Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-4v6tc Total loading time: 1.732 Render date: 2023-01-30T21:35:29.167Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

35 - The Learner Control Principle in Multimedia Learning

from Part VII - Principles Based on Generative Activity in Multimedia Learning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2021

Richard E. Mayer
Affiliation:
University of California, Santa Barbara
Logan Fiorella
Affiliation:
University of Georgia
Get access

Summary

The learner control principle is that giving learners control over their instruction by allowing them to pace, sequence, and select information aids learning if learners possess high levels of prior knowledge and if they receive additional instructional support to orient themselves in the learning environment and to self-regulate their learning. Learner control has been suggested to afford an active, constructive processing of instruction, to increase and sustain the motivation to learn, to enhance the acquisition of self-regulatory skills, and to enable learners to adapt instruction to their preferences and needs. Despite these envisioned benefits, there is little empirical evidence supporting these claims, which is largely because these benefits are overwritten by the additional cognitive and metacognitive demands learner control imposes.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amadieu, F., van Gog, T., Paas, F., Tricot, A., & Mariné, C. (2009). Effects of prior knowledge and concept-map structure on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning. Learning and Instruction, 19, 376386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R. (2005). Using hypermedia as a metacognitive tool for enhancing student learning? The role of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 40, 199209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., & Cromley, J. G. (2004). Does training on self-regulated learning facilitate students’ learning with hypermedia? Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 523535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., & Seibert, D. (2004). Does adaptive scaffolding facilitate students’ ability to regulate their learning with hypermedia? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 344370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., Winters, F. I., Moos, D. C., & Greene, J. A. (2006). Using computers as metacognitive tools to foster students’ self-regulated learning. Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning Journal, 3, 97104.Google Scholar
Azevedo, R., Guthrie, J. T., & Seibert, D. (2004). The role of self-regulated learning in fostering students’ conceptual understanding of complex systems with hypermedia. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 30, 87111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., & Hadwin, A. F. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition: Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 33, 367379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., Johnson, A., Chauncey, A., & Burkett, C. (2010). Self-regulated learning with MetaTutor: Advancing the science of learning with MetaCognitive tools. In Khine, M., & Saleh, I. (eds.), New Science of Learning: Computers, Cognition, and Collaboration in Education (pp. 225247). Amsterdam: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, R., Moos, D. C., Johnson, A. M., & Chauncey, A. D. (2010). Measuring cognitive and metacognitive regulatory processes during hypermedia learning: Issues and challenges. Educational Psychologist, 45, 210223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. D. (2007). Working Memory, Thought and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bannert, M. (2006). Effects of reflection prompts when learning with hypermedia. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 4, 359375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bannert, M., & Reimann, P. (2012). Supporting self-regulated hypermedia learning through prompts. Instructional Science, 40, 193211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bannert, M., Sonnenberg, C., Mengelkamp, C., & Pieger, E. (2015). Short- and long-term effects of students’ self-directed metacognitive prompts on navigation behavior and learning performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 293306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, R. F., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (2000). Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self- regulation, and controlled processing. Social Cognition, 18, 130150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Betrancourt, M. (2005). The animation and interactivity principles in multimedia learning. In Mayer, R. E. (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 287296). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C., & Rada, R. (1996). Interacting with hypertext: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Human–Computer Interaction, 11, 125156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, S. Y., Fan, J.-P., & Macredie, R. D. (2006). Navigation in hypermedia learning systems: Experts vs. novices. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 251266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chi, M. T. H., & Wylie, R. (2014). The ICAP framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational Psychologist, 49, 219243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Towards a personalized task selection model with shared instructional control. Instructional Science, 34, 399422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Bruin, A. B. H., Roelle, J., Baars, M., & EFG-MRE. (2020). Synthesizing cognitive load and self-regulation theory: A theoretical framework and research agenda. Educational Psychology Review, 32, 903915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 4, 227268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeStefano, D., & LeFevre, J.-A. (2007). Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 16161641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dias, P., Gomes, M. J., & Correia, A. P. (1999). Disorientation in hypermedia environments: Mechanisms to support navigation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 20, 93117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillon, A., & Gabbard, R. (1998). Hypermedia as an educational technology: A review of the quantitative research literature on learner comprehension, control, and style. Review of Educational Research, 68, 322349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eitel, A., Endres, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Self-management as a bridge between cognitive load and self-regulated learning: The illustrative case of seductive details. Educational Psychology Review, 32, 10731087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gall, J. E., & Hannafin, M. J. (1994). A framework for the study of hypertext. Instructional Science, 22, 207232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerjets, P., & Scheiter, K. (2003). Goal configurations and processing strategies as moderators between instructional design and cognitive load: Evidence from hypertext-based instruction. Educational Psychologist, 38, 3341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hummel, H. G. K., Nadolski, R. J., Eshuis, J., Slootmaker, A., & Storm, J. (2020). Serious game in introductory psychology for professional awareness: Optimal learner control and authenticity. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(1), 125141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobson, M. J., Maouri, C., Mishra, P., & Kolar, C. (1995). Learning with hypertext learning environments: Theory, design, and research. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 4, 321364.Google Scholar
Johnson, A. M., Azevedo, R., & D’Mello, S. K. (2011). The temporal and dynamic nature of self-regulatory processes during independent and externally assisted hypermedia. Cognition and Instruction, 29, 471504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyuga, S. (2007). Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 509539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, I., & Assor, A. (2007). When choice motivates and when it does not. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 429442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kauffman, D. F. (2004). Self-regulated learning in web-based environments: Instructional tool designed to facilitate cognitive strategy use, metacognitive processing and motivational beliefs. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 30, 139161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennedy, G. (2004). Promoting cognition in multimedia interactivity research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15, 4361.Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2013). Do learners really know best? Urban legends in education. Educational Psychologist, 48, 169183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawless, K. A., Brown, S. W., Mills, R., & Mayall, H. J. (2003). Knowledge, interest, recall, and navigation: A look at hypertext processing. Journal of Literacy Research, 35, 911934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawless, K. A., & Kulikowich, J. M. (1998). Domain knowledge, interest and hypertext navigation: A study of individual differences. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 7, 5169.Google Scholar
Lin, X., & Lehman, J. (1999). Supporting learning of variable control in a computer-based biology environment: Effects of promoting college students to reflect on their own thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 837858.3.0.CO;2-U>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowrey, W., & Kim, K. S. (2009). Online news media and advanced learning: A test of cognitive flexibility theory. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 53, 547566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lunts, E. (2002). What does the literature say about the effectiveness of learner control in computer-assisted instruction? Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 1, 5975.Google Scholar
Mayer, R. E. (ed.) (2014). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, S., & Stevenson, R. J. (1996). Disorientation in hypertext: The effects of three text structures on navigation performance. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 6168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNamara, D. S., Kintsch, E., Songer, N. B., & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good texts always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 14, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metcalfe, J. (2002). Is study time allocated selectively to a region of proximal learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 349363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mihalca, L., Mengelkamp, C., & Schnotz, W. (2017). Accuracy of metacognitive judgments as a moderator of learner control effectiveness in problem-solving tasks. Metacognition and Learning, 12, 357379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moos, D. C., & Azevedo, R. (2008). Self-regulated learning with hypermedia: The role of prior domain knowledge. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 270298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moos, D. C., & Marroquin, E. (2010). Multimedia, hypermedia, and hypertext: Motivation considered and reconsidered. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 265276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno, R. (2006). Does the modality principle hold for different media? A test of the method-affects-learning hypothesis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 149158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moritz, J., Meyerhoff, H. S., & Schwan, S. (2020). Control over spatial representation format enhances information extraction but prevents long-term learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112, 148165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, N. M., & Seufert, T. (2018). Effects of self-regulation prompts in hypermedia learning on learning performance and self-efficacy. Learning and Instruction, 58, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. In Bower, G. (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory (Vol. 26, pp. 125173). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Niederhauser, D. S., Reynolds, R. E., Salmen, D. L., & Skolmoski, P. (2000). The influence of cognitive load on learning from hypertext. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23, 237255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niemiec, R. P., Sikorski, C., & Walberg, H. J. (1996). Learner-control effects: A review of reviews and a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15, 157174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D. R., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 105119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Robinson, J. C. (2008). The effects of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes: A meta-analysis of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 270300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pieger, E., & Bannert, M. (2018). Differential effects of students’ self-directed metacognitive prompts. Computers in Human Behavior, 86, 165173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rey, G. D., Beege, M., Nebel, S., Wirzberger, M., Schmitt, T. H., & Schneider, S. (2019). A meta-analysis of the segmenting effect. Educational Psychology Review, 31, 389419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rouet, J.-F., Levonen, J. J., Dillon, A., & Spiro, R. J. (eds.) (1996). Hypertext and Cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Salmerón, L., Cañas, J. J., Kintsch, W., & Fajardo, I. (2005). Reading strategies and hypertext comprehension. Discourse Processes, 40, 171191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2007). Learner control in hypermedia environments. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 285307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., Vollmann, B., & Catrambone, R. (2009). The impact of learner characteristics on information utilization strategies, cognitive load experienced, and performance in hypermedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 19, 387401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnackenberg, H. L., Sullivan, H. J., Leader, L. F., & Jones, E. E. K. (1998). Learner preferences and achievement under differing amounts of learner practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46, 516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, N. H., Andersen, C., Hong, N., Howard, B., & McGee, S. (2004). The influence of metacognitive skills on learners’ memory of information in a hypermedia environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, 7793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shapiro, A. (2008). Hypermedia design as learner scaffolding. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 2944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shapiro, A. M., & Niederhauser, D. S. (2004). Learning from hypertext: Research issues and findings. In Jonassen, D. H. (ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 605622). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Sonnenberg, C., & Bannert, M. (2019). Using process mining to examine the sustainability of instructional support: How stable are the effects of metacognitive prompting on self-regulatory behavior? Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 259272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorgenfrei, C., & Smolnik, S. (2016). The effectiveness of E-learning systems: A review of the empirical literature on learner control. Decision Sciences, 14, 154184.Google Scholar
Spiro, R. J., & Jehng, J.-C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In Nix, D., & Spiro, R. J. (eds.), Cognition, Education, and Multimedia (pp. 163205). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Stark, L., Malkmus, E., Stark, R., Brünken, R., & Park, B. (2018). Learning-related emotions in multimedia learning: An application of control-value theory. Learning and Instruction, 58, 4252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia learning. In Mayer, R. E. (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 1930). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tempelaar, D. T., Rienties, B., & Nguyen, Q. (2020). Individual differences in the preference for worked examples: Lessons from an application of dispositional learning analytics. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34, 890905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiede, K. W., Anderson, M. C. M., & Therriault, D. (2003). Accuracy of metacognitive monitoring affects learning of texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 6673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thillmann, H., Künsting, J., Wirth, J., & Leutner, D. (2009). Is it merely a question of “what” to prompt or also “when” to prompt? Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 23, 105115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valcke, M. (2002). Cognitive load: Updating the theory? Learning and Instruction, 12, 147154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veenman, M. V. J., van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In Hacker, D. J., Dunlosky, J., & Graesser, A. C. (eds.), Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice (pp. 277306). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Winne, P. H., & Nesbit, J. C. (2009). Supporting self-regulated learning with cognitive tools. In Hacker, D. J., Dunlosky, J., & Graesser, A. C. (eds.), Handbook of Metacognition in Education (pp. 259277). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Zhu, E. (1999). Hypermedia interface design: The effects of number of links and granularity of nodes. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8, 331358.Google Scholar
Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41, 6470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zottmann, J. M., Goeze, A., Frank, C., Zentner, U., Fischer, F., & Schrader, J. (2012). Fostering the analytical competency of pre-service teachers in a computer-supported case-based learning environment: A matter of perspective? Interactive Learning Environments, 20, 513532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×