Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-8dvf2 Total loading time: 2.958 Render date: 2022-10-05T20:09:36.176Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Part V - Goals and Values

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2019

K. Ann Renninger
Affiliation:
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Suzanne E. Hidi
Affiliation:
University of Toronto
Get access

Summary

A growing body of literature indicates that motivation can critically shape long-term memory formation in the service of adaptive behavior. In the present chapter, we review recent cognitive neuroscience evidence of motivational influences on memory, with a focus on anatomical pathways by which neuromodulatory networks support encoding-related activity in distinct subregions of the medial temporal lobe. We argue that engagement of distinct neural circuits as a function of motivational context at encoding leads to formation of different memory representations, supporting different patterns of adaptive behavior. We present a novel neurocognitive model, the Interrogative/Imperative model of information-seeking, to account for pursuit of learning goals. Interrogative or imperative modes of information-seeking are often, but not necessarily, associated with approach or avoidance motivation, respectively. We also discuss additional influences on motivated memory encoding, including intrinsic motivation, curiosity, choice, and cognitive control processes. Taken together, this body of research suggests that the nature of memory representations depends on an individual's neurophysiological response to, rather than extrinsic qualities of, a given motivational manipulation or context at the time of encoding. Finally, we discuss potential applications of these research findings to real-life educational settings and directions for future research.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Adcock, R. A., Thangavel, A., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Knutson, B., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2006). Reward-motivated learning: Mesolimbic activation precedes memory formation. Neuron, 50(3), 507–17. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.03.036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amaral, D. G. & Cowan, W. M. (1980). Subcortical afferents to the hippocampal formation in the monkey. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 189(4), 573–91. doi: 10.1002/cne.901890402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aston-Jones, G. & Bloom, F. E. (1981). Activity of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats anticipates fluctuations in the sleep-waking cycle. Journal of Neuroscience, 1(8), 876–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aston-Jones, G. & Cohen, J. D. (2005). An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403–50. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt= Citation&list_uids=16022602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ballard, I. C., Murty, V. P., Carter, R. M., MacInnes, J. J., Huettel, S. A., & Adcock, R. A. (2011). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex drives mesolimbic dopaminergic regions to initiate motivated behavior. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(28), 10340–6. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0895-11.2011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(3), 610–20. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6707866.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beilock, S. L. & Carr, T. H. (2001). On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(4), 701–25. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.130.4.701.Google ScholarPubMed
Berridge, C. W. & Waterhouse, B. D. (2003). The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: Modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes. Brain Research Reviews, 42(1), 3384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berridge, K. C. (2007). The debate over dopamine's role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 391431. doi: 10.1007/s00213-006-0578-x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berridge, K. C. & Robinson, T. E. (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews, 28(3), 309–69. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00019-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumenfeld, R. S. & Ranganath, C. (2007). Prefrontal cortex and long-term memory encoding: An integrative review of findings from neuropsychology and neuroimaging. The Neuroscientist, 13(3), 280–91. doi: 10.1177/1073858407299290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botvinick, M. & Braver, T. (2015). Motivation and cognitive control: From behavior to neural mechanism. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 83113. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015044.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braver, T. S., Paxton, J. L., Locke, H. S., & Barch, D. M. (2009). Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(18), 7351–6. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19380750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briand, L. A., Gritton, H., Howe, W. M., Young, D. A., & Sarter, M. (2007). Modulators in concert for cognition: Modulator interactions in the prefrontal cortex. Progress in Neurobiology, 83(2), 6991. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2007.06.007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromberg-Martin, E. S. & Hikosaka, O. (2009). Midbrain dopamine neurons signal preference for advance information about upcoming rewards. Neuron, 63(1), 119–26. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.06.009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromberg-Martin, E. S., Matsumoto, M., & Hikosaka, O. (2010). Dopamine in motivational control: Rewarding, aversive, and alerting. Neuron, 68(5), 815834. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.11.022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, N., Maguire, E. A., & O'Keefe, J. (2002). The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron, 35(4), 625–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carter, R. M., MacInnes, J. J., Huettel, S. A., & Adcock, R. A. (2009). Activation in the VTA and nucleus accumbens increases in anticipation of both gains and losses. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 21. doi: 10.3389/neuro.08.021.2009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiew, K. S. & Braver, T. S. (2013). Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 15. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db= PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23372557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiew, K. S., Stanek, J. K., & Adcock, R. A. (2016). Reward anticipation dynamics during cognitive control and episodic encoding: Implications for dopamine. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 555. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choi, J.-S., Cain, C. K., & LeDoux, J. E. (2010). The role of amygdala nuclei in the expression of auditory signaled two-way active avoidance in rats. Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, NY), 17(3), 139–47. doi: 10.1101/lm.1676610.Google ScholarPubMed
Chun, M. M. & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2007). Interactions between attention and memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17(2), 177–84. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2007.03.005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, M. S., Rissman, J., Suthana, N. A., Castel, A. D., & Knowlton, B. J. (2014). Value-based modulation of memory encoding involves strategic engagement of fronto-temporal semantic processing regions. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14(2), 578–92. doi: 10.3758/s13415-014-0275-x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colwill, R. M. & Rescorla, R. A. (1986). Associative structures in instrumental learning. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 20, 55104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cools, R. (2008). Role of dopamine in the motivational and cognitive control of behavior. Neuroscientist, 14(4), 381–95. doi: 10.1177/1073858408317009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davachi, L. (2006). Item, context, and relational episodic encoding in humans. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16(6), 693700. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2006.10.012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, M. (1992). The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 15(1), 353–75. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ne.15.030192.002033.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–15. doi: 10.1037/h0030644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627–68. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado, M. R., Locke, H. M., Stenger, V. A., & Fiez, J. A. (2003). Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: Effects of valence and magnitude manipulations. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3(1), 2738. doi: 10.3758/CABN.3.1.27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado, M. R., Nystrom, L. E., Fissell, C., Noll, D. C., & Fiez, J. A. (2000). Tracking the hemodynamic responses to reward and punishment in the striatum. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(6). Retrieved from http://jn.physiology.org/content/84/6/3072.short.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Düzel, E., Bunzeck, N., Guitart-Masip, M., & Düzel, S. (2010). Novelty-related motivation of anticipation and exploration by dopamine (NOMAD): Implications for healthy aging. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34(5), 660–9. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.08.006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040–8. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichenbaum, H. (2000). A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1(1), 4150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eichenbaum, H., Yonelinas, A. P., & Ranganath, C. (2007). The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30(1), 123–52. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.30.051606.094328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Everitt, B. J., Dickinson, A., & Robbins, T. W. (2001). The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Research Reviews, 36(2), 129–38. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00088-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flagel, S. B., Akil, H., & Robinson, T. E. (2009). Individual differences in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-related cues: Implications for addiction. Neuropharmacology, 56, 139–48. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.06.027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410–15. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319030111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman-Rakic, P. S., & Friedman, H. R. (1991). The circuitry of working memory revealed by anatomy and metabolic imaging. In Levin, H. S., Eisenberg, H. M. & Benton, A. L. (Eds.) Frontal lobe function and dysfunction (pp. 7290). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gottlieb, J., Oudeyer, P.-Y., Lopes, M., & Baranes, A. (2013). Information-seeking, curiosity, and attention: Computational and neural mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(11), 585–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossnickle, E. M. (2016). Disentangling curiosity: Dimensionality, definitions, and distinctions from interest in educational contexts. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 2360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, M. J., Gelman, B. D., & Ranganath, C. (2014). States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit. Neuron, 84(2), 486–96. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.060.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hake, R. R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66(1), 6474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111–27. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, E. T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as A motivational principle (pp. 146). Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60381-0.Google Scholar
Kang, M. J., Hsu, M., Krajbich, I. M., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., Wang, J. T., & Camerer, C. F. (2009). The wick in the candle of learning: Epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory. Psychological Science, 20(8), 963–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02402.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knutson, B., Taylor, J., Kaufman, M., Peterson, R., & Glover, G. (2005). Distributed neural representation of expected value. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(19). Retrieved from www.jneurosci.org/content/25/19/4806.short.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Konkel, A. & Cohen, N. J. (2009). Relational memory and the hippocampus: Representations and methods. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3, 23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krebs, R. M., Boehler, C. N., De Belder, M., & Egner, T. (2015). Neural conflict–control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli. Cerebral Cortex, 25(3), 833–43. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumaran, D., Summerfield, J. J., Hassabis, D., & Maguire, E. A. (2009). Tracking the emergence of conceptual knowledge during human decision-making. Neuron, 63(6), 889901. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.07.030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaBar, K. S., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (1998). Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear acquisition and extinction: A mixed-trial fMRI study. Neuron, 20(5), 937–45. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80475-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LeDoux, J. (2003). The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 23(4/5), 727–38. doi: 10.1023/A:1025048802629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leotti, L. A. & Delgado, M. R. (2011). The inherent reward of choice. Psychological Science, 22(10), 1310–18. doi: 10.1177/0956797611417005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisman, J. E. & Grace, A. A. (2005). The hippocampal-VTA loop: Controlling the entry of information into long-term memory. Neuron, 46(5), 703–13. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.05.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacInnes, J. J., Dickerson, K. C., Chen, N., & Adcock, R. A. (2016). Cognitive neurostimulation: Learning to volitionally sustain ventral tegmental area activation. Neuron, 89(6), 1331–42. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.02.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackintosh, N. J. (1983). Conditioning and associative learning. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Mahler, S. V. & Berridge, K. C. (2009). Which cue to “want”? Central amygdala opioid activation enhances and focuses incentive salience on a prepotent reward cue. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 29(20), 6500–13. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3875-08.2009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahler, S. V. & Berridge, K. C. (2012). What and when to “want”? Amygdala-based focusing of incentive salience upon sugar and sex. Psychopharmacology, 221(3), 407–26. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2588-6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maia, T. V. & Frank, M. J. (2011). From reinforcement learning models to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Nature Neuroscience, 14(2), 154–62. doi: 10.1038/nn.2723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markant, D., DuBrow, S., Davachi, L., & Gureckis, T. M. (2014). Deconstructing the effect of self-directed study on episodic memory. Memory & Cognition, 42(8), 1211–24. doi: 10.3758/s13421-014-0435-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, E. K. & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24(1), 167202. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mobbs, D., Hassabis, D., Seymour, B., Marchant, J. L., Weiskopf, N., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2009). Choking on the money: Reward-based performance decrements are associated with midbrain activity. Psychological Science, 20(8), 955–62. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02399.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morilak, D. A., Barrera, G., Echevarria, D. J., Garcia, A. S., Hernandez, A., Ma, S., & Petre, C. O. (2005). Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29(8), 1214–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murayama, K. & Kuhbandner, C. (2011). Money enhances memory consolidation – But only for boring material. Cognition, 119(1), 120–4. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2011.01.001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(49), 20 911–6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1013305107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murty, V. P. & Adcock, R. A. (2014). Enriched encoding: reward motivation organizes cortical networks for hippocampal detection of unexpected events. Cerebral Cortex, 24(8), 2160–8. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht063.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murty, V. P. & Adcock, R. A. (2017). Distinct medial temporal lobe network states as neural contexts for motivated memory formation. In Hannula, D. E. & M. Duff, C., (Eds.), The hippocampus from cells to systems (pp. 467501). Cold Spring, NY: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murty, V. P., DuBrow, S., & Davachi, L. (2015). The simple act of choosing influences declarative memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(16), 6255–64. Retrieved from www.jneurosci.org/content/35/16/6255.short.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murty, V. P., LaBar, K. S., & Adcock, R. A. (2012). Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(26), 8969–76. Retrieved from www.jneurosci.org/content/32/26/8969.short.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murty, V. P., LaBar, K. S., & Adcock, R. A. (2016). Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 134, 5564. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.01.018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murty, V. P., LaBar, K. S., Hamilton, D. A., & Adcock, R. A. (2011). Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory. Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, NY), 18(11), 712–7. doi: 10.1101/lm.023549.111.Google ScholarPubMed
Neugebauer, F., Korz, V., & Frey, J. U. (2009). Modulation of extracellular monoamine transmitter concentrations in the hippocampus after weak and strong tetanization of the perforant path in freely moving rats. Brain Research, 1273, 2938. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.03.055.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Carroll, C. M., Martin, S. J., Sandin, J., Frenguelli, B., & Morris, R. G. M. (2006). Dopaminergic modulation of the persistence of one-trial hippocampus-dependent memory. Learning & Memory, 13(6), 760–9. doi: 10.1101/lm.321006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olds, J. & Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47(6), 419–27. doi: 10.1037/h0058775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oleson, E. B., Gentry, R. N., Chioma, V. C., & Cheer, J. F. (2012). Subsecond dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens predicts conditioned punishment and its successful avoidance. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(42). Retrieved from www.jneurosci.org/content/32/42/14804.short.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parkin, A. J. (1997). Human memory: Novelty, association and the brain. Current Biology. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00400-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, A. G., Vacca, G., & Ahn, S. (2008). A top-down perspective on dopamine, motivation and memory. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 90(2), 236–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ranganath, C. (2010). Binding items and contexts: The cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 131–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. Classical Conditioning II: Current Research and Theory, 2, 6499.Google Scholar
Richter, F. R. & Yeung, N. (2015). Corresponding influences of top-down control on task switching and long-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (Hove), 68(6), 1124–47. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.976579.Google ScholarPubMed
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 5467. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samson, Y., Wu, J. J., Friedman, A. H., & Davis, J. N. (1990). Catecholaminergic innervation of the hippocampus in the cynomolgus monkey. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 298(2), 250–63. doi: 10.1002/cne.902980209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sawaguchi, T. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1991). D1 dopamine receptors in prefrontal cortex: Involvement in working memory. Science, 251(4996), 947–50. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db= PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1825731.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schunk, D. H., Meece, J. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. London: Pearson Education Limited.
Shohamy, D., & Adcock, R. A. (2010). Dopamine and adaptive memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(10), 464–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shohamy, D. & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2013). Mechanisms for widespread hippocampal involvement in cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1159–70. doi: 10.1037/a0034461.Google ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R., Zola-Morgan, , & Stuart, . (1991). The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science, 253(5026). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213549918?pq-origsite=gscholar.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strauman, T. J. & Wilson, W. A. (2010). Behavioral activation/inhibition and regulatory focus as distinct levels of analysis. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), Handbook of personality and self-regulation (pp. 447–73). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Stürmer, B., Nigbur, R., Schacht, A., & Sommer, W. (2011). Reward and punishment effects on error processing and conflict control. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 335.Google ScholarPubMed
Tricomi, E. M., Delgado, M. R., & Fiez, J. A. (2004). Modulation of caudate activity by action contingency. Neuron, 41(2), 281–92. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00848-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Kroll, N. (1995). Novelty assessment in the brain and long-term memory encoding. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2(3), 387–90. doi: 10.3758/BF03210977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Markowitsch, H. J. (1998). Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 8(3), 198204. doi: 10.1002/(SICI) 1098-1063(1998)8:3<198::AID-HIPO2>3.0.CO;2-G.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Murray, D. (1985). Elements of episodic memory. Canadian Psychology, 26(3), 235–8.Google Scholar
Utman, C. H. (1997). Performance effects of motivational state: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1(2), 170–82. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0102_4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verguts, T. & Notebaert, W. (2009). Adaptation by binding: A learning account of cognitive control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(6), 252257. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2009.02.007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voss, J. L., Gonsalves, B. D., Federmeier, K. D., Tranel, D., & Cohen, N. J. (2011a). Hippocampal brain-network coordination during volitional exploratory behavior enhances learning. Nature Neuroscience, 14(1), 115–20. doi: 10.1038/nn.2693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voss, J. L., Warren, D. E., Gonsalves, B. D., Federmeier, K. D., Tranel, D., & Cohen, N. J. (2011b). Spontaneous revisitation during visual exploration as a link among strategic behavior, learning, and the hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(31), E402-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100225108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, S.-H. & Morris, R. G. M. (2010). Hippocampal-neocortical interactions in memory formation, consolidation, and reconsolidation. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 4979.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willner, P. & Scheel-Krüger, J. (1991). The mesolimbic dopamine system: From motivation to action. Wiley Chichester. Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Wittmann, B. C., Schott, B. H., Guderian, S., Frey, J. U., Heinze, H.-J., & Düzel, E. (2005). Reward-related fMRI activation of dopaminergic midbrain is associated with enhanced hippocampus-dependent long-term memory formation. Neuron, 45(3), 459–67. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.01.010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolosin, S. M., Zeithamova, D., & Preston, A. R. (2012). Reward modulation of hippocampal subfield activation during successful associative encoding and retrieval. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(7), 1532–47. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Ali, J., McInerney, D. M., Craven, R. G., Yeung, A. S., & King, R. B. (2014). Socially oriented motivational goals and academic achievement: Similarities between native and Anglo Americans. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(2), 123–37. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2013.788988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C. & Ames, R. (1984). Goal structures and motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 85(1), 3952. doi: 10.1086/461390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderman, E. M. & Maehr, M. L. (1994). Motivation and schooling in the middle grades. Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 287309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, J. W. & Litwin, G. H. (1960). Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60(1), 5263. doi: 10.1037/h0041119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atkinson, J. W. & Raphelson, A. C. (1956). Individual differences in motivation and behavior in particular situations. Journal of Personality, 24, 349–63. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1956.tb01274.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atkinson, J. W. & Reitman, W. R. (1956). Performance as a function of motive strength and expectancy of goal-attainment. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53(3), 361–6. doi: 10.1037/h0043477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bandura, A. & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and instrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boaler, J. & Greeno, J. G. (2000). Identity, agency, and knowing in mathematical worlds. In Boaler, J. (Ed.), Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 4582). Stamford, CT: Ablex.Google Scholar
Boekaerts, M., de Koning, E., & Vedder, P. (2006). Goal-directed behavior and contextual factors in the classroom: An innovative approach to the study of multiple goals. Educational Psychologist, 41(1), 3351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, R. (1987). Task-involving and ego-involving properties of evaluation: Effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 474–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, R. (2006). Are mastery and ability goals both adaptive? Evaluation, initial goal construction, and the quality of task engagement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 595611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carver, C. S. & Scheier, M. F. (2000). On the structure of behavioral self-regulation. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. (pp. 4184). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cobb, P., Gresalfi, M., & Hodge, L. L. (2009). An interpretive scheme for analyzing the identities that students develop in mathematics classrooms. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 40(1), 4068.Google Scholar
Cobb, P., Yackel, E., & Wood, T. (1989). Young children's emotional acts while doing mathematical problem-solving. In McLeod, D. B. & Adams, V. M. (Eds.), Affect and mathematical problem solving: A new perspective. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Covington, M. V. & Omelich, C. L. (1984). Task-oriented versus competitive learning structures: Motivational and performance consequences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(6), 1038–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duda, J. L. (1995). Motivation in sport settings: A goal perspective approach. In Roberts, G. C. (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise. (pp. 5791). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.Google Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 461–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 632–48. doi: 10.1037/a0023952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonida, E. N. & Cortina, K. S. (2014). Parental involvement in homework: Relations with parent and student achievement-related motivational beliefs and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 376–96. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hand, V. M. & Gresalfi, M. (2015). The joint accomplishment of identity. Educational Psychologist, 50(3), 190203. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2015.1075401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1284–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Rethinking achievement goals: When are they adaptive for college students and why? Educational Psychologist, 33(1), 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickey, D. T. & Granade, J. B. (2004). The influence of sociocultural theory on our theories of engagement and motivation. In McInerney, D. & Van Etten, S. (Eds.), Big theories revisited (Vol. 4, pp. 200–23). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
Holland, D. (2010). Symbolic worlds in time/spaces of practice: Identities and transformations. In Wagoner, B. (Ed.), Symbolic transformation: The mind in movement through culture and society. (pp. 269–83). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
Holland, D., Lachicotte, W., Skinner, D., & Cain, C. (1998). Identity and agency in cultural worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Holland, D. & Lave, J. (Eds.). (2001). History in person: Enduring struggles, contentious practice, intimate identities. Albuquerque, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
Horn, I. S. (2005). Learning on the job: A situated account of teacher learning in high school mathematics departments. Cognition and Instruction, 23(2), 207–36. doi: 10.1207/s1532690xci2302_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horn, I. S., Nolen, S. B., Ward, C. J., & Campbell, S. S. (2008). Developing practices in multiple worlds: The role of identity in learning to teach. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(3), 6172.Google Scholar
Jones, S. & Vagle, M. D. (2013). Living contradictions and working for change: Toward a theory of social class-sensitive pedagogy. Educational Researcher, 42(3), 129–41. doi: 10.3102/0013189X13481381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, A. & Middleton, M. J. (2002). Should childhood be a journey or a race? Response to Harackiewizc, et al. (2002). Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 646–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, J.-I., Schallert, D. L., & Kim, M. (2010). An integrative cultural view of achievement motivation: Parental and classroom predictors of children's goal orientations when learning mathematics in Korea. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 418–37. doi: 10.1037/a0018676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, R. B., Ganotice, F. A. Jr., & Watkins, D. A. (2014). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement and social goals among Chinese and Filipino students. Social Psychology of Education, 17(3), 439–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, R. B. & McInerney, D. M. (2014). Culture's consequences on student motivation: Capturing cross-cultural universality and variability through personal investment theory. Educational Psychologist, 49(3), 175–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, M. & Bong, M. (2016). In their own words: Reasons underlying the achievement striving of students in schools. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(2), 274–94. doi: 10.1037/edu0000048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J. Q., McInerney, D. M., Liem, G. A. D., & Ortiga, Y. P. (2010). The relationship between future goals and achievement goal orientations: An intrinsic–extrinsic motivation perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(4), 264–79. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lens, W., Paixao, M. P., Herrera, D., & Grobler, A. (2012). Future time perspective as a motivational variable: Content and extension of future goals affect the quantity and quality of motivation. Japanese Psychological Research, 54(3), 321–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2012.00520.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linnenbrink, E. A. (2005). The dilemma of performance-approach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote students’ motivation and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 197213. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.97.2.197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lüftenegger, M., van de Schoot, R., Schober, B., Finsterwald, M., & Spiel, C. (2014). Promotion of students’ mastery goal orientations: Does target work? Educational Psychology, 34(4), 451–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, W., Aye, K., Hogan, D., Kaur, B., & Chan, M. (2013). Parenting behaviors and learning of Singapore students: The mediational role of achievement goals. Motivation & Emotion, 37(2), 274–85. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9303-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maehr, M. L. & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A school-wide approach. Educational Psychologist, 26(3–4), 399427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magson, N. R., Craven, R. G., Nelson, G. F., Yeung, A. S., Bodkin-Andrews, G. H., & McInerney, D. M. (2014). Motivation matters: Profiling indigenous and non-indigenous students’ motivational goals. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 43(2), 96112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, C. (2012). Rethinking motivation goals for adolescents: Beyond achievement goals. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61(4), 564–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00506.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McInerney, D. M. (2003). Motivational goals, self-concept and sense of self: What predicts academic achievement? In Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., & McInerney, D. M. (Eds.), International advances in self research. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
McInerney, D. M. (2008). Personal investment, culture and learning: Insights into school achievement across Anglo, aboriginal, Asian and Lebanese students in Australia. International Journal of Psychology, 43(5), 870–9. doi: 10.1080/00207590701836364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McInerney, D. M. & Ali, J. (2013). Indigenous motivational profiles: Do they reflect collectivism? A cross-cultural analysis of similarities and differences between groups classified as individualist and collectivist cultures. In Craven, R., Bodkin-Andrews, G., & Mooney, J. (Eds.), Indigenous peoples (pp. 211–32). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
McInerney, D. M., Hinkley, J., Dowson, M., & Van Etten, S. (1998). Aboriginal, Anglo, and immigrant Australian students’ motivational beliefs about personal academic success: Are there cultural differences? Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 621–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McInerney, D. M., Roche, L. A., McInerney, V., & Marsh, H. W. (1997). Cultural perspectives on school motivation: The relevance and application of goal theory. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 207–36. doi: 10.2307/1163347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, D. K., Turner, J. C., & Spencer, C. A. (1997). Challenge in a mathematics classroom: Students’ motivation and strategies in project-based learning. The Elementary School Journal, 97(5), 501–21. doi: 10.1086/461878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michou, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Mouratidis, A., & Lens, W. (2014). Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 650–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., & Middleton, M. J. (2001). Performance-approach goals: Good for what, for whom, under what circumstances, and at what cost? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 7786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality: A clinical and experimental study of fifty men of college age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic apperception test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Nasir, N. S. (2011). Racialized identities: Race and achievement among African American youth. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Nasir, N. S. & Cooks, J. (2009). Becoming a hurdler: How learning settings afford identities. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 40(1), 4161. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1492.2009.01027.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasir, N. S., McLaughlin, M. W., & Jones, A. (2009). What does it mean to be African American? Constructions of race and academic identity in an urban public high school. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 73114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, G. F., O'Mara, A. J., McInerney, D. M., & Dowson, M. (2006). Motivation in cross-cultural settings: A Papua New Guinea psychometric study. International Education Journal, 7(4), 400–9.Google Scholar
Nicholls, J. G. & Burton, J. T. (1982). Motivation and equality. Elementary School Journal, 82(4), 367–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nolen, S. B. (1988). Reasons for studying: Motivational orientations and study strategies. Cognition and Instruction, 5(4), 260287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nolen, S. B. (2003). Learning environment, achievement, and motivation in high school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(4), 347–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nolen, S. B. (2007). The role of literate communities in the development of children's interest in writing. In Boscolo, P. & Hidi, S. (Eds.), Writing and motivation (pp. 241–55). Oxford: Elsevier.Google ScholarPubMed
Nolen, S. B., Horn, I. S., Ward, C. J., & Childers, S. (2011). Assessment tools as boundary objects in novice teachers’ learning. Cognition and Instruction, 29(1), 88122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nolen, S. B., Ward, C. J., Horn, I. S., Childers, S., Campbell, S. S., & Mahna, K. (2009). Motivation development in novice teachers: The development of utility filters. In Wosnitza, M., Karabenick, S. A., Efklides, A., & Nenniger, P. (Eds.), Contemporary motivation research: From global to local perspectives (pp. 265–78). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
O'Keefe, P. A., Ben-Eliyahu, A., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2013). Shaping achievement goal orientations in a mastery-structured environment and concomitant changes in related contingencies of self-worth. Motivation and Emotion, 37(1), 5064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, D., Gunderson, E. A., Tsukayama, E., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2016). Young children's motivational frameworks and math achievement: Relation to teacher-reported instructional practices, but not teacher theory of intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 300–13. doi: 10.1037/edu0000064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pintrich, P. R., Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (1998). The differential impact of task value and mastery orientation on males’ and females’ self-regulated learning. In Hoffmann, A. K. L., Renninger, K. A., & Baumert, J. (Eds.), Interest and learning (pp. 337–52). Kiel: Institute for Science Education (IPN).Google Scholar
Roth, W.-M. (2011). Object/motives and emotion: A cultural-historical activity theoretic approach to motivation in learning and work. In McInerny, D. M., Walker, R. A., & Liem, G. A. (Eds.), Sociocultural theories of learning and motivation: Looking back, looking forward. (Vol. 10, pp. 4363). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
Schuitema, J., Peetsma, T., & van der Veen, I. (2014). Enhancing student motivation: A longitudinal intervention study based on future time perspective theory. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(6), 467–81. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2013.836467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, D. L., Cheng, K. M., Salehi, S., & Wieman, C. (2016). The half empty question for socio-cognitive interventions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 397404. doi: 10.1037/edu0000122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 2647. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.538646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Senko, C. & Tropiano, K. L. (2016). Comparing three models of achievement goals: Goal orientations, goal standards, and goal complexes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(8), 1178–92. doi: 10.1037/edu0000114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorkildsen, T. A. & Nicholls, J. G. (1998). Fifth graders’ achievement orientations and beliefs: Individual and classroom differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 179201. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.90.2.179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. C. (1995). The influence of classroom contexts on young children's motivation for literacy. RRQ, 30(3), 409–41.Google Scholar
Turner, J. C., Warzon, K. B., & Christensen, A. (2011). Motivating mathematics learning: Changes in teachers’ practices and beliefs during a nine-month collaboration. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 718–62. doi: 10.3102/0002831210385103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Urdan, T. & Mestas, M. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 354–65. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vansteenkiste, M., Timmermans, T., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Van den Broeck, A. (2008). Does extrinsic goal framing enhance extrinsic goal-oriented individuals’ learning and performance? An experimental test of the match perspective versus self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 387–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.2.387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vedder-Weiss, D. & Fortus, D. (2013). School, teacher, peers, and parents’ goals emphases and adolescents’ motivation to learn science in and out of school. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(8), 952–88. doi: 10.1002/tea.21103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wentzel, K. R. (1996). Social goals and social relationships as motivators of school adjustment. In Juvonen, J. & Wentzel, K. R. (Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 226–47). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wentzel, K. R. (2000). What is it that I'm trying to achieve? Classroom goals from a content perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 105–15. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zusho, A. & Clayton, K. (2011). Culturalizing achievement goal theory and research. Educational Psychologist, 46(4), 239–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Ablard, K. E. & Lipschultz, R. E. (1998). Self-regulated learning in high-achieving students: Relations to advanced reasoning, achievement goals, and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 94101. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.90.1.94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–71. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C. & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260–7. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.80.3.260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bembenutty, H. (1999). Sustaining motivation and academic goals: The role of academic delay of gratification. Learning and Individual Differences, 11(3), 233–57. doi: 10.1016/S1041-6080(99)80002-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bembenutty, H. (2012). Latent class analysis of teacher candidates’ goal orientation, perception of classroom structure, motivation, and self-regulation. Psychology Journal, 9(3), 97106.Google Scholar
Berger, J. (2012). Uncovering vocational students’ multiple goal profiles in the learning of professional mathematics: Differences in learning strategies, motivational beliefs, and cognitive abilities. Educational Psychology, 32(4), 405–25. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2012.674663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergman, L. R. & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9(2), 291319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergman, L. R. & Trost, K. (2006). The person-oriented versus the variable-oriented approach: Are they complementary, opposites, or exploring different worlds? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 601–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boekaerts, M. & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulated learning: Finding a balance between learning goals and ego-protective goals. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 417–50). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bong, M. (2009). Age-related differences in achievement goal differentiation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 879–96. doi: 10.1037/a0015945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., & Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation on self-regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(3), 317–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouffard, T., Vezeau, C., & Bordeleau, L. (1998). A developmental study of the relation between combined learning and performance goals and students' self-regulated learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(3), 309–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brdar, I., Rijavec, M., & Loncaric, D. (2006). Goal orientations, coping with school failure and school achievement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(1), 5370. doi: 10.1007/BF03173569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cano, F. & Berben, A. B. G. (2009). University students’ achievement goals and approaches to learning in mathematics. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 131–53. doi: 10.1348/000709908X314928CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conley, A. M. (2012). Patterns of motivation beliefs: Combining achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 3247. doi: 10.1037/a0026042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniels, L. M., Haynes, T. L., Stupnisky, R. H., Perry, R. P., Newall, N. E., & Pekrun, R. (2008). Individual differences in achievement goals: A longitudinal study of cognitive, emotional, and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 584608. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dela Rosa, E. D. & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Testing multiple goals theory in an Asian context: Filipino university students’ motivation and academic achievement. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 1(1), 4757. doi: 10.1080/21683603.2013.782594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dina, F. & Efklides, A. (2009). Student profiles of achievement goals, goal instructions and external feedback: Their effect on mathematical task performance and affect. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 2, 235–62.Google Scholar
Dowson, M. & McInerney, D. M. (2001). Psychological parameters of students’ social and work avoidance goals: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 3542. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dull, R. B., Schleifer, L. L. F., & McMillan, J. J. (2015). Achievement goal theory: The relationship of accounting students’ goal orientations with self-efficacy, anxiety, and achievement. Accounting Education, 24(2), 152–74. doi: 10.1080/ 09639284.2015.1036892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duncan, T. G. & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The making of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40, 117–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dweck, C. S. (1992). The study of goals in psychology. Psychological Science, 3, 165–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dweck, C. S. (1996). Capturing the dynamic nature of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 348–62. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1996.0024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dweck, C. S. & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–73. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J., & Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In Spence, J. T. (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives (pp. 75146). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–89. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218–32. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461–75. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–19. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliot, A. J. & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 613–28. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632–48. doi: 10.1037/a0023952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 139–56. doi: 1009057102306Google Scholar
Flanagan, M. J., Putwain, D. W., & Caltabiano, M. L. (2015). The relationship between goal setting and students’ experience of academic test anxiety. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 3(3), 189201. doi: 10.1080/21683603.2015.1060910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortunato, V. J. & Goldblatt, A. M. (2006). An examination of goal orientation profiles using cluster analysis and their relationships with dispositional characteristics and motivational response patterns. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(9), 2150–83. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00099.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonçalves, T., Niemivirta, M., & Lemos, M. S. (2017). Identification of students’ multiple achievement and social goal profiles and analysis of their stability and adaptability. Learning and Individual Differences, 54, 149–59. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.01.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, H. & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 541–53. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.541CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L., & Akey, K. L. (2004). Predicting high school students’ cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 462–82. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1284–95. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.73.6.1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Pintrich, P. R., Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and illuminating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 638–45. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayamizu, T. & Weiner, B. (1991). A test of Dweck's model of achievement goals as related to perceptions of ability. Journal of Experimental Education, 59, 226–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haydel, A. M. & Roeser, R. W. (2002). On motivation, ability, and the perceived situation in science test performance: A person-centered approach with high school students. Educational Assessment, 8(2), 163–89. doi: 10.1207/S15326977EA0802_05CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglés, C. J., Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C., García-Fernández, J. M., Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Delgado, B., & Torregrosa, M. S. (2015). Motivational profiles Spanish students of compulsory secondary education: Differential analysis of academic self-attributions. Anales De Psicología, 31(2), 579–88. doi: 10.6018/analesps.31.2.173281Google Scholar
Jang, L. Y. & Liu, W. C. (2012). 2 × 2 achievement goals and achievement emotions: A cluster analysis of students’ motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(1), 5976. doi: 10.1007/s10212-011-0066-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen in de Wal, J., Hornstra, L., Prins, F. J., Peetsma, T., & Van der Veen, I. (2016). The prevalence, development and domain specificity of elementary school students’ achievement goal profiles. Educational Psychology, 36(7), 1303–22. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2015.1035698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, A. & Middleton, M. (2002). Should childhood be a journey or a race? Response to Harackiewicz et al. (2002). Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 646–8. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, A. & Midgley, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic-competence make a difference? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 415–35. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1997.0943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolić-Vehovec, S., Rončević, B., & Bajšanski, I. (2008). Motivational components of self-regulated learning and reading strategy use in university students: The role of goal orientation patterns. Learning and Individual Differences, 18(1), 108–13. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köller, O. & Baumert, J. (1998). Ein Deutsches Instrument zur Erfassung von Zielorientierungen bei Schülerinnen und Schülern [A German instrument for assessing students’ goal orientations]. Diagnostica, 44, 173–81.Google Scholar
Korpershoek, H., Kuyper, H., & van der Werf, G. (2015). Differences in students’ school motivation: A latent class modelling approach. Social Psychology of Education, 18(1), 137–63. doi: 10.1007/s11218-014-9274-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koul, R., Clariana, R. B., Jitgarun, K., & Songsriwittaya, A. (2009). The influence of achievement goal orientation on plagiarism. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(4), 506–12. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koul, R., Roy, L., & Lerdpornkulrat, T. (2012). Motivational goal orientation, perceptions of biology and physics classroom learning environments, and gender. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 217–29. doi: 10.1007/s10984-012-9111-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, K. & Lee, J. (2008). Examining Hong Kong students’ achievement goals and their relations with students’ perceived classroom environment and strategy use. Educational Psychology, 28(4), 357–72. doi: 10.1080/01443410701612008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, S. & Roeser, R. W. (2008). Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in science achievement and engagement: A person-centered analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 18(4), 497504. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laursen, B. & Hoff, E. (2006). Person-centered and variable-centered approaches to longitudinal data. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52(3), 377–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Y.-K., Wormington, S. V., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Roseth, C. J. (2017). A short-term longitudinal study of stability and change in achievement goal profiles. Learning and Individual Differences, 55, 4960. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemos, M. S. (1996). Students’ and teachers’ goals in the classroom. Learning and Instruction, 6(2), 151–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lethwaite, R. & Piparo, A. J. (1993). Goal orientations in young competitive athletes: Physical achievement, social-relational, and experiential concerns. Journal of Research in Personality, 27, 103–17.Google Scholar
Levy-Tossman, I., Kaplan, A., & Assor, A. (2007). Academic goal orientations, multiple goal profiles, and friendship intimacy among early adolescents. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(2), 231–52. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.06.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Litalien, D., Morin, A. J., & McInerney, D. M. (2017). Achievement goal profiles among adolescent males and females. Developmental Psychology, 53(4), 731751. doi: 10.1037/dev0000288CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Tan, O. S., Ee, J., & Koh, C. (2009). Understanding students’ motivation in project work: A 2 × 2 achievement goal approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 87106. doi: 10.1348/000709908X313767Google ScholarPubMed
Luo, W., Paris, S. G., Hogan, D., & Luo, Z. (2011). Do performance goals promote learning? A pattern analysis of Singapore students’ achievement goals. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(2), 165–76. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magnusson, D. (1988). Individual development from interactional perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
McInerney, D. M. & Ali, J. (2006). Multidimensional and hierarchical assessment of school motivation: Cross-cultural validation. Educational Psychology, 26, 717–34. doi: 10.1080/01443410500342559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514–23. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.80.4.514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meece, J. L. & Holt, K. (1993). A pattern analysis of students’ achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 582–90. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.85.4.582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Middleton, M. J. & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An underexplored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710–18. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.89.4.710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., Middleton, M. J., Maehr, M. L., Urdan, T., Anderman, L. H., ... Roeser, R. (1998). The development and validation of scales assessing students’ achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 113–31. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1998.0965CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Midgley, C. & Maehr, M. L. (1991). Patterns of adaptive learning survey. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hicks, L., Roeser, R. W., Urdan, T. U., Anderman, E., & Kaplan, A. (1995). Patterns of adaptive learning survey (PALS) Manual. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hicks, L., Roeser, R. W., Urdan, T. U., Anderman, E., Kaplan, A., Arunkumar, R., & Middleton, M. (1997). Patterns of adaptive learning survey (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E. M., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M. J., Nelson, J., Roeser, R., & Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Ng, C. C. (2006). The role of achievement goals in completing a course assignment: Examining the effects of performance-approach and multiple goals. Open Learning, 21(1), 3348. doi: 10.1080/02680510500472189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ng, C. C. (2008). Multiple-goal learners and their differential patterns of learning. Educational Psychology, 28(4), 439–56. doi: 10.1080/01443410701739470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ng, C. C. (2009). Profiling learners’ achievement goals when completing academic essays. Educational Psychology, 29(3), 279–95. doi: 10.1080/01443410902797988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Nicholls, J. G., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. (1985). Adolescents’ theories of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 683–92. doi: 10.1037/ 0022-0663.77.6.683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niemivirta, M. (1996). Intentional and adaptive learning modes – The self at stake. Paper presented at the 2nd European Conference on Educational Research, Sevilla, Spain.
Niemivirta, M. (1998). Individual differences in motivational and cognitive factors affecting self-regulated learning: A pattern-oriented approach. In Nenniger, P., Jäger, R. S., Frey, A., & Wosnitza, M. (Eds.), Advances in motivation (pp. 2342). Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik.Google Scholar
Niemivirta, M. (1999). The self at work: Generalized and task-specific self-appraisals in motivation and performance. Paper presented at the 8th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Niemivirta, M. (2002a). Individual differences and developmental trends in motivation: Integrating person-centered and variable-centered methods. In Pintrich, P. R. & Maehr, M. L. (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 12, pp. 241–75). Amsterdam: JAI Press.Google Scholar
Niemivirta, M. (2002b). Motivation and performance in context: The influence of goal orientations and instructional setting on situational appraisals and task performance. Psychologia, 45(4), 250–70. doi: 10.2117/psysoc.2002.250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niemivirta, M. (2004). Habits of mind and academic endeavors: The correlates and consequences of achievement goal orientations. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University Press.
Niemivirta, M., Pulkka, A.-T., Tapola, A., & Tuominen-Soini, H. (2013). Tavoiteorientaatioprofiilit ja niiden yhteys tilannekohtaiseen motivaatioon ja päättelytehtävässä suoriutumiseen [Achievement goal orientation profiles and their relations to task-specific motivation and performance]. Kasvatus [The Finnish Journal of Education], 44(5), 533–47.Google Scholar
Niemivirta, M., Rijavec, M., & Yamauchi, H. (2001). Goal orientations and action-control beliefs: A cross-cultural comparison among Croatian, Finnish, and Japanese students. In Efklides, A., Kuhl, J., & Sorrentino, R. M. (Eds.), [Trends and prospects in motivation research] (pp. 163–83). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J. A., González-Pumariega, S., García, M., & Roces, C. (1997). Cuestionario para la Evaluación de Metas Académicas [Evaluation of Academic Goals Questionnaire]. Oviedo: Departamento de Psicología. Universidad de Oviedo.Google Scholar
Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J. A., Rodríguez, C., Valle, A., Gonzalez-Cabanach, R., & Rosário, P. (2011). Multiple goals perspective in adolescent students with learning difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34(4), 273–86. doi: 10.1177/0731948711421763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535–69. doi: 10.1080/10705510701575396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pastor, D. A., Barron, K. E., Miller, B. J., & Davis, S. L. (2007). A latent profile analysis of college students’ achievement goal orientation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(1), 847. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peixoto, F., Monteiro, V., Mata, L., Sanches, C., Pipa, J., & Almeida, L. S. (2016). “To be or not to be retained … that's the question!” Retention, self-esteem, self-concept, achievement goals, and grades. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 1550. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01550CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pintrich, P. R. & de Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 3340. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.82.1.33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pintrich, P. R. & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In Maehr, M. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement, (Vol. 7, pp. 371402). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 544–55. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.92.3.544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(3), 801–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pipa, J., Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., & Sanches, C. (2016). The goal orientations scale (GOS): Validation for Portuguese students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 477–88. doi: 10.1080/17405629. 2016.1216835Google Scholar
Pulkka, A.-T. & Niemivirta, M. (2013a). Adult students’ achievement goal orientations and evaluations of the learning environment: A person-centred longitudinal analysis. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19(4), 297322. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2013.767741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pulkka, A.-T. & Niemivirta, M. (2013b). In the eye of the beholder: Do adult students’ achievement goal orientation profiles predict their perceptions of instruction and studying? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(3), 133–43. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2013.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pulkka, A.-T. & Niemivirta, M. (2015). The relationships between adult students’ achievement goal orientations, self-defined course goals, course evaluations, and performance. Journal for Educational Research Online, 7(3), 2853.Google Scholar
Regueiro, B., Núñez, J. C., Valle, A., Piñeiro, I., Rodríguez, S., & Rosário, P. (2016). Motivational profiles in high school students: Differences in behavioural and emotional homework engagement and academic achievement. International Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12399Google ScholarPubMed
Rice, K. G. & Slaney, R. B. (2002). Clusters of perfectionists: Two studies of emotional adjustment and academic achievement. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35, 3548.Google Scholar
Rijavec, M. & Brdar, I. (2002). Coping with school failure and self-regulated learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17, 177–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roeser, R. W., Strobel, K. R., & Quihuis, G. (2002). Studying early adolescents’ academic motivation, social-emotional functioning, and engagement in learning: Variable- and person-centered approaches. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 15(4), 345–68. doi: 10.1080/1061580021000056519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryan, A. & Shim, S. S. (2008). An exploration of young adolescents’ social achievement goals and social adjustment in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 672–87. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwinger, M., Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2016). Achievement goal profiles in elementary school: Antecedents, consequences, and longitudinal trajectories. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 164–79. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwinger, M. & Wild, E. (2006). Die Entwicklung von Zielorientierungen im Fach Mathematik von der 3. bis 5. Jahrgangsstufe [The development of goal orientations in mathematics from 3rd to 5th grade]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 20, 269–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwinger, M. & Wild, E. (2012). Prevalence, stability, and functionality of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37(1), 113. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seegers, G., van Putten, C. M., & de Brabander, C. J. (2002). Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: Effects on students’ attitude in actual task settings. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 365–84. doi: 10.1348/000709902320634366CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seifert, T. L. (1995). Characteristics of ego- and task-oriented students: A comparison of two methodologies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 125–38. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1995.tb01136.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Senko, C., Hama, H., & Belmonte, K. (2013). Achievement goals, study strategies, and achievement: A test of the “learning agenda” framework. Learning and Individual Differences, 24, 110. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 2647. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.538646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shih, S. (2005). Taiwanese sixth graders’ achievement goals and their motivation, strategy use, and grades: An examination of the multiple goal perspective. Elementary School Journal, 106(1), 3958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shim, S. S. & Finch, W. H. (2014). Academic and social achievement goals and early adolescents’ adjustment: A latent class approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30(1), 98105. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sideridis, G. D. & Kaplan, A. (2011). Achievement goals and persistence across tasks: The roles of failure and success. Journal of Experimental Education, 79(4), 429–51. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2010.539634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sideridis, G. D. & Tsorbatzoudis, C. (2003). Intra-group motivational analysis of students with learning disabilities: A goal orientation approach. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 1(1), 819.Google Scholar
Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 7181. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, L. & Sinclair, K. E. (2005). Empirical evidence for multiple goals: A gender-based, senior high school student perspective. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 5, 5570.Google Scholar
Spinath, B., Stiensmeier-Pelster, J., Schöne, C., & Dickhäuser, O. (2002). Die skalen zur erfassung von lern- und leistungsmotivation (SELLMO) [Scales for the measurement of learning and achievement motivation]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
Stoeber, J. & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), 295319. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suárez Riveiro, J. M., Cabanach, R. G., & Valle Arias, A. (2001). Multiple-goal pursuit and its relation to cognitive, self-regulatory, and motivational strategies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(4), 561–72. doi: 10.1348/ 000709901158677CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanaka, K. (2007). Relations between general goal orientations and task-specific self-appraisals. Japanese Psychological Research, 49(4), 235–47. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2007.00350.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tapola, A., Jaakkola, T., & Niemivirta, M. (2014). The influence of achievement goal orientations and task concreteness on situational interest. Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 455–79. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2013.813370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tapola, A. & Niemivirta, M. (2008). The role of achievement goal orientations in students’ perceptions of and preferences for classroom environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(2), 291312. doi: 10.1348/000709907X205272CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thorkildsen, T. A., & Nicholls, J. G. (1998). Fifth graders’ achievement orientations and beliefs: Individual and classroom differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 179201. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.90.2.179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuominen, H., Niemivirta, M., Lonka, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2018). Stability and change in goal orientation profiles across the transition from elementary to secondary school: A latent transition analysis. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K., & Niemivirta, M. (2008). Achievement goal orientations and subjective well-being: A person-centred analysis. Learning and Instruction, 18(3), 251–66. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.05.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K., & Niemivirta, M. (2011). Stability and change in achievement goal orientations: A person-centered approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(2), 82100. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K., & Niemivirta, M. (2012). Achievement goal orientations and academic well-being across the transition to upper secondary education. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(3), 290305. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, J. C., Thorpe, P. K., & Meyer, D. K. (1998). Students’ reports of motivation and negative affect: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 758–71. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.90.4.758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vallacher, R. R. & Wegner, D. M. (1987). What do people think they're doing? Action identification and human behavior. Psychological Review, 94(1), 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valle, A., Cabanach, R. G., Nunez, J. C., Gonzalez-Pienda, J., Rodríguez, S., &Pineiro, I. (2003). Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(1), 7187. doi: 10.1348/000709903762869923CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Cabanach, R. G., Rodríguez, S., Rosário, P., & Inglés, C. J. (2015a). Motivational profiles as a combination of academic goals in higher education. Educational Psychology, 35(5), 634–50. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2013.819072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valle, A., Pan, I., Núñez, J. C., Rodríguez, S., Rosário, P., & Regueiro, B. (2015b). Multiple goals and homework involvement in elementary school students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, 111. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2015.88CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Veen, I. & Peetsma, T. (2009). The development in self-regulated learning behaviour of first-year students in the lowest level of secondary school in the Netherlands. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(1), 3446. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57, 9951015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veermans, M. & Tapola, A. (2004). Primary school students’ motivational profiles in longitudinal settings. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 48(4), 373–95. doi: 10.1080/0031383042000245780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Eye, A. (1990). Configural frequency analysis of longitudinal multivariate responses. In von Eye, A. (Ed.), Statistical methods in longitudinal research (pp. 545–70). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
von Eye, A. & Bogat, G. A. (2006). Person-oriented and variable-oriented research: Concepts, results, and development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 390420.Google Scholar
Wentzel, K. R. (1993). Motivation and achievement in early adolescence: The role of multiple classroom goals. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 420. doi: 10.1177/0272431693013001001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigfield, A. & Guthrie, J. T. (1997). Relations of children's motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 420–32. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.89.3.420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, T. M., Zheng, C., Lemoine, K. A., Martin, C. P., & Tang, Y. (2016). Achievement goals during middle childhood: Individual differences in motivation and social adjustment. The Journal of Experimental Education, 84(4), 723–43. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1094648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodrow, L. J. (2006). A model of adaptive language learning. Modern Language Journal, 90(3), 297319. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2006.00424.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wormington, S. V. & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2017). A new look at multiple goal pursuit: The promise of a person-centered approach. Educational Psychology Review, 29, 407–45. doi: 10.1007/s10648-016-9358-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. J. (1997). I think, therefore I'm motivated: The relations among cognitive strategy use, motivational orientation and classroom perceptions over time. Learning and Individual Differences, 9, 249–83. doi: 10.1016/S1041-6080(97)90009-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y., Watermann, R., & Daniel, A. (2016). Are multiple goals in elementary students beneficial for their school achievement? A latent class analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 51, 100–10. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.08.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou, M. (2016). University students’ emotion during online search task: A multiple achievement goal perspective. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150(5), 576–90. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2016.1143797CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Acee, T. W. & Weinstein, C. E. (2010). Effects of a value-reappraisal intervention on statistics students’ motivation and performance. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78(4), 487512. doi: 10.1080/00220970903352753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archambault, I., Eccles, J. S., & Vida, M. N. (2010). Ability self-concepts and subjective value in literacy: Joint trajectories from grades 1–12. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 804–16. doi: 10.1037/a0021075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359–72. doi: 10.1080/00220970903352753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
Barron, K. E. & Hulleman, C. S. (2015). Expectancy-value-cost model of motivation. In Eccles, J. S. & Salmelo-Aro, K. (Eds.), International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences: Motivational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 503–9). New York, NY: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.26099-6.Google Scholar
Battle, A. & Wigfield, A. (2003). College women's value orientations toward family, career, and graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 5675. doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00037-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bong, M., Cho, C., Ahn, H. S., & Kim, H. J. (2012). Comparison of self-beliefs for predicting student motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 105, 336–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bong, M., Hwang, A., Noh, A., & Kim, S. I. (2014). Perfectionism and motivation of adolescents in academic contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 711–29. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2011.627401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bong, M. & Skaalvik, E. M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15(1), 140. doi: 10.1023/A:1021302408382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borman, G. D., Slavin, R. E., Cheung, A. C. K., Chamberlain, A. M., Madden, N. A., & Chambers, B. (2007). Final reading outcomes of the national randomized field trial of Success for All. American Educational Research Journal, 44, 701–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brisson, B. M., Dicke, A.-L., Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Flunger, B., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (2017). Short intervention, sustained effects: Promoting students’ math competence beliefs, effort, and achievement. American Educational Research Journal. doi: 10.3102/0002831217716084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conley, A. M. (2012). Patterns of motivation beliefs: Combining achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 3247. doi: 10.1037/a0026042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denissen, J. J., Zarrett, N. R., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). I like to do it, I'm able, and I know I am: Longitudinal couplings between domain-specific achievement, self-concept, and interest. Child Development, 78(2), 430–47. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01007.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durik, A. M., Vida, M., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Task values and ability beliefs as predictors of high school literacy choices: A developmental analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 382–93. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J. S. (1987). Gender roles and women's achievement-related decisions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 135–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1987.tb00781.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J. S. (2005). Subjective task values and the Eccles et al. model of achievement related choices. In Elliott, A. J. & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105–21). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Eccles, J. S. (2007). Where are all the women? Gender differences in participation in physical science and engineering. In Ceci, S. J. & Williams, W. M. (Eds.), Why aren't more women in science? Top researchers debate the evidence (pp. 199210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/11546-016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J. S. & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage/environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for early adolescents. In Ames, R. & Ames, C. (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 139–81). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Eccles, J. S. & Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the achiever: The structure of adolescents' academic achievement related-beliefs and self-perceptions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccles, J. S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109–32. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R., & Blumenfeld, P. B. (1993). Age and gender differences in children's self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830–47. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02946.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In Damon, W. & Eisenberg, N. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 1017–95). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
Eccles-Parsons, J. S., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J. L., & Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In Spence, J. T. (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation (pp. 75146). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169–89. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliot, A. J. & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218–32. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falco, L. D., Summers, J. J., & Bauman, S. (2010). Encouraging mathematics participation through improved self-efficacy: A school counseling outcomes study. Educational Research and Evaluation, 16(6), 529–49. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2011.555101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flake, J. K., Barron, K. E., Hulleman, C., McCoach, D. B., & Welsh, M. E. (2015). Measuring cost: The forgotten component of expectancy-value theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 232–44. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredricks, J. & Eccles, J. S. (2002). Children's competence and value beliefs from childhood through adolescence: Growth trajectories in two male sex-typed domains. Developmental Psychology, 38, 519–33. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.38.4.519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., & Watt, H. M. (2010). Development of mathematics interest in adolescence: Influences of gender, family, and school context. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 507–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00645.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Marsh, H. W., Parker, P. D., Morin, A. J. S., & Yeung, A. S. (2015b). Expectancy–value in mathematics, gender and socioeconomic background as predictors of achievement and aspirations: A multi-cohort study. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 161–8. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Parker, P. D., Marsh, H. W., & Morin, A. J. (2015a). Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective. Developmental Psychology, 51(8), 1163–76. doi: 10.1037/a0039440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaspard, H., Dicke, A., Flunger, B., Brisson, B., Häfner, I., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (2015a). Fostering adolescents’ value beliefs for mathematics with a relevance intervention in the classroom. Developmental Psychology, 51(9), 1226–40. doi: 10.1037/dev0000028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaspard, H., Dicke, A. L., Flunger, B., Häfner, I., Brisson, B. M., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2016). Side effects of motivational interventions? Effects of an intervention in math classrooms on motivation in verbal domains. AERA Open, 2(2), 114. doi: 10.1177/2332858416649168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaspard, H., Dicke, A., Flunger, B., Schreier, B., Häfner, I., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2015b). More value through greater differentiation: Gender differences in value beliefs about math. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 663–77. doi: 10.1037/edu0000003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Parrisius, C., Trautwein, U., & Nagegast, B. (2017). Assessing task values in five subjects during secondary school: Measurement structure and mean level differences across grade level, gender, and academic subject. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 6784. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 313. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guthrie, J. T. & Klauda, S. L. (2014). Effects of classroom practices on reading comprehension, engagement, and motivations for adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly, 49, 387416. doi: 10.1002/rrq.81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guthrie, J. T., Klauda, S. L., & Ho, A. (2013). Modeling the relationships among reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement for adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 926. doi: 10.1002/rrq.035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guthrie, J. T., Klauda, S., & Morrison, D. (2012). Motivation, achievement, and classroom contexts for information book reading. In Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & Klauda, S. L. (Eds.), Adolescents’ engagement in academic literacy (pp. 151). College Park: University of Maryland.Google Scholar
Guthrie, J. T., McRae, A., Coddington, C. S., Klauda, S. L., Wigfield, A., & Barbosa, P. (2009). Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 195214. doi: 10.1177/0022219408331039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guthrie, J. T., McRae, A. C., & Klauda, S. L. (2007). Contributions of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading. Educational Psychologist, 42, 237–50. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520701621087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Barbosa, P., Perencevich, K. C., Taboada, A., Davis, M. H., ... Tonks, S. (2004). Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through concept-oriented reading instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 403–23. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.3.403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & Klauda, S. L. (2012). Adolescents’ engagement in academic literacy. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from www.corilearning.com/research-publications.
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & Perencevich, K. (Eds.). (2004). Motivating reading comprehension: Concept oriented reading instruction. Malwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 562–75. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harackiewicz, J. M., Canning, E. A., Tibbetts, Y., Priniski, S. J., & Hyde, J. S. (2016). Closing achievement gaps with a utility-value intervention: Disentangling race and social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(5), 745–65. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157–64. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyman, G. D., Dweck, C. S., & Cain, K. M. (1992). Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationships to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63, 401–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, E. T. (2007). Value. In Kruglanski, A. W. & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., pp. 454–72). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hulleman, C. S., Godes, O., Hendricks, B. L., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). Enhancing interest and performance with a utility value intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 880–95. doi: 10.1037/a0019506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulleman, C. S. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2009). Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science, 326(5958), 1410–12. doi: 10.1126/science.1177067.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulleman, C. S., Kosovich, J. J., Barron, K. E., & Daniel, D. B. (2016). Making connections: Replicating and extending the utility value intervention in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/edu0000146.Google Scholar
Jacobs, J., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W., Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in children's self-competence and values: Gender and domain differences across grades one through 12. Child Development, 73, 509–27. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang, Y., Rosenzweig, E. Q., & Gaspard, H. (2018). An expectancy-value-cost approach in predicting students’ academic motivation and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 54, 139–52. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, M. L. & Safavian, N. (2016). What is cost and is it always a bad thing? Furthering the discussion concerning college-aged students’ perceived costs for their academic studies. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 15(3), 368–90. doi: 10.1891/1945-8959.15.3.368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, A., Katz, I., & Flum, H. (2012). Motivation theory in educational practice: Knowledge claims, challenges, and future directions. In Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Urdan, T. (Eds.), Educational psychology handbook: Vol. 2: Individual differences in cultural and contextual factors (pp. 165–94). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Kim, C.