Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-mzfmx Total loading time: 1.106 Render date: 2022-08-14T07:53:00.897Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

1 - The Changing Nature of Work and Workers

An Introduction

from Part I - Introduction to the Changing Nature of Work

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2020

Brian J. Hoffman
University of Georgia
Mindy K. Shoss
University of Central Florida
Lauren A. Wegman
University of Georgia
Get access


The changing nature of work and workers is a topic that has excited substantial interest and discussion across academic disciplines, organizations, and the popular press. To the degree that statements and proposals "due to the changing nature of work/workers" are supported and, therefore, the nature of work/workers has changed, then the approaches commonly used by organizations for attracting, retaining, and rewarding talent must also change in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Similarly, to the extent that work has changed, workers will need to adapt to a workplace that requires different skills, is differently organized, and where the assumptions of the past may no longer hold. This chapter introduces the topic of the changing nature of work and workers, describes common methods used to analyze change, offers a conceptual model of the changing nature of work, and summarizes the major themes covered in this handbook.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Acemoglu, D., & Autor, D. (2011). Skills, tasks and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. In Handbook of labor economics (Vol. 4, pp. 10431171). North Holland: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Barley, S. R., Bechky, B. A., & Milliken, F. J. (2017). The changing nature of work: Careers, identities, and work lives in the 21st century. Academy of Management Annals, 3, 111115.Google Scholar
Bort, J. (2014). Bill Gates: People don’t realize how many jobs will soon be replaced by software bots. Business Insider. Scholar
Brown, A. (2013). In U.S. average retirement age up to 61. Retrieved from Scholar
Costanza, D. P., & Finkelstein, L. M. (2015). Generationally based differences in the workplace: Is there a there there? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8, 308323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberger, R., Rockstuhl, T., Shoss, M.K., Wen, X., & Dulebohn, J. (2019). Is the employee–organization relationship dying or thriving? A temporal meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(8), 10361057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, S., & Rainie, L. (2014, February 27). The web at 25 in the US. Pew Research Center Report. Retrieved from Scholar
Howard, A. E. (1995). The changing nature of work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 31, 386408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalleberg, A. L. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, A., & Harter, J. (2016). The worldwide employee engagement crisis. Gallup Business Journal, January 7.Google Scholar
McFarland, B. (2018). Retirement offerings in the 21st century: A retrospective. Insider, 28(2). Retrieved from Scholar
Miller, C. C. (2017). A darker theme in Obama’s farewell: Automation can divide us. New York Times. Scholar
Notter, J. (2018). Motivating millennials (and everyone else for that matter). Retrieved from Scholar
O’Boyle, E. Jr., & Aguinis, H. (2012). The best and the rest: Revisiting the norm of normality of individual performance. Personnel Psychology, 65, 79119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reshwan, R. (2015). Four tips for managing millennial employees. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Scholar
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seppala, E., & Moeller, J. (2018). One in five employees is highly engaged and at risk of burnout. Harvard Business Review, May 16.Google Scholar
Smola, K. W., & Sutton, C. D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 363382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Age and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: A cross-temporal meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 321344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegman, L. A., Hoffman, B. J., Carter, N. T., Twenge, J. M., & Guenole, N. (2018). Placing job characteristics in context: Cross-temporal meta-analysis of changes in job characteristics since 1975. Journal of Management, 44, 352386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, Y., & Land, K. C. (2006). A mixed models approach to the age‐period‐cohort analysis of repeated cross‐section surveys, with an application to data on trends in verbal test scores. Sociological Methodology, 36, 7597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yost, K. (2018). Female CEO’s of Fortune 500 Companies. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from Scholar
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats