Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-t5pn6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-19T10:24:40.567Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Theme 2: - Health Care Professionals’ Wellbeing

from Section 4 - Health Care Practice

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2019

Carrie D. Llewellyn
University of Sussex
Susan Ayers
City, University of London
Chris McManus
University College London
Stanton Newman
City, University of London
Keith J. Petrie
University of Auckland
Tracey A. Revenson
City University of New York
John Weinman
King's College London
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., et al. (2001). Nurses’ reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Affairs, 20, 4353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexandrova-Karamanova, A., Todorova, I., Montgomery, A., et al. (2016). Burnout and health behaviors in health professionals from seven European countries. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 89, 1059–75. DOI 10.1007/s00420-016-1143-5.Google Scholar
Aronsson, G., Gustafsson, K. & Dallner, M. (2000). Sick but yet at work: an empirical study of sickness presenteeism. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, 54, 502509.Google Scholar
Bakhshi, S. & While, A. E. (2014). Health professionals’ alcohol-related professional practices and the relationship between their personal alcohol attitudes and behavior and professional practices: a systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health, 11, 218248. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110100218.Google Scholar
Baldisseri, M. R. (2007). Impaired healthcare professional. Critical Care Medicine, 35 [Suppl.], S106S116.Google Scholar
Burke, R. J. & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Hospital restructuring, work–family conflict and psychological burnout among nursing staff. Psychology and Health, 16, 583594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Center, C., Davis, M., Detre, T., et al. (2003). Confronting depression and suicide in physicians: a consensus statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 31613166.Google Scholar
Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S. & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work engagement: a quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology, 64, 89136.Google Scholar
Dyrbye, L., Massie, F. S., Eacker, A., et al. (2010). Relationship between burnout and professional conduct and attitudes among US medical students. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304, 11711180.Google ScholarPubMed
Fahrenkopf, A. M., Sectish, T. C., Barger, L. K., et al. (2008). Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 336, 488491.Google Scholar
Fie, S., Norman, I. J. & While, A. E. (2013). The relationship between physicians’ and nurses’ personal physical activity habits and their health-promotion practice: a systematic review. Health Education Journal, 72:102119.Google Scholar
Goitein, L., Shanafelt, T. D., Wipf, J. E., Slatore, C. G. & Back, A. L. (2005). The effects of work-hour limitations on resident well being, patient care, and education in an internal medicine residency program. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 26012606.Google Scholar
Haas, J. S., Cook, E. F., Puopolo, A. L., et al. (2000). Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15, 122128.Google Scholar
Halbesleben, J. R. & Rathert, C. (2008). Linking physician burnout and patient outcomes: exploring the dyadic relationship between physicians and patients. Health Care Management Review, 33, 2939.Google Scholar
Hooper, C., Craig, J., Janvrin, D. R., Wetsel, M. A. & Reimels, E. (2010). Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses compared with nurses in other selected inpatient specialties. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36, 420427.Google Scholar
Imai, H., Nakao, H., Tsuchiya, M., Kuroda, Y. & Katoh, T. (2004). Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 764768.Google Scholar
Jones, J. W., Barge, B. N., Steffy, B. D., et al. (1988). Stress and medical malpractice: organizational risk assessment and intervention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 727735.Google Scholar
Katz, D. & Allport, F. H. (1931). Students Attitudes: A Report from Syracuse University Research Study. Syracuse, NY: Craftsman.Google Scholar
Laschinger, H. K. & Fida, R. (2014). New nurses burnout and workplace wellbeing: the influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital. Burnout Research, 1(1), 1928.Google Scholar
Laschinger, H. K., Leiter, M. P., Day, A., Gilin-Oore, D. & Mackinnon, S. P. (2012). Building empowering work environments that foster civility and organizational trust: testing an intervention. Nursing Research, 61, 316325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Blanc, P. M., Hox, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W. & Peeters, M. C. W. (2007). Take care! The evaluation of a team-based burnout intervention program for oncology care providers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 213227.Google Scholar
Leiter, M. P. & Maslach, C. (2004). Areas of worklife: a structured approach to organizational predictors of job burnout. In Perrewe, P. L. & Ganster, D. C. (eds), Research in Occupational Stress and Well-Being (Vol. 3; pp. 91134). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Leiter, M. P., Day, A., Oore, D. G., & Spence Laschinger, H. K. (2012). Getting better and staying better: Assessing civility, incivility, distress, and job attitudes one year after a civility intervention. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 425434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemaire, J. B., Wallace, J. E., Ghali, W. A., et al. (2014). Exploring the dimensions of the medical teaching unit physician preceptor role. In Abstract Book (p. 352). Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) 2014 Annual Conference.Google Scholar
Maslach, C. & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498512.Google Scholar
Maslach, C. & Leiter, M. P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 15, 103111.Google Scholar
Maslach, C. & Leiter, M. P. (2017). New insights into burnout and health care: strategies for improving civility and alleviating burnout. Medical Teacher, 39, 160163.Google Scholar
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B. & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397422.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H. (1997). Toward healthier hospitals. Health Care Management Review, 22 (4), 918.Google Scholar
Montgomery, A. J. (2014). The inevitability of physician burnout: implications for interventions. Burnout Research, 1, 5056.Google Scholar
Montgomery, A. J., Bradley, C., Rochfort, A. & Panagopoulou, E. (2011). A review of self-medication in physicians and medical students. Occupational Medicine, 61, 490497. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqr098.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, A., Tordova, I., Baban, A. & Panagopoulou, E. (2013). Improving quality and safety in the hospital: the link between organisational culture, burnout and quality of care. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 656662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panagopoulou, E., Montgomery, A. & Tsiga, E. (2015). Bringing the well-being and patient safety research agenda together: why healthy HPs equal safe patients. Frontiers in Psychology; 6: 211. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.0021.Google Scholar
Poncet, M. C., Toullic, P., Papazian, L., et al. (2007). Burnout syndrome in critical care nursing staff. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175, 698704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaha, M. & Rabenschlag, F. (2007). Burdensome situations in everyday nursing: An explorative qualitative action research on a medical ward. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 31 (2), 134145.Google Scholar
Shanafelt, T. D., Bradley, K. A., Wipf, J. W. & Back, A. L. (2002). Burnout and self-reported patient care in an internal medicine residency program. Annals of Internal Medicine, 136, 358367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shanafelt, T. D., Balch, C. M., Bechamps, G. J., et al. (2009). Burnout and career satisfaction among American surgeons. Annals of Surgery, 250, 463471.Google Scholar
Shanafelt, T., Balch, C. M., Bechamps, G., et al. (2010). Burnout and medical errors among American surgeons. Annals of Surgery. Annals of Surgery, 251, 9951000.Google Scholar
Shanafelt, T. D., Boone, S., Tan, L., et al. (2012). Burnout and satisfaction with work–life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172, 13771385. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3199.Google Scholar
Shirom, A., Nirel, N. & Vinokur, A. D. (2006). Overload, autonomy, and burnout as predictors of physicians’ quality of care. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 328342.Google Scholar
Tilburt, J. C., Wynia, M. K., Sheeler, R. D., et al. (2013). Views of US physicians about controlling health care costs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(4), 380389.Google Scholar
Vahey, D. C., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Clarke, S. P. & Vargas, D. (2004). Nurse burnout and patient satisfaction. Medical Care, 42(2 Suppl), II57–66.Google Scholar
Vela-Bueno, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodríguez-Mu˜noz, A., et al. (2008). Insomnia and sleep quality among primary care physicians with low and high burnout levels. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 435442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Åkerstedt, T. & Wright, K. P. Jr (2009). Sleep loss and fatigue in shift work and shift work disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 257271.Google Scholar
Åkerstedt, T., Nordin, M., Alfredsson, L., et al. (2010). Sleep and sleepiness: impact of entering or leaving shiftwork: a prospective study. Chronobiology International, 27, 987996.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Åkerstedt, T., Knutsson, A., Narusyte, J., et al. (2015). Night work and breast cancer in women: a Swedish cohort study. BMJ Open, 5.Google Scholar
Asaoka, S., Aritake, S., Komada, Y., et al. (2013). Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the nurses’ sleep health project. Chronobiology International, 30, 628636.Google Scholar
Bøggild, H. (2009). Settling the question: the next review on shift work and heart disease in 2019. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 35, 157161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bøggild, H. & Knutsson, A. (1999). Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 25, 8599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonde, J. P., Jørgensen, K. T., Bonzini, M., et al. (2013). Miscarriage and occupational activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding shift work, working hours, lifting, standing, and physical workload. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 39, 325334.Google Scholar
Bonzini, M., Palmer, K. T., Coggon, D., et al. (2011). Shift work and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of currently available epidemiological studies. BJOG, 118, 14291437.Google Scholar
Brum, M. C. B., Filho, F. F. D., Schnorr, C. C., et al. (2015). Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Canuto, R., Garcez, A. S. & Olinto, M. T. A. (2013). Metabolic syndrome and shift work: a systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 17, 425431.Google Scholar
Costa, G. (1996). The impact of shift and night work on health. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 916.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, G. (2010). Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions. Safety and Health at Work, 1, 112123.Google Scholar
Costa, G. (2011). Editorial for special issue of Applied Ergonomics on working hours. Applied Ergonomics, 42, 193195.Google Scholar
Fernandez, R. C., Marino, J. L., Varcoe, T. J., et al. (2016). Fixed or rotating night shift work undertaken by women: implications for fertility and miscarriage. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 34, 7482.Google ScholarPubMed
Flo, E., Pallesen, S., Magerøy, N., et al. (2012). Shift work disorder in nurses: assessment, prevalence and related health problems. PloS One, 7.Google Scholar
Flo, E., Pallesen, S., Åkerstedt, T., et al. (2013). Shift-related sleep problems vary according to work schedule. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70, 238245.Google Scholar
Frost, P., Kolstad, H. A. & Bonde, J. P. (2009). Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 35, 163179.Google Scholar
Gamble, K. L., Resuehr, D. & Johnson, C. H. (2013). Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 4, article 92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gu, F., Han, J., Laden, F., et al. (2015). Total and cause-specific mortality of U.S. nurses working rotating night shifts. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48, 241252.Google Scholar
Hansen, A. B., Stayner, L., Hansen, J., et al. (2016). Night shift work and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 73, 262268.Google Scholar
Haus, E. L. & Smolensky, M. H. (2013). Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 17, 273284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hesselink, J. K., de Leede, J. & Goudswaard, A. (2010). Effects of the new fast forward rotating five-shift roster at a Dutch steel company. Ergonomics, 53, 727738.Google Scholar
Ijaz, S., Verbeek, J., Seidler, A., et al. (2013). Night-shift work and breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 39, 431447.Google Scholar
Kamdar, B. B., Tergas, A. I., Mateen, F. J., et al. (2013). Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 138, 291301.Google Scholar
Karhula, K., Härmä, M., Ropponen, A., et al. (2016). Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts. Chronobiology International, 33, 768775.Google Scholar
Knauth, P. & Hornberger, S. (2003). Preventive and compensatory measures for shift workers. Occupational Medicine, 53, 109116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knutsson, A. (2003). Health disorders of shift workers. Occupational Medicine, 53, 103108.Google Scholar
Knutsson, A. & Bøggild, H. (2010). Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 36, 8595.Google Scholar
Kolstad, H. A. (2008). Nightshift work and risk of breast cancer and other cancers: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 34, 522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kunst, J. R., Løset, G. K., Hosøy, D., et al. (2014). The relationship between shift work schedules and spillover in a sample of nurses. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 20, 139147.Google Scholar
Lawson, C. C., Johnson, C. Y., Chavarro, J. E., et al. (2015). Work schedule and physically demanding work in relation to menstrual function: the nurses’ health study 3. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 41, 194203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, X., Chen, W., Wei, F., et al. (2015). Night-shift work increases morbidity of breast cancer and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies. Sleep Medicine, 16, 13811387.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lockley, S. W. (2010). Principles of sleep–wake regulation. In Cappuccio, F. P., Miller, M. A. & Lockley, S. W. (eds) Sleep, Health and Society: From Aetiology to Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Monk, T. H., Buysse, D. J., Billy, B. D., et al. (2013). Shiftworkers report worse sleep than day workers, even in retirement. Journal of Sleep Research, 22, 201208.Google Scholar
Nätti, J., Anttila, T., Oinas, T., et al. (2012). Night work and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees over the time span 1984 to 2008. Chronobiology International, 29, 601609.Google Scholar
Neil-Sztramko, S. E., Pahwa, M., Demers, P. A., et al. (2014). Health-related interventions among night shift workers: a critical review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 40, 543556.Google Scholar
Niu, S. F., Chung, M. H., Chen, C. H., et al. (2011). The effect of shift rotation on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level: a systematic review. Journal of Nursing Research, 19, 6881.Google Scholar
Pallesen, S., Bjorvatn, B., Magerøy, N., et al. (2010). Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 36, 109120.Google Scholar
Proper, K. I., Van De Langenberg, D., Rodenburg, W., et al. (2016). The relationship between shift work and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50, e147e157.Google Scholar
Puttonen, S., Härmä, M. & Hublin, C. (2010). Shift work and cardiovascular disease: pathways from circadian stress to morbidity. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 36, 96108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramin, C., Devore, E. E., Wang, W., et al. (2015). Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 72, 100107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rao, D., Yu, H., Bai, Y., et al. (2015). Does night-shift work increase the risk of prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. OncoTargets and Therapy, 8, 28172826.Google Scholar
Schernhammer, E. S., Feskanich, D., Liang, G., et al. (2013). Rotating night-shiftwork and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 178, 14341441.Google Scholar
Scott, A. J. (2000). Shift work and health. Primary Care, 27, 10571070.Google Scholar
Singh, R. B., Anjum, B., Garg, R., et al. (2014). Circadian disruption of sleep and night shift work with risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In Singh, R. (ed.), New Research in Cardiovascular Health. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Slanger, T. E., Gross, J. V., Pinger, A., et al. (2016). Person-directed, non-pharmacological interventions for sleepiness at work and sleep disturbances caused by shift work. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD010641.Google Scholar
Takahashi, M. (2014). Assisting shift workers through sleep and circadian research. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 12, 8595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, C. & Power, C. (2010). Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort. European Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 305314.Google Scholar
Tucker, P., Folkard, S., Ansiau, D., et al. (2011). The effects of age and shiftwork on perceived sleep problems: results from the VISAT combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 794798.Google Scholar
Ulhôa, M. A., Marqueze, E. C., Burgos, L. G. A., et al. (2015). Shift work and endocrine disorders. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2015: 826249.Google Scholar
van Melick, M. J. G. J., van Beukering, M. D. M., Mol, B. W., et al. (2014). Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 87, 835849.Google Scholar
Vetter, C., Devore, E. E., Wegrzyn, L. R., et al. (2016). Association between rotating night shiftwork and risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA, 315, 17261734.Google Scholar
Vyas, M. V., Garg, A. X., Iansavichus, A. V., et al. (2012). Shift work and vascular events: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Online), 345:e4800.Google Scholar
Wang, F., Zhang, L., Zhang, Y., et al. (2014). Meta-analysis on night shift work and risk of metabolic syndrome. Obesity Reviews, 15, 709720.Google Scholar
Wang, P., Ren, F. M., Lin, Y., et al. (2015). Night-shift work, sleep duration, daytime napping, and breast cancer risk. Sleep Medicine, 16, 462468.Google Scholar
Wang, X. S., Armstrong, M. E. G., Cairns, B. J., et al. (2011). Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occupational Medicine, 61, 7889.Google Scholar
Weston, L. (2014). Shift work. In Health Survey for England, 2013. Volume 1. Health, Social Care and Lifestyles. London: Health and Social Care Information Centre.Google Scholar
Yong, M., Germann, C., Lang, S., et al. (2015). Primary selection into shift work and change of cardiovascular risk profile. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 41, 259267.Google Scholar


Brooks, S. K., Gerada, C. & Chalder, T. (2011). Review of literature on the mental health of doctors: are specialist services needed? Journal of Mental Health, 2(146), 156.Google Scholar
Cox, T. (1978) Stress. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159165.Google Scholar
Kaschka, W. P., Korczak, D. & Broich, K. (2011). Burnout: a fashionable diagnosis. Deutsches Ärtzeblatt International, 108(46), 781787.Google Scholar
Kinman, G. & Jones, F. (2005). Lay representations of workplace stress: what do people really mean when they say they are stressed? Work & Stress, 19(2), 101120.Google Scholar
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E. & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd edn). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C. & Gordon, D. (2002). The causal links between stress and burnout in a longitudinal study of UK doctors. Lancet, 359, 20892090.Google Scholar
McManus, I. C., Keeling, A. & Paice, E. (2004). Stress, burnout and doctors’ attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates. BMC Medicine, 2, 29.Google Scholar
McManus, I. C., Jonvik, H., Richards, P. & Paice, E. (2011). Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional study of UK doctors. BMC Medicine, 9, 100. Scholar
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (1999). Stress ... at Work. Cincinatti, OH: US Department of Health and Human Services. Scholar
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A., Hoogduin, K., Schaap, C. & Kladler, A. (2001). On the clinical validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the burnout measure. Psychology and Health, 16, 565582.Google Scholar
Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P. & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204220.Google Scholar


Balch, C. M. & Copeland, E. (2007). Stress and burnout among surgical oncologists: a call for personal wellness and a supportive workplace environment. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14(11), 30293032. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-007–9588-0.Google Scholar
Barth, J. & Lannen, P. (2011). Efficacy of communication skills training courses in oncology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology, 22(5), 10301040.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, S. K., Moorman, D. W. & Delbanco, T. (2010). Improving the patient, family, and clinician experience after harmful events: the ‘when things go wrong’ curriculum. Academic Medicine, 85(6), 10101017.Google Scholar
Canivet, D., Delvaux, N., Gibon, A.-S., Brancart, C., et al. (2014). Improving communication in cancer pain management nursing: a randomized controlled study assessing the efficacy of a communication skills training program. Supportive Care in Cancer, 22(12), 33113320.Google Scholar
Carter, A. J. & West, M. A. (1999). Sharing the burden: team work in health care settings. In Firth-Cozens, J. & Payne, R. (eds.), Stress in Health Professionals: Psychological and Organizational Causes and Interventions. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
Christensen, J. F., Levinson, W. & Dunn, P. M. (1992). The heart of darkness. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 7(4), 424431.Google Scholar
Conway, J., Federico, F., Stewart, K. & Campbell, M. J. (2011). Respectful management of serious clinical adverse events. Institute for Healthcare Improvement Innovation Series White Paper.Google Scholar
Daniels, R. G. & McCorkle, R. (2016). Design of an evidence-based ‘second victim’ curriculum for nurse anesthetists. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, 84, 107113.Google ScholarPubMed
Edrees, H., Brock, D. M., Wu, A. W., et al. (2016). The experiences of risk managers in providing emotional support for health care workers after adverse events. Journal of Healthcare Risk Management, 35(4), 1421. DOI: 10.1002/jhrm.21219.Google Scholar
Fallowfield, L., Jenkins, V., Farewell, V., et al. (2002). Efficacy of a Cancer Research UK communication skills training model for oncologists: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 359(9307), 650656. Scholar
Firth-Cozens, J. (2001a). Cultures for improving patient safety through learning: the role of teamwork. Quality in Health Care, 10(suppl. 2), ii26ii31.Google ScholarPubMed
Firth-Cozens, J. (2001b). Interventions to improve physicians’ well-being and patient care. Social Science & Medicine, 52(2), 215222.Google Scholar
Firth-Cozens, J. (2003). Doctors, their wellbeing, and their stress: it’s time to be proactive about stress – and prevent it. BMJ, 326(7391), 670671. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.326.7391.670.Google Scholar
Fukui, S., Ogawa, K., Ohtsuka, M. & Fukui, N. (2008). A randomized study assessing the efficacy of communication skill training on patients’ psychologic distress and coping. Cancer, 113(6), 14621470.Google Scholar
Grunfeld, E., Whelan, T. J., Zitzelsberger, L., et al. (2000). Cancer care workers in Ontario: prevalence of burnout, job stress and job satisfaction. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163(2), 166169.Google Scholar
Hirschinger, L. E., Scott, S. D. & Hahn-Cover, K. (2015). Clinician support: five years of lessons learned. Patient Safety and Quality Healthcare, April, 26–31.Google Scholar
Hu, Y.-Y., Fix, M. L., Hevelone, N. D., et al. (2012). Physicians’ needs in coping with emotional stressors: the case for peer support. Archives of Surgery, 147(3), 212217.Google Scholar
James, J. T. (2013). A new, evidence-based estimate of patient harms associated with hospital care. Journal of Patient Safety, 9(3), 122128.Google Scholar
Kalliath, T. J. & Beck, A. (2001). Is the path to burnout and turnover paved by a lack of supervisory support? A structural equations test. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 30(2), 72.Google Scholar
Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M. & Donaldson, M. S. (2000). To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Marmon, L. M. & Heiss, K. (2015). Improving surgeon wellness: the second victim syndrome and quality of care. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 24(6), 315318.Google Scholar
Michie, S. & West, M. A. (2004). Managing people and performance: an evidence based framework applied to health service organizations. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5(2), 91111.Google Scholar
MITSS. (n.d.). Tools for building a clinician and staff support program. Scholar
Moore, P. M., Rivera Mercado, S., Grez Artigues, M. & Lawrie, T. A. (2013). Communication skills training for healthcare professionals working with people who have cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3, CD003751.Google Scholar
Morse, G., Salyers, M. P., Rollins, A. L., Monroe-DeVita, M. & Pfahler, C. (2012). Burnout in mental health services: a review of the problem and its remediation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39(5), 341352. DOI: 10.1007/s10488-011-0352-1.Google Scholar
Moss, M., Good, V. S., Gozal, D., Kleinpell, R. & Sessler, C. N. (2016). A critical care societies collaborative statement: burnout syndrome in critical care health-care professionals – a call for action. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 194(1), 106113.Google Scholar
NHS (n.d.) NHS practitioner health programme. Scholar
Peterson, U., Bergström, G., Samuelsson, M., Åsberg, M. & Nygren, Å. (2008). Reflecting peer‐support groups in the prevention of stress and burnout: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(5), 506516.Google Scholar
Plews-Ogan, M., May, N., Owens, J., et al. (2016). Wisdom in medicine: what helps physicians after a medical error? Academic Medicine, 91(2), 233241. DOI: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000886.Google Scholar
Poncet, M. C., Toullic, P., Papazian, L., et al. (2007). Burnout syndrome in critical care nursing staff. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175(7), 698704.Google Scholar
Priebe, S., Fakhoury, W., White, I., et al.(2004). Characteristics of teams, staff and patients: associations with outcomes of patients in assertive outreach. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 185(4), 306311.Google Scholar
Ramirez, A. J., Graham, J., Richards, M. A., Gregory, W. M. & Cull, A. (1996). Mental health of hospital consultants: the effects of stress and satisfaction at work. Lancet, 347(9003), 724728.Google Scholar
Rassin, M., Levy, O., Schwartz, T. & Silner, D. (2006). Caregivers’ role in breaking bad news: patients, doctors, and nurses’ points of view. Cancer Nursing, 29(4), 302308.Google Scholar
Rössler, W. (2012). Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 262(2), 6569.Google Scholar
Ruotsalainen, J., Serra, C., Marine, A. & Verbeek, J. H. (2008). Systematic review of interventions for reducing occupational stress in health care workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 34, 169178.Google Scholar
Ruotsalainen, J., Verbeek, J. H., Mariné, A. & Serra, C. (2015). Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4, CD002892.Google Scholar
Salazar, M. J. B., Minkoff, H., Bayya, J., et al. (2014). Influence of surgeon behavior on trainee willingness to speak up: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 219(5), 10011007.Google Scholar
Scott, S. D. (2015). Second victim support: implications for patient safety attitudes and perceptions. Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare, September/October, 26–31.Google Scholar
Scott, S. D., Hirschinger, L. E., Cox, K. R., et al. (2009). The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider ‘second victim’ after adverse patient events. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 18(5), 325330.Google Scholar
Scott, S. D., Hirschinger, L. E., Cox, K. R., et al. (2010). Caring for our own: deploying a systemwide second victim rapid response team. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 36(5), 233240.Google Scholar
Seys, D., Scott, S., Wu, A., et al. (2013). Supporting involved health care professionals (second victims) following an adverse health event: a literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 678687.Google Scholar
Shanafelt, T. D., Sloan, J. A. & Habermann, T. M. (2003). The well-being of physicians. The American Journal of Medicine, 114(6), 513519.Google Scholar
Shapiro, J., Whittemore, A. & Tsen, L. C. (2014). Instituting a culture of professionalism: the establishment of a center for professionalism and peer support. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 40(4), 168177.Google ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W. & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 105.Google Scholar
Skovholt, T. M. & Rønnestad, M. H. (2003). Struggles of the novice counselor and therapist. Journal of Career Development, 30(1), 4558.Google Scholar
Thomas, N. K. (2004). Resident burnout. JAMA, 292(23), 28802889. DOI: 10.1001/jama.292.23.2880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wall, T. D., Bolden, R. I., Borrill, C. S., et al. (1997). Minor psychiatric disorder in NHS trust staff: occupational and gender differences. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 171(6), 519523.Google Scholar
Wallace, J. E., Lemaire, J. B. & Ghali, W. A. (2009). Physician wellness: a missing quality indicator. Lancet, 374(9702), 17141721.Google Scholar
Weinberg, A. & Creed, F. (2000). Stress and psychiatric disorder in healthcare professionals and hospital staff. Lancet, 355(9203), 533537.Google Scholar
Welp, A., Meier, L. L. & Manser, T. (2016). The interplay between teamwork, clinicians’ emotional exhaustion, and clinician-rated patient safety: a longitudinal study. Critical Care, 20(1), 110. DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1282-9.Google Scholar
Wu, A. (2000). Medical error: the second victim. Western Journal of Medicine, 172(6), 358.Google Scholar
Zellars, K. L., Perrewe, P. L. & Hochwarter, W. A. (2000). Burnout in health care: the role of the five factors of personality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(8), 15701598.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats