Examining relationships among English L2 speakers’ production, cognitive abilities, and awareness. In Mackey, A. & Marsden, E. (Eds.), Advancing methodology and practice: The IRIS repository of instruments for research into second languages (pp. 112131). Routledge.Google Scholar
*McDonough, K., & Kim, Y. (2016). Working memory and L2 English speakers’ primed and subsequent production of passives. In Granena, G., D. O. Jackson, & Y. Yilmaz, (Eds.), Cognitive individual differences in second language processing and acquisition (pp. 205222). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In Healy, A. & Bourne, L. (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 339365). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Payne, J. S., & Ross, B. M. (2005). Synchronous CMC, working memory, and L2 oral proficiency development. Language Learning and Technology, 9(3), 3554.Google Scholar
*Payne, J. S., & Whitney, P. J. (2002). Synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. CALICO Journal, 20(1), 732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Révész, A. (2012). Working memory and the observed effectiveness of recasts on different L2 outcome measures. Language Learning, 62(1), 93132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22, 2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2003a). Attention and memory in SLA. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 631678). Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2003b). The cognition hypothesis, task design, and adult task-based language learning. Second Language Studies, 21(2), 45105.Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2007). Criteria for classifying and sequencing pedagogic tasks. In Garcia Mayo, M. P. (Ed.), Investigating tasks in formal language learning (pp. 726). Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2011). Second language task complexity, the Cognition Hypothesis, language learning, and performance. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Second language task complexity: Researching the cognition hypothesis of language learning and performance (pp. 337). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Sachs, R. R. (2010). Individual differences and the effectiveness of visual feedback on reflexive binding in L2 Japanese (Doctoral dissertation. Georgetown University).Google Scholar
*Sagarra, N., & Abbuhl, R. (2013). Optimizing the noticing of recasts via computer-delivered feedback: Evidence that oral input enhancement and working memory help second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 196216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Sanz, C., Lin, H. J., Lado, B., Stafford, C. A., & Bowden, H. W. (2016). One size fits all? Learning conditions and working memory capacity in ab initio language development. Applied Linguistics, 37(5), 669692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheepers, C. (2003). Syntactic priming of relative clause attachments: Persistence of structural configuration in sentence production. Cognition, 89(3), 179205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. Arnold.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (2002). Theorizing and updating aptitude. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 6993). Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In Cook, G. & Seidlhofer, B. (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 12544 ). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2016). Phonological and executive working memory in L2 task-based speech planning and performance. Language Learning Journal, 44(4), 418435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z., & Li, S. (2019). Working Memory in L2 Learning and Processing. In Schwieter, J. & Benati, A. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of language learning (pp. 365389). Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*White, M. J. (2021). Phonological working memory and non-verbal complex working memory as predictors of future English outcomes in young ELLs. International Journal of Bilingualism, 25(1), 318337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Wright, C. (2013). An investigation of working memory effects on oral grammatical accuracy and fluency in producing questions in English. TESOL Quarterly, 47(2), 352374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Yilmaz, Y. (2013). Relative effects of explicit and implicit feedback: The role of working memory capacity and language analytic ability. Applied Linguistics, 34(3), 344368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Yilmaz, Y., & Granena, G. (2019). Cognitive individual differences as predictors of improvement and awareness under implicit and explicit feedback conditions. Modern Language Journal, 103(3), 686702.Google Scholar
*Yilmaz, Y., & Sağdıç, A. (2019). The interaction between inhibitory control and corrective feedback timing. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 170(2), 204227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zalbidea, J. (2017). “One task fits all”? The roles of task complexity, modality, and working memory capacity in L2 performance. Modern Language Journal, 101(2), 335352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Zhao, Y. (2015). The effects of explicit and implicit recasts on the acquisition of two grammatical structures and the mediating role of working memory (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Auckland).Google Scholar

References

Adelson, B. (1984). When novices surpass experts: The difficulty of the task may increase with expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 10, 484495.Google Scholar
Babcock, L., & Vallesi, A. (2017). Are simultaneous interpreters expert bilinguals, unique bilinguals, or both? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(2), 403417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G.H (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (pp. 47-89). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Chen, S. (2017). Exploring the process of note-taking and consecutive interpreting: A pen-eye-voice approach towards cognitive load (Doctoral dissertation, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia).Google Scholar
Chernov, G. V. (1994). Message redundancy and message anticipation in simultaneous interpretation. In Lambert, S. & Moser-Mercer, B. (Eds.), Bridging the gap: Empirical research in simultaneous interpretation (pp. 139153). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chincotta, D., & Underwood, G. (1998). Simultaneous interpreters and the effect of concurrent articulation on immediate memory: A bilingual digit span study. Interpreting, 3(1), 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chmiel, A. (2018). In search of the working memory advantage in conference interpreting: Training, experience and task effects. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(3), 371384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christoffels, I. K., de Groot, A. M., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency. Journal of Memory and Language, 54(3), 324345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information-processing system. Psychological Bulletin, 104(2), 163191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and memory: An integrated framework. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dam, H. V. (2010). Consecutive interpreting. In Gambier, Y. & van Doorslaer, L. (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies (Vol. 1, pp. 7579). John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19(4), 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darò, V., & Fabbro, F. (1994). Verbal memory during simultaneous interpretation: Effects of phonological interference. Applied Linguistics, 15(4), 365381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz-Galaz, S., Padilla, P., & Bajo, M. T. (2015). The role of advance preparation in simultaneous interpreting: A comparison of professional interpreters and interpreting students. Interpreting, 17(1), 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, Y., & Cai, R. (2015). Working memory in interpreting: A commentary on theoretical models. In Wen, Z., Mota, M., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 6379). Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, Y. & Li, P. (2020). Attentional control in interpreting: A model of language control and processing control. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23, 716728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, Y., & Liu, Y. (2016). Classes in translating and interpreting produce differential gains in switching and updating. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dong, Y., Liu, Y., & Cai, R. (2018). How does consecutive interpreting training influence working memory: A longitudinal study of potential links between the two. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dong, Y., & Xie, Z. (2014). Contributions of second language proficiency and interpreting experience to cognitive control differences among young adult bilinguals. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), 506519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, Y., & Zhong, F. (2017). Interpreting experience enhances early attentional processing, conflict monitoring and interference suppression along the time course of processing. Neuropsychologia, 95, 193203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102(2), 211245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ericsson, K. A. & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 725747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gile, D. (1997/2002). Conference interpreting as a cognitive management problem. In Pöchhacker, F. & Shlesinger, M. (Eds.), The interpreting studies reader (pp. 162176). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Gile, D. (2001). Consecutive vs. simultaneous: Which is more accurate? Interpretation Studies, 1(1), 820.Google Scholar
Gile, D. (2017). Testing the Effort Models’ tightrope hypothesis in simultaneous interpreting: A contribution. HERMES, 12(23), 153172.Google Scholar
Henrard, S., & van Daele, A. (2017). Different bilingual experiences might modulate executive tasks advantages: Comparative analysis between monolinguals, translators, and interpreters. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1870.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hiltunen, S., Pääkkönen, R., Vik, G. V., & Krause, C. M. (2014). On interpreters’ working memory and executive control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 20(3), 297314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holding, D. H., & Reynolds, R. I. (1982). Recall or evaluation of chess positions as determinants of chess skill. Memory & Cognition, 10(3), 237242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Injoque-Ricle, I., Barreyro, J. P., Formoso, J., & Jaichenco, V. I. (2015). Expertise, working memory and articulatory suppression effect: Their relation with simultaneous interpreting performance. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 11(2), 5663. doi:10.5709/acp-0171-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isham, W.P. (2000). Phonological interference in interpreters of spoken-languages: An issue of storage or process? In Dimitrova, B. E. & Hyltenstam, K. (Eds.), Language processing and simultaneous interpreting (pp. 133150). John Benjamins.CrossRef