Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-rfz7g Total loading time: 1.557 Render date: 2022-11-28T05:09:00.122Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Part III - Interest and Internal Motivation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2019

K. Ann Renninger
Affiliation:
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Suzanne E. Hidi
Affiliation:
University of Toronto
Get access

Summary

Developing interest is a powerful support for deeper learning. The presence of even some interest beneficially affects individuals’ attention and memory, as well as their motivation and meaningful engagement. In this chapter, we expand on previous descriptions of the relation between interest and its development as conceptualized in the Four-Phase Model of Interest Development (Hidi & Renninger, 2006; Renninger & Hidi, 2016). We explain that interest has a physiological basis, and therefore is universal – meaning that all persons, regardless of age or context, can be supported to develop at least some interest in topics to be learned. We describe how and when interest is likely to develop. We review findings which provide evidence that the structure of tasks and activities, as well as interactions with other people, may be helpful to interest development, and also that when these supports are mismatched with the learner's phase of interest, they may constrain or impede interest development. We point to interest as a determinant of learners’ understanding, effort, and feedback preferences, and the coordination of their phase of interest development with their abilities to set and realize goals, feel self-efficacy, and self-regulate. We conclude by identifying some open questions concerning the process of interest development and learning.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Ainley, M. (2007). Being and feeling interested: Transient state, mood, and disposition. In Schutz, P. (Ed.), Emotion in education (pp. 141–57). New York, NY: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012372545-5/50010-1.Google Scholar
Ainley, M. (2017). Interest: Knowns, unknowns, and basic processes. In O'Keefe, P. A. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (Eds.), The Science of interest (pp. 324). New York, NY: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ainley, M. & Ainley, J. (2015). Early science learning experiences: Triggered and maintained interest. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 1733). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, J. M., Johnson, K. E., & Leibham, M. E. (2015). Emerging individual interests related to science in young children. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 261–81). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Azevedo, F. S. (2006). Personal excursions: Investigating the dynamics of student engagement. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 11(1), 5798. doi: 10.1007/s10758-006-0007-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, F. S. (2013a). The tailored practice of hobbies and its implication for the design of interest-based learning environments. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 22(3), 462510. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2012.730082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, F. S. (2013b). Knowing the stability of model rockets: An investigation of learning in interest-based practices. Cognition and Instruction, 31(3), 345–74. doi: 10.1080/07370008.2013.799168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barron, B., Gomez, K., Pinkard, N., & Martin, C. (2014). The digital youth network: cultivating digital media citizenship in urban communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Cabot, I. (2014). The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development: Elaboration of a measurement instrument. Poster presented in Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. E. (chairs), Current approaches to interest measurement. Philadelphia, PA: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Crouch, C. H. & Heller, K. (2014). Introductory physics in biological context: An approach to improve introductory physics for life science students. American Journal of Physics, 82, 378–86. doi: 10.1119/1.4870079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crouch, C. H., Wisittanawat, P., Cai, M., & Renninger, K. A. (2018). Life science students’ attitudes, interest, and performance in introductory physics for life sciences (IPLS): An exploratory study. Physical Review Physics Education Research. 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.14.010111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowley, K., Barron, B., Knutson, K., & Martin, C. K. (2015). Interest and the development of pathways to science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 297315). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dohn, N. B. & Dohn, N. B. (2017). Integrating Facebook in upper secondary biology instruction: A case study of students’ situational interest and participation in learning communication. Research in Science Education, 47(6), 1305–29. doi: 10.1007/s11165-016-9549-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernst, M. & Spear, L. P. (2009). Reward systems. In de Haan, M. & Gunnar, M. R. (Eds.), Handbook of developmental social neuroscience (pp. 324–41). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Fulmer, S. M. & Frijters, J. C. (2011). Motivation during an excessively challenging reading task: The buffering role of relative topic interest. Journal of Experimental Education, 79(2), 185208. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2010.481503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottlieb, J., Oudeyer, P.-Y., Lopes, M., & Baranes, A. (2013). Information seeking, curiosity and attention: Computational and neural mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Science, 17(11), 585–96. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.09.001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossnickle, E. M. (2016). Disentangling curiosity: Dimensionality, definitions, and distinctions from interest in educational contexts. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 2360. doi: 10.1007/s10648-014-9294-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, M. J., Gelman, B. D., & Ranganath, C. (2014). States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit. Neuron, 84(2), 486–96. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.060.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gutwill, J. P. & Allen, S. (2012). Deepening students’ scientific inquiry skills during a science museum field trip. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(1), 130–81. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2011.555938.Google Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 562–75. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.94.3.562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Durik, A. M., Barron, K. E., Linnenbrink, L., & Tauer, J. M. (2008). The role of achievement goals in the development of interest: Reciprocal relations between achievement goals, interest, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 105–22. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Smith, J. L., & Priniski, S. J. (2016). Interest matters: The importance of promoting interest in education. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(2), 220–7. doi: 10.1177/2372732216655542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harter, S. (2003). The development of self-representation during childhood and adolescence. In Leary, M. R. & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 610–42). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Hidi, S. (1990). Interest and its contribution as a mental resource for learning. Review of Educational Research, 60(4), 549–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. (2016). Revisiting the role of rewards in motivation and learning: Implications of neuroscientific research. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 6193. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9307-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. & Ainley, M. (2008). Interest and self-regulation: Relationships between two variables that influence learning. In Schunk, D. H. & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and application (pp. 77109). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hidi, S. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Motivating the academically unmotivated: A critical issue for the 21st century. Review of Educational Research, 70(2), 151–79. doi: 10.2307/1170660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111–27. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. E., Renninger, K. A., & Northoff, G. (2018). The development of interest and self-related processing. In Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., McInerney, D. M., & Craven, R. G. (Eds.), International advances in self research, Vol. 6: SELF – Driving positive psychology and well-being (pp. 5170). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
Hidi, S., Weiss, J., Berndorff, J. D., & Nolan, J. (1998). The role of gender, instruction and a cooperative learning technique in science education across formal and informal settings. In Hoffman, L., Krapp, A., Renninger, K., & Baumert, J. (Eds.), Interest and Learning: Proceedings of the Seeon Conference on Interest and Gender (pp. 215–27). Kiel: Institute for Science Education (IPN).Google Scholar
Hoffmann, L. (2002). Promoting girls’ learning and achievement in physics classes for beginners. Learning and Instruction, 12(4), 447–65. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00010-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffmann, L. & Häussler, P. (1998). An intervention project promoting girls’ and boys’ interest in physics. In Hoffmann, L., Krapp, A., Renninger, K. A., & Baumert, J. (Eds.), Interest and Learning: Proceedings of the Seeon Conference on Interest and Gender (pp. 301–16). Kiel: Institute for Science Education (IPN).Google Scholar
Hulleman, C. & Harackiewicz, J. (2009). Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science, 326(5698), 1410–12. doi: 10.1126/science.1177067.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulleman, C. S., Kosovich, J. J., Barron, K. E., & Daniel, D. B. (2016). Making connections: Replicating and extending the utility value intervention in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(3), 387404. doi: 10.1037/edu0000146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iran-Nejad, A. (1987). Cognitive and affective causes of interest and liking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(2), 120–30. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.79.2.120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Cody, R., Herr-Stephenson, B., ... Tripp, L. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Izard, C. E. & Ackerman, B. P. (2000). Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. In Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 253–64). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Jansen, M., Lüdtke, O., & Schroeders, U. (2016). Evidence for a positive relationship between interest and achievement: Examining between-person and within-person variation in five domains. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 116–27. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, M. J., Hsu, M., Krajbich, I. M., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., Wang, J. T., & Camerer, C. F. (2009). The wick in the candle of learning: Epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory. Psychological Science, 20, 963–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02402.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knogler, M., Harackiewicz, J. M., Gegenfurtner, A., & Lewalter, D. (2015). How situational is situational interest? Investigating the longitudinal structure of situational interest. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 43, 3950. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krapp, A. & Fink, B. (1992/2014). The development and function of interests during the critical transition from home to preschool. In Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A. (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 397431). Hillsdale, MJ: Erlbaum. doi: 10.4324/9781315807430.Google Scholar
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lipstein, R. & Renninger, K. A. (2007). “Putting things into words”: The development of 12–15-year-old students’ interest for writing. In Boscolo, P. & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Motivation and writing: Research and school practice (pp. 113–40). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. doi: 10.1163/9781849508216_008.Google Scholar
Lo, J. C. (2015). Developing participation through simulations: A multi-level analysis of situational interest on students’ commitment to vote. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 39(4), 243–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jssr.2015.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lo, J. C. & Tierney, G. (2017). Maintaining interest in politics: ‘Engagement First’ in a U.S. high school government course. Journal of Social Science Education, 16(3), 6273. doi: 10.2390/jsse-v16-i3-1572.Google Scholar
Lowenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation. Psychology Bulletin, 116(1), 7598. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.116.1.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marvin, C. & Shohamy, D. (2016). Curiosity and reward: Valence predicts choice and information prediction errors enhance learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 145(3), 266–72. doi: 10.1037/xge0000140.Google ScholarPubMed
Master, A., Cheryan, S., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2015). Computing whether she belongs: Stereotypes undermine girls’ interest and sense of belonging in computer science. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 424–37. doi: 10.1037/edu0000061.Google Scholar
Meredith, D. C. & Redish, E. F. (2013). Reinventing physics for life-sciences majors. Physics Today, 66(7), 3843. doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michaelis, J. E., & Nathan, M. J. (June, 2016). Observing and measuring interest development among high school students in an out-of-school robotics competition. American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE 2016) Pre-College Engineering Education Division paper, New Orleans, LA.
Mitchell, M. (1993). Situational interest: Its multifaceted structure in the secondary school mathematics classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 424–36. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mortillaro, M., Mehu, M., & Scherer, K. R. (2011). Subtly different positive emotions can be distinguished by their facial expressions. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(3), 262–71. doi: 10.1177/1948550610389080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neumann, A. (2006). Professing passion: Emotion in the scholarship of professors at research universities. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 381424. doi: 10.3102/00028312043003381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nieswandt, M. & Horowitz, G. (2015). Undergraduate students’ interest in chemistry: The roles of task and choice. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 225–42). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Nolen, S. B. (2007a). Young children's motivation to read and write: Development in social contexts. Cognition and Instruction, 25(2), 219–70. doi: 10.1080/07370000701301174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nolen, S. B. (2007b). The role of literate communities in development of children's interest in writing. In Hidi, S. & Boscolo, P. (Eds.), Writing and motivation (pp. 241–55). Oxford: Elsevier.Google ScholarPubMed
O'Keefe, P. A. & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2014). The role of interest in optimizing performance and self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 70–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, D. A., Dixon, J., & Archer, J. (2016). Identifying underlying causes of situational interest in a science course for preservice elementary teachers. Science Education, 100(6), 1039–61. doi: 10.1002/sce.21244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotion. New York, NY: Oxford.Google Scholar
Pressick-Kilborn, K. (2015). Canalization and connectedness in development of science interest. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 353–68). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Pressick-Kilborn, K. & Walker, R. (2002). The social construction of interest in a learning community. In McInerney, D. M. & Van Etten, S. (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on learning and motivation (pp. 153–82). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (2000). Individual interest and its implications for understanding intrinsic motivation. In Sansone, C. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation: Controversies and new directions (pp. 373404). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-012619070-0/50035-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (2009). Interest and identity development in instruction: An inductive model. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 114. doi: 10.1080/00461520902832392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (2010). Working with and cultivating interest, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. In Preiss, D. & Sternberg, R. (Eds.), Innovations in educational psychology: Perspectives on learning, teaching and human development (pp. 107138). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Austin, L., Bachrach, J. E., Chau, A., Emmerson, M., King, R., ... Stevens, S. J., (2014). Going beyond the “Whoa! That's Cool!” of inquiry: Achieving science interest and learning with the ICAN Intervention. In Karabenick, S. & Urdan, T., (Eds.), Motivation-based learning interventions, Vol. 18: Advances in motivation and achievement (pp. 107–40). London: Emerald Group Publishing. doi: 10.1108150749-742320140000018017.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50(1), 5869. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2014.999920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Bachrach, J. E., & Posey, S. K. (2008). Learner interest and achievement motivation. Social Psychological Perspectives: Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 15, 461–91. doi: 10.1016/S0749-7423(08)15014-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Cai, M., Lewis, M., Adams, M., & Ernst, K. (2011). Motivation and learning in an online, unmoderated, mathematics workshop for teachers. Special Issue: Motivation and New Media. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 59(2), 229–47. doi: 10.1007/sl1423-011-9195-4.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Ewen, E., & Lasher, A. K. (2002). Individual interest as context in expository text and mathematical word problems. Learning and Instruction 12(4), 467–91. doi: 10.1016/s0959-4752(01)00012-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2002). Student interest and achievement: Developmental issues raised by a case study. In Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 173–95). New York, NY: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/b978-012750053-9/50009-7.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2011). Revisiting the conceptualization, measurement, and generation of interest. Educational Psychologist, 46(3), 168–84. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.587723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2016). The power of interest for motivation and engagement. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Lipstein, R. (2006). Come si sviluppa l'interesse per la scrittura; Cosa volgliono gli studenti e di cosa hannobisogno? [Developing interest for writing: What do students want and what do students need?] Età Evolutiva, 84, 6583.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Ren, Y., & Kern, H. M. (2018). Motivation, engagement, and interest: “In the end, it came down to you and how you think of the problem.” In Fischer, F., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Goldman, S. R., & Reimann, P. (Eds.), International handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 116–26). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Riley, K. R. (2013). Interest, cognition and the case of L- and science. In Kreitler, S. (Ed.), Cognition and motivation: Forging an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 352–82). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Schofield, L. S. (2014). Assessing STEM interest as a developmental motivational variable. Poster presented in Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. E. (chairs), Current Approaches to Interest Measurement. Philadelphia, PA: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Shumar, W. (2002). Community building with and for teachers: The Math Forum as a resource for teacher professional development. In Renninger, K. A. & Shumar, W. (Eds.), Building virtual communities: Learning and change in cyberspace (pp. 6095). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Wozniak, R. (1985). Effect of interest on attentional shift, recognition, and recall in young children. Developmental Psychology, 21, 624–32. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.21.4.624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rotgans, J. I. & Schmidt, H. G. (2017a). Interest development: Arousing situational interest affects the growth trajectory of individual interest. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49, 175–84. doi: 10.1016./j.cedpsych/2017.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rotgans, J. I. & Schmidt, H. G. (2017b). The relation between individual interest and knowledge acquisition. British Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 350–71. doi: 10.1002/berj.3268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sansone, C. & Thoman, D. B. (2005). Interest as the missing motivator in self-regulation. European Psychologist, 10(3), 175–86. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.3.175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sansone, C., Weir, C., Harpster, L., & Morgan, C. (1992). Once a boring task always a boring task? Interest as a self-regulatory mechanism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(3), 37990. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultz, W. (2007) Behavioural theories and the neurophysiology of reward. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 87115. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sloboda, J. A. (1996). The acquisition of musical performance experience: Deconstructing the “talent” account of individual differences in musical expressivity. In Ericsson, K. A. (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games (pp. 107–26). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Swarat, S., Ortony, A., & Revelle, W. (2012). Activity matters: Understanding student interest in school science. Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, 49(4), 515–37. doi: 10.1002/tea.21010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thoman, D. B., Brown, E. R., Mason, A. Z., Harmsen, A. G., & Smith, J. L. (2015). The role of altruistic values in motivating underrepresented minority students for biomedicine. BioScience, 65(1), 183–88. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biu199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tröbst, S., Kleickmann, T., Lange-Schubert, K., Rothkopf, A., & Möller, K. (2016). Instruction and students’ declining interest in science: An analysis of German fourth- and sixth-grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 53(1), 162–93. doi: 10.3102/0002831215618662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. C., Kackar-Cam, H. Z., & Trucano, M. (2015). Teachers learning how to support student interest in mathematics and science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 243–60). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
Walkington, C. A. & Bernacki, M. L. (2014). Motivating students by “personalizing” learning around individual interests: A consideration of theory, design, and implementation issues. In Karabenick, S. A. & Urdan, T. C. (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement, Vol. 18: Motivational interventions (pp. 139–77). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1108/s0749-742320140000018004.Google Scholar
Wang, Z. & Adesope, O. (2016). Exploring the effects of seductive details with the 4-phase model of interest. Learning and Motivation, 55, 6577. doi: 10.1016/j.lmot.2016.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, J., Coats, L. T., & Davidson, M. L. (2012). Promoting student interest in science: The perspectives of exemplary African American teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 49(1), 124–54. doi: 10.3102/0002831211426200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Azevedo, F. S. (2011). Lines of practice: A practice-centered theory of interest relationships, cognition and instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 29(2), 147–84. doi: 10.1080/07370008.2011.556834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azevedo, F. S. (2013). The tailored practice of hobbies and its implication for the design of interest-driven learning environments. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 22(3), 462510. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2012.730082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baym, N. (2000). Tune in, log on: Soaps, fandom, and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of age in second life: An anthropologist explores the virtually human. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 3242. doi: 10.3102/0013189X018001032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bury, R. (2005). Cyberspaces of their own: Female fandoms online. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: The President and Fellows of Harvard College.Google Scholar
Crowley, K., Barron, B., Knutson, K., & Martin, C. K. (2015). Interest and the development of pathways to science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning. Washington, DC: AERA.Google Scholar
Crowley, K. & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activity. In Leinhardt, G., Crowley, K., & Knutson, K. (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 333–56). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Ito, M. (2012). Contributors versus leechers: Fansubbing ethics and a hybrid public culture. In Ito, M., Okabe, D., & Tsuji, I. (Eds.), Fandom unbound: Otaku culture in a connected world (pp. 179204). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Cody, R., Herr-Stephenson, B., … Tripp, L. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Ito, M., Guitiérrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., … Watkins, C. S. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Irvine, CA. Retrieved from http://dmlhub.net/publications/connected-learning-agenda-research-and-design.
Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. (2012). “Cultural acupuncture”: Fan activism and the Harry Potter Alliance. Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. doi: 10.1057/9781137350374_11.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendall, L. (2002). Hanging out in the virtual pub: Masculinities and relationships online. London: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenhart, A., Smith, A., Anderson, M., Duggan, M., & Perrin, A. (2015). Teens, technology & friendships. Washington, DC. Retrieved from www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/08/Teens-and-Friendships-FINAL2.pdf.Google Scholar
Maltese, A. V. & Tai, R. H. (2010). Eyeballs in the fridge: Sources of early interest in science. International Journal of Science Education, 32(5), 669–85. doi: 10.1080/09500690902792385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moran, S. & John-Steiner, V. (2004). How collaboration in creative work impacts identity and motivation. In Miell, D. & Littleton, K. (Eds.), Collaborative creativity: contemporary perspectives (pp. 1125). London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
Nardi, B. (2010). My life as a night elf priest: An anthropological account of world of warcraft. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Orr, J. (1990). Sharing knowledge, celebrating identity: War stories and community memory in a service culture. In Middleton, D. S. & Edwards, D. (Eds.), Collective remembering: Memory in society (pp. 169189). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Pascale, R., Sternin, J., & Sternin, M. (2010). The power of positive deviance: How unlikely innovators solve the world's toughest problems. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
Pfister, R. C. (2014). Hats for house elves: Connected learning and civic engagement in Hogwarts at Ravelry. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Hub.Google Scholar
Pfister, R. C. (2016). Unraveling Hogwarts: Understanding an affinity group through the lens of activity theory (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2016). The power of interest for motivation and engagement. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rheingold, H. (2000). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, A. & Echchaibi, N. (Eds.). (2009). International blogging: Identity, politics and networked publics. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
Searle, R. H. (2004). Creativity and innovation in teams. In Miell, D. & Littleton, K. (Eds.), Collaborative creativity: Contemporary perspectives (pp. 175–88). London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
Taylor, T. L. (2009). Play between worlds: Exploring online game culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Turkle, S. (2005). The second self: Computers and the human spirit. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Afterschool Alliance. (2017). STEM-ready America: Inspiring and preparing students for success with afterschool and summer learning. Washington, DC. Stemreadyamerica.org. Available at http://stemreadyamerica.org/read-the-compendium/.
Alexander, J. M., Johnson, K. E., & Kelley, K. (2012). Longitudinal analysis of the relations between opportunities to learn about science and the development of interests related to science. Science Education, 96, 763–86. doi: 10.1002/sce.21018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, J. M., Johnson, K. E., & Leibham, M. E. (2015). Emerging individual interests related to science in young children. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 261–80). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Alexander, K. L., Entwiscle, D. R., & Olson, L. S. (2007). Lasting consequences of the summer learning gap. American Sociological Review, 72, 167–80. doi: 10.1177/000312240707200201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2012). Science aspirations, capital, and family habitus: How families shape children's engagement and identification with science. American Educational Research Journal, 49, 881908. doi: 10.3102/0002831211433290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2013). “Not girly, not sexy, not glamorous”: Primary school girls’ and parents’ constructions of science aspirations. Pedagogy, Culture, and Society, 21, 171–94. doi: 10.1080/14681366.2012.748676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aschbacher, P. R., Li, E., & Roth, E. J. (2010). Is science me? High school students’ identities, participation, and aspirations in science, engineering, and medicine. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47, 564–82. doi: 10.1002/tea.20353.Google Scholar
Azevedo, F. S. (2015). Sustaining interest-based participation in science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 281–96). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Basu, S. J. & Barton, A. C. (2007). Developing a sustained interest in science among urban minority youth. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44, 466–89. doi: 10.1002/tea.20143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder, M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. doi: 10.17226/12190.Google Scholar
Bergstrom, Z., Sadler, P., & Sonnert, G. (2016). Evolution and persistence of students’ astronomy career interests: A gender study. Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, 3, 7792. http://dx.doi.org/10.19030/jaese.v3i1.9690.Google Scholar
Bulunuz, M. & Jarrett, O. S. (2015). Play as an aspect of interest development in science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 153–72). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Cannady, M. A., Greenwald, E., & Harris, K. N. (2014). Problematizing the STEM pipeline metaphor: Is the STEM pipeline metaphor serving our students and the STEM workforce? Science Education, 98, 443–60. doi: 10.1002/sce.21108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chak, A. (2010). Adult response to children's exploratory behaviours: An exploratory study. Early Child Development and Care, 180, 633–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004430802181965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chi, M. T. H. & Koeske, R. D. (1983). Network representation of a child's dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19, 2939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.19.1.29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clausen, J. A. (1986). The life course: A sociological perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Cleaves, A. (2005). The formation of science choices in secondary school. International Journal of Science Education. 27, 471–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069042000323746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Committee on Equal Opportunity in Science and Engineering (CEOSE) (2015). 2013–2014 Biennial report to congress: Broadening participation in today's STEM workforce. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at www.nsf.gov/od/oia/activities/ceose/documents/2013-2014 CEOSE Biennial Report to Congress_Final Version_09-08-2015.pdf.
Correll, S. (2001). Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessments. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1691–730. https://doi.org/10.1086/321299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowley, K., Barron, B., Knutson, K., & Martin, C. K. (2015). Interest and the development of pathways to science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 297314). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dabney, K. P., Chakraverty, D., & Tai, R. H. (2013). The association of family influence and initial interest in science. Science Education, 97, 395409. doi: 10.1002/sce.21060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLoache, J. S., Simcock, G., & Macari, S. (2007). Planes, trains, automobiles – and tea sets: Extremely intense interests in very young children. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1579–86. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickhauser, O. & Steinsmeier-Pelster, J. (2003). Gender differences in the choice of computer science courses: Applying an expectancy-value model. Social Psychology of Education, 6, 173–89. doi: 10.1023%2FA%3A1024735227657.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downey, D. B., Von Hippel, P. T., & Broh, B. A. (2004). Are schools the great equalizer? Cognitive inequality during the summer months and the school year. American Sociological Review, 69, 613–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240406900501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J. S., Fredricks, J. A., & Epstein, A. (2015). Understanding well-developed interests and activity commitment. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 315–30). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation. In Eisenberg, N. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, 5th ed., pp. 1017–95). New York, NY; Wiley. doi: 10.1002/9780470147658.Google Scholar
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (2001). The no child left behind act of 2001. Accessed from www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf.
Engel, S. (2011). Children's need to know: Curiosity in schools. Harvard Educational Review, 81, 625645. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.81.4.h054131316473115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel, S. (2015). The hungry mind: The origins of curiosity in childhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falk, J. H. & Needham, M. D. (2013). Factors contributing to adult knowledge of science and technology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50, 431–52. doi: 10.1002/tea.21080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falk, J. H., Staus, N., Dierking, L. D., Penuel, W., Wyld, J., & Bailey, D. (2016). Understanding youth STEM interest pathways within a single community: The Synergies project. International Journal of Science Education, 6, 369–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080.21548455.2015.1093670.Google Scholar
Fredricks, J. A. & Eccles, J. S. (2004). Parental influences on youth involvement in sports. In Weiss, M. (Ed.), Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective (pp. 145–64). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.Google Scholar
Gallagher, K. C. (2002). Does child temperament moderate the influence of parenting on adjustment? Developmental Review, 22, 623–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-2297(02)00503-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
George, R. & Kaplan, D. (1998). A structural model of parent and teacher influences on science attitudes of eighth graders: Evidence from NELS:88. Science Education, 82, 93109. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199801)82:1<93:: AID-SCE5>3.0.CO;2-W.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerber, B. L., Cavallo, A. M., & Marek, E. A. (2001). Relationships among informal learning environments, teaching procedures, and scientific reasoning ability. International Journal of Science Education, 23, 535–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690116971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gobbo, C., & Chi, M. T. H. (1986). How knowledge is structured and used by expert and novice children. Cognitive Development, 1, 221–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2014(86)80002-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottfried, A. E., Preston, K. S., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., Delany, D. E., & Ibhrahim, S. M. (2016). Pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity to high school science course accomplishments and science career interest and skill. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 1972–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1220690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, S. M., & Elliott, A. J. (2000). Short-term and long-term consequences of achievement goals in college: Predicting continued interest and performance over time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 316–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.92.2.316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. & Baird, W. (1986). Interestingness – A neglected variable in discourse processing. Cognitive Science, 10, 179–94. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog1002_3.Google Scholar
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41, 111–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S., Renninger, K. A., & Nieswandt, M. (2015). Conclusions: Emerging issues and themes in addressing interest in learning mathematics and science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 385–96). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Hoffman, L. L. (2002). Promoting girls’ interest and achievement in physics classes for beginners. Learning and Instruction, 12, 447–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00010-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holden, G. W. (2010). Childrearing and developmental trajectories: Positive pathways, off-ramps, and dynamic processes. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 197204. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00148.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Institute for Higher Education Policy. (2015). Diversifying the STEM Pipeline: The Model Replication Institutions Program. Washington, DC. Available at www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/report_diversifying_the_stem_pipeline_report.pdf.
Jodl, K. M., Michael, A., Malanchuk, O., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2001). Parents’ roles in shaping early adolescents’ occupational aspirations. Child Development, 72, 1247–65. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, K. E., Alexander, J. M., Spencer, S., Leibham, M. E., & Neitzel, C. (2004). Factors associated with the early emergence of intense interests within conceptual domains. Cognitive Development, 19, 325–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2004.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerckhoff, A. C. (1993). Diverging pathways: Social structure and career deflections. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Klahr, D., Matlen, B., & Jirout, J. (2013). Children as scientific thinkers. In Feist, G. J. & Gorman, M. E. (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of science (pp. 243–7). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Knapp, D. (2007). A longitudinal analysis of an out of school science experience. School Science and Mathematics, 107(2), 4451. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2007.tb17767.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krapp, A. & Prenzel, M. (2011). Research on interest in science: Theories, methods, and findings. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 2790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2010.518645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J. D. (1998). Which kids can “become” scientists? Effects of gender, self-concepts, and perceptions of scientists. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 199219. www.jstor.org/stable/2787108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leibham, M. E., Alexander, J. M., & Johnson, K. E. (2013). Science interests in preschool boys and girls: Relations to later self-concept and science achievement. Science Education, 97, 574–93. doi: 10.1002/sce.21066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leibham, M. E., Alexander, J. M., Johnson, K. E., Neitzel, C. L., & Reis-Henrie, F. P. (2005). Parenting behaviors associated with the maintenance of preschoolers’ interests: A prospective longitudinal study. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 397414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, P.-Y. & Schunn, C. D. (2016). The dimension and impact of informal science learning experiences on middle schoolers’ attitudes and abilities in science. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 2551–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1251631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipstein, R. L. & Renninger, K. (2007). Interest for writing: How teachers can make a difference. English Journal, 96(4), 7985. www.jstor.org/stable/30047170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyon, G. H., Jafri, J., & St. Louis, K. (2012, Fall). Beyond the pipeline: STEM pathways for youth development. Afterschool Matters, 4857. Available at https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ992152.Google Scholar
Lyons, T. (2006). Different countries, same science classes: Students’ experiences of school science in their own words. International Journal of Science Education, 28, 591613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690500339621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maltese, A. V. & Harsh, J. A. (2015). Students’ pathways of entry into STEM. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 203–24). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Maltese, A. V. & Tai, R. H. (2010). Eyeballs in the fridge: Sources of early interest in science. International Journal of Science Education, 32, 669–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690902792385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maltese, A. & Tai, R. S. (2011). Pipeline persistence: Examining the association of educational experiences with earned degrees in STEM among U.S. students. Science Education, 95, 877907. doi: 10.1002/sce.20441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdams, D. P. (1988). Power, intimacy, and the life story: Personological inquiries into identity. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
McCreedy, D. & Dierking, L. D. (2013). Cascading influences: Long-term impacts of informal STEM experiences for girls. Philadelphia, PA. The Franklin Institute Science Museum. Available at www.fi.edu/sites/default/files/cascading-influences.pdf.Google Scholar
McDevitt, M. & Ostrowski, A. (2009). The adolescent unbound: Unintentional influence of curricula in ideological conflict seeking. Political Communication, 26, 1129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10584600802622811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mervis, C. B., Pani, J. R., & Pani, A. M. (2003). Transaction of child cognitive-linguistic abilities and adult input in the acquisition of lexical categories at the basic and subordinate levels. In Rakison, D. H. & Oakes, L. M. (Eds.), Early category and concept development: Making sense of the blooming, buzzing confusion (pp. 242–74). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Metcalf, H. (2014). Disrupting the pipeline: Critical analyses of student pathways through postsecondary STEM education. New Directions for Institutional Research, 158, 7793. doi: 10.1002/ir.20047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, M. (1993). Situational interest: Its multifaceted structure in the secondary school mathematics classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 424–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Science Foundation. (2011). Science and engineering degrees: 1966–2008 NSF 11–316. Arlington, VA: NSF. Available at www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf11316/pdf/nsf11316.pdf.
Neitzel, C., Alexander, J. M., & Johnson, K. E. (2008). Children's early interest-based activities in the home and subsequent information contributions and pursuits in kindergarten. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 782–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.4.782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
OECD (2007). Education at a glance 2007: OECD indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Available at www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/40701218.pdf.
Osborne, J. F. & Dillon, J. (2008). Science education in Europe: Critical reflections. London: Nuffield Foundation. Available at www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/Sci_Ed_in_Europe_Report_Final.pdf.Google Scholar
Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes toward science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 1049–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069032000032199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parke, R. D., Ornstein, P. A., Rieser, J. J., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1994). The past as prologue: An overview of a century of developmental psychology. In Parke, R. D., Ornstein, P. A., Reiser, J. J., & Waxler, C. Z. (Eds.), A century of developmental psychology (pp. 170). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment). (2006). Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).
Potvin, P. & Hasni, A. (2014). Interest, motivation and attitude towards science and technology at K–12 levels: A systematic review of 12 years of educational research. Studies in Science Education, 50, 85129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057267.2014.881626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2012). Engage to excel: Producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Available at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel-final_2-25-12.pdf.
Pressick-Kilborn, K. (2015). Canalization and connectedness in the development of science interest. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 353–68). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (1989). Individual differences in children's play interest. In Winegar, L. T. (Ed.), Social interaction and the development of children's understanding (pp. 147–72). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (2000). Individual interest and its implications for understanding intrinsic motivation. In Sansone, C. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 373404). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. (2009). Interest and identity development in instruction: An inductive model. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00461520902832392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Riley, K. (2013). Interest, cognition, and the case of L- and science. In Kreitler, S. (Ed.), Cognition and motivation: Forging an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 352–82). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Wozniak, R. H. (1985). Effect of interest on attentional shift, recognition, and recall in young children. Developmental Psychology, 21(4), 624–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.21.4.624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riegle-Crumb, C., Moore, C., & Ramos-Wada, A. (2010). Who wants to have a career in science or math? Exploring adolescents’ future aspirations by gender and race/ethnicity. Science Education, 95, 458–76. doi: 10.1002/sce.20431.Google Scholar
Rosser, S. V. & Lane, E. O. (2002). Key barriers for academic institutions seeking to retain female scientists and engineers: Family-unfriendly policies, low numbers, stereotypes, and harassment. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 8, 163–91. doi: 10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.v8.i2.40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadler, P. M., Sonnert, G., Hazari, Z., & Tai, R. (2012). Stability and volatility of STEM career interest in high school: A gender study. Science Education, 96, 411–27. doi: 10.1002/sce.21007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Said, Z., Summers, L. R., Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Wang, S. (2016). Attitudes toward science among grades 3 through 12 Arab students in Qatar: Findings from a cross-sectional national study. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 621–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1156184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpkins, S. D., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Math and science motivation: A longitudinal examination of the links between choices and beliefs. Developmental Psychology, 42, 7083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Subotnik, R. F., Tai, R. H., Rickoff, R. & Almarode, J. (2009). Specialized public high schools of science, mathematics, and technology and the STEM pipeline: What do we know now and what will we know in 5 years? Roeper Review, 32:1, 716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783190903386553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suter, L. E. (2017). Using international comparative data in achievement in educational research. In Wyse, D., Selwyn, N., Smith, E., & Suter, L. E. (Eds.), The BERA/Sage handbook of educational research (pp. 313335). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tenenbaum, H. R. & Callanan, M. A. (2008). Parent's science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the USA. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025407084046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tenenbaum, H. R. & Leaper, C. (2003). Parent-child conversations about science: The socialization of gender inequities? Developmental Psychology, 39, 3447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turner, J. C., Kackar-Cam, H. Z., & Trucano, M. (2015). Teachers learning how to support student interest in mathematics and science. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 243–60). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. doi: 10.3102/978-0-935302-42-4.Google Scholar
Tytler, R. (2014). Attitudes, identity and aspirations toward science. In Lederman, N. G. & Abell, S. K. (Eds.). Handbook of research on science education (pp. 82103). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Tytler, R., Osborne, J., Williams, G., Tytler, K., & Clark, J. C. (2008). Opening up pathways: Engagement in STEM across the primary-secondary school transition. Australian Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. Available at https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/openpathinscitechmathenginprimsecschtrans.pdf.
Vedder-Wiess, D. & Fortus, D. (2011). Adolescents’ declining motivation to learn science: Inevitable or not? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48, 199216. doi: 10.1002/tea.20398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Ainley, M. & Hidi, S. (2014). Interest and enjoyment. In Pekrun, R. & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 205–27). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Asendorpf, J. & van Aken, M. A. G. (2003). Personality-relationship transaction in adolescence: Core versus surface personality characteristics. Journal of Personality, 71, 629–66. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.7104005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bidjerano, T. & Dai, D. Y. (2007). The relationship between the big-five model of personality and self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 6981. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bong, M. (2001). Between- and within-domain relations of academic motivation among middle and high school students: Self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 2334. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.93.1.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Costa, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
De Raad, B. & Schouwenburg, H. C. (1996). Personality in learning and education: A review. European Journal of Personality, 10, 303–36. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0984(199612)10:5<303::AID-PER262>3.3.CO;2-U.Google Scholar
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. New York, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
Denissen, J. J. A., Zarrett, N. R., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). I like to do it, I'm able, and I know I am: Longitudinal couplings between domain-specific achievement, self-concept, and interest. Child Development, 78, 430–47. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01007.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Domenico, S. I. & Fournier, M. A. (2015). Able, ready, and willing: Examining the additive and interactive effects of intelligence, conscientiousness, and autonomous motivation on undergraduate academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 40, 156–62. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.03.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. In Rosenzweig, M. R. & Porter, L. W. (Eds.), Annual review of psychology (Vol. 41, pp. 417–46). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
Eccles, J. S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–32. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eccles, J., Wigfield, A., Harold, R., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children's self and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830–47. doi: 10.2307/1131221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emmons, R. A. (1989). Exploring the relations between motives and traits: The case of narcissism. In Buss, D. & Cantor, N. (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 3244). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fayard, J. V., Roberts, B. W., Robins, R. W., & Watson, D. (2012). Uncovering the affective core of conscientiousness: The role of self-conscious emotions. Journal of Personality, 80, 132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleeson, W. & Gallagher, P. (2009). The implications of Big Five standing for the distribution of trait manifestation in behavior: Fifteen experience-sampling studies and a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 1097–114. doi: 10.1037/a0016786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Funder, D. (1991). Global traits: A neo-Allportian approach to personality. Psychological Science, 2, 31–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1991.tb00093.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Parrisius, C., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2016). Assessing task values in five subjects during secondary school: Measurement structure and mean level differences across grade level, gender, and academic subject. Contemporary Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.09.003.Google Scholar
Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Parrisius, C., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2017). Assessing task values in five subjects during secondary school: Measurement structure and mean level differences across grade level, gender, and academic subject. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 6784. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldberg, L.R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48, 2634. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.48.1.26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Göllner, R., Roberts, B.W., Damian, R.I., Lüdtke, O., Jonkmann, K., & Trautwein, U. (2017). Whose “storm and stress” is it? Parent and child reports of personality development in the transition to early adolescence. Journal of Personality, 83(3), 376–87. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12246.Google Scholar
Hidi, S. & Ainley, M. (2008). Interest and self-regulation: Relationships between two variables that influence learning. In Schunk, D. H. & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 77109). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41, 111–27. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, P. L., Nickel, L.B., & Roberts, B.W. (2014). Are you in a healthy relationship? Linking conscientiousness to health via implementing and immunizing behaviors. Journal of Personality, 82, 485–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. J., Hill, P. L., & Roberts, B. W. (2012). Misconceptions of traits continue to persist: A response to Bandura. Journal of Management, 38, 745–52. doi: 10.1177/0149206312438775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, J. J., Wood, D., Bogg, T., Walton, K. E., Harms, P. D., & Roberts, B. W. (2010). What do conscientious people do? Development and validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness (BIC). Journal of Research in Personality, 44(4), 501–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen, M., Lüdtke, O., & Schroeders, U. (2016). Evidence for a positive relation between interest and achievement: Examining between-person and within-person variation in five domains. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 116–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114–58). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
John, O. P. & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Pervin, L. A. & John, O. P. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102–38). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kandler, C., Zimmermann, J., & McAdams, D. P. (2014). Core and surface characteristics for the description and theory of personality differences and development. European Journal of Personality, 28, 231–43. doi: 10.1002/per.1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, A. & Moosbrugger, H. (2000). Maximum likelihood estimation of latent interaction effects with the LMS method. Psychometrika, 65, 457–74. doi: 10.1007/BF02296338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krapp, A. (2002). Structural and dynamic aspects of interest development: Theoretical considerations from an ontogenetic perspective. Learning and Instruction, 12, 383409. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00011-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lüdtke, O., Roberts, B., Trautwein, U., & Nagy, G. (2011). A random walk down university avenue: Life paths, life events, and personality trait change at the transition to university life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(3), 620–37. doi: 10.1037/a0023743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsh, H. W. (1986). Verbal and math self-concepts: An internal/external frame of reference model. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 129–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H. W., Lüdtke, O., Muthén, B., Asparouhov, T., Morin, A. J. S., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2010). A new look at the big five factor structure through exploratory structural equation modeling. Psychological Assessment, 22, 471–91. doi: 10.1037/a0019227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdams, D. P. & Pals, J. L. (2006). A new Big Five: Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. American Psychologist, 61, 204–17. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T. Jr. (2003). Personality in adulthood: A five-factor theory perspective (2nd ed.). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203428412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T. Jr. (2008). Empirical and theoretical status of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. In Boyle, G. J., Matthews, G., & Saklofske, D. H. (Eds.), The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment (pp. 273–94). London: Sage.Google Scholar
Nagy, G., Trautwein, U., Baumert, J., Köller, O., & Garrett, J. (2006). Gender and course selection in upper secondary education: Effects of academic self-concept and intrinsic value. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12, 323–45. doi: 10.1080/13803610600765687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noftle, E. E. & Robins, R. W. (2007). Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big Five correlates of GPA and SAT scores. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 116–30. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.1.116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 322–38. doi: 10.1037/a0014996.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reeve, J., Lee, W., & Won, S. (2015). Interest as emotion, as affect, and as schema. In Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning (pp. 7992). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2011). Revisiting the conceptualization, measurement, and generation of interest. Educational Psychologist, 46, 168–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2016). The power of interest for motivation and engagement. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Renninger, K. A., Nieswandt, M., & Hidi, S. (Eds.). (2015). Interest in mathematics and science learning. Washington, DC: AERA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rieger, S., Göllner, R., Spengler, M., Trautwein, U., Nagengast, B., & Roberts, B. W. (2017). Social cognitive constructs are just as stable as the Big Five between grades 5 and 8. AERA Open, 3(3), 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rieger, S., Göllner, R., Spengler, M., et al. (2018). The development of students academic effort: Unique and joint effects of conscientiousness and individual interest, under review.
Roberts, B. W. (2009). Back to the future: Personality and assessment and personality development. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 137–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W. & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2014). What is conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1315–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W. & Nickel, L. B. (2017). A critical evaluation of the Neo-Socioanalytic Model of personality. In Specht, J. (Ed.), Personality development across the lifespan (pp. 157–77). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Sansone, C., Thoman, D. B., & Smith, J. L. (2010). Interest and self-regulation: Understanding individual variability in choices, effort, and persistence over time. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), Handbook of personality and self-regulation (pp. 192217). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sansone, C., Wiebe, D. J., & Morgan, C. L. (1999). Self-regulating motivation: The moderating role of hardiness and conscientiousness. Journal of Personality, 67, 701–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiefele, U. (1991). Interest, learning, and motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26, 299323. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2603&4_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research. In Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A. (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 183212). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Song, J., Gaspard, H., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (2018). Predicting academic effort and achievement: Generalizability of the Conscientiousness × Interest Compensation (CONIC) model across domains, outcomes, and predictors, submitted for publication.
Spengler, M., Brunner, M., Damian, R. I., Lüdtke, O., Martin, R., & Roberts, B. W. (2015a). Does it help to be a responsible student? Student characteristics and behaviors at age 12 predict occupational success 40 years later over and above childhood IQ and parental SES. Developmental Psychology, 51 (9), 1329–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spengler, M., Lüdtke, O., Martin, R., & Brunner, M. (2013). Personality is related to educational outcomes in late adolescence: Evidence from two large-scale achievement studies. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 613–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spengler, M., Roberts, B. W., Lüdtke, O., Martin, R. & Brunner, M. (2015b). The kind of student you were in elementary school predicts mortality. Journal of Personality. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12180.Google ScholarPubMed
Spengler, M., Roberts, B. W., Lüdtke, O., Martin, R., & Brunner, M. (2016). Student characteristics and behaviors in childhood predict self-reported health in middle adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 30(5), 456–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoll, G., Rieger, S., Lüdtke, O., Nagengast, B., Trautwein, U., & Roberts, B. W. (2017). Vocational interests assessed at the end of high school predict life outcomes assessed 10 years later over and above IQ and Big Five personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(1), 167–84. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thoman, D. B., Smith, J. L., & Silva, P. J. (2011). The resource replenishment function of interest. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 592–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trautwein, U. & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Students’ self-reported effort and time on homework in six school subjects: Between-student differences and within-student variation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 432–44. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.99.2.432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trautwein, U. & Lüdtke, O. (2009). Predicting homework motivation and homework effort in six school subjects: The role of person and family characteristics, classroom factors, and school track. Learning and Instruction, 19, 243–58. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Kastens, C. & Köller, O. (2006). Effort on homework in grades 5 through 9: Development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork. Child Development, 77(4), 1094–111. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00921.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Nagy, N., Lenski, A., Niggli, A., & Schnyder, I. (2015). Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 142–62. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Roberts, B. W., Schnyder, I., & Niggli, A. (2009). Different forces, same consequence: Conscientiousness and competence beliefs are independent predictors of academic effort and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 1115–28. doi: 10.1037/a0017048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Schnyder, I. & Niggli, A. (2006). Predicting homework effort: Support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 438–56. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trautwein, U., Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B., Lüdtke, O., Nagy, G., & Jonkmann, K. (2012). Probing for the multiplicative term in modern expectancy-value theory: A latent interaction modeling study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 763–77. doi: 10.1037/a0027470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsai, Y.-M., Kunter, M., Lüdtke, O., Trautwein, U., & Ryan, R. (2008). What makes lessons interesting? The role of situation and person factors in three school subjects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 460–72. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.2.460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 6881. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winter, D. G., John, O. P., Stewart, A. J., Klohnen, E. C., & Duncan, L. E. (1998). Traits and motives: Toward an integration of two traditions in personality research. Psychological Review, 105, 230–50. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.105.2.230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xu, Y., Beller, A. H., Roberts, B. W., & Brown, J. R. (2015). Personality and young adult financial distress. Journal of Economic Psychology, 51, 90100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Aristotle, (1988). The Nicomachean ethics (David Ross, trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bunderson, J. S. & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54, 3257. doi: 10.2189/asqu.2009.54.1.32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cardador, M. T., Dane, E., & Pratt, M. G. (2011). Linking calling orientations to organizational attachment via organizational instrumentality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 367–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 9801008. doi: 10.1037/a0035661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, M. A. & Amabile, T. M. (1999). Motivation and creativity. In Sternberg, R.M. (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 297312). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105–15. doi: 10.1037/h0030644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York, NY: Plenum Press. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–68. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory, (pp. 1332). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 431–52. doi: 10.1002/job.1808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duckworth, A. L. & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 319–25. doi: 10.1177/0963721414541462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T., Tsukayama, E., Berstein, H., & Ericsson, K. (2010). Deliberate practice spells success: Why grittier competitors triumph at the National Spelling Bee. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 174–81. doi: 10.1177/1948550610385872.Google Scholar
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1087–101. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duckworth, A. L. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ predicting academic performance in adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01641.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberger, R. & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth? American Psychologist, 51, 1531166. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.51.11.1153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ericcson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Romer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review 100, 363406. doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, B. S. (1994). How intrinsic motivation is crowded out and in. Rationality and Society, 6, 334–52. doi: 10.1177/1043463194006003004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, B. S. & Oberholzer-Gee, F. (1997). The cost of price incentives: An empirical analysis of motivation crowding out. American Economic Review, 87, 746–55.Google Scholar
Gerhart, B. & Fang, M. (2015). Pay, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, performance, and creativity in the workplace: Revisiting long-held beliefs. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2, 489521. doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gneezy, U. & Rustichini, A. (2000). A fine is a price. Journal of Legal Studies, 29, 117. doi: 10.1086/468061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, D. T. & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155–76. doi: 10.1002/job.301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. (2016). Revisiting the role of rewards in motivation and learning: Implications of neuroscientific research. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 6193. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9307-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsch, F. (1976). Social limits to growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674497900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerr, S. (1975). On the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B. Academy of Management Journal, 18, 769–83. doi: 10.2307/255378.Google ScholarPubMed
Kiviniemi, M. T., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (2002). Too many of a good thing? The effects of multiple motivations on task fulfillment, satisfaction, and cost. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 732–43. doi: 10.1177/0146167202289003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohn, M. L. & Schooler, C. (1982). Job conditions and personality: A longitudinal assessment of their reciprocal effects. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 1257–86. doi: 10.1086/227593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhn, T. S. (1977). Objectivity, value judgment, and theory choice. In Kuhn, T. S. (Ed.), The essential tension (pp. 320–39). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacetera, N., Macis, M., & Slonim, R. (2012). Will there be blood? Incentives and displacement effects in pro-social behavior. American Journal of Economic Policy, 4, 186223. doi: 10.1257/pol.4.1.186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the “overjustification hypothesis”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 119–37. doi: 10.1037/h0035519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, A. (1981). After virtue. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Marglin, S. (1976). What do bosses do? In Gorz, A. (Ed.), The division of labour (pp. 1354). London: Harvester Press.Google Scholar
Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 20911–16. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1013305107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nussbaum, M. (1990). Love's knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Penguin.Google Scholar
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–66. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schabram, K. & Maitlis, S. (2016). Negotiating the challenges of a calling: Emotion and enacted sensemaking in animal shelter work. Academy of Management Journal, 60, 584609. doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schabram, K. & Maitlis, S. (2017). Negotiating the challenges of a calling: Emotion and enacted sensemaking in animal shelter work. Academy of Management Journal, 60, 584609. doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, B. (1978). The psychology of learning and behavior. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. (1982). Reinforcement induced behavioral stereotypy: How not to teach people to discover rules. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 2359. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.111.1.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, B. (2015). Why we work. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B., Schuldenfrei, R., & Lacey, H. (1978). Operant psychology as factory psychology. Behaviorism, 6, 229–54.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. & Sharpe, K. (2011). Practical wisdom: The right way to do the right thing. New York, NY: Riverhead.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. & Wrzesniewski, A. (2016). Internal motivation, instrumental motivation, and eudaimonia. In Vitterso, J. (Ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 123–34). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
Smith, A. (1776/1937). The wealth of nations. New York, NY: Modern Library.Google Scholar
Stroebe, W. (2016). Why good teaching evaluations may reward bad teaching: On grade inflation and other unintended consequences of student evaluation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 800–16. doi: 10.1177/174569161 6650284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, F. W. (1911/1967). Principles of scientific management. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
Wrzesniewski, A., Berg, J. M., Grant, A. M., Kurkoski, J., & Welle, B. (2017). Dual mindsets at work: Achieving long-term gains in happiness. Working paper.
Wrzesniewski, A. & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26, 179201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C. R., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 2133. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1997.2162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wrzesniewski, A., Schwartz, B., Cong, X., Kane, M., Omar, A., & Kolditz, T. (2014). Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 10 990–5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405298111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed