Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7d8f8d645b-clzrd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-05-28T14:16:35.502Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Part V - Special Populations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2021

Sandra W. Russ
Case Western Reserve University, Ohio
Jessica D. Hoffmann
Yale University, Connecticut
James C. Kaufman
University of Connecticut
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



American Psychological Association, Center for Psychology in Schools and Education. (2017). Top 20 principles from psychology for pre-K–12 creative, talented, and gifted students’ teaching and learning. Scholar
Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
Cramond, B., Matthews-Morgan, J., Bandalos, D., & Zuo, L. (2005). A report on the 40-year follow-up of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Alive and well in the new millennium. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49 , 283291. doi:10.1177/001698620504900402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillon, J. T. (1982). Problem finding and solving. Journal of Creative Behavior, 16, 97111. doi:10.1002/j.2162–6057.1982.tb00326.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmunds, A. L., & Edmunds, G. A. (2005). Sensitivity: A double-edged sword for the pre-adolescent and adolescent gifted child. Roeper Review, 27(2), 6977. doi:10.1080/02783190509554293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gagné, F. (2013). The DMGT 2.0: From gifted inputs to talented outputs. In Callahan, C. M. & Hertberg-Davis, H. L. (Eds.), Fundamentals of gifted education: Considering multiple perspectives (pp. 5668). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Gere, D. R., Capps, S. C., Mitchell, D. W., & Grubbs, E. (2009). Sensory sensitivities of gifted children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(3), 288295. doi:10.5014/ajot.63.3.288CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, P. W., & Messick, S. (1965). The person, the product, and the response: Conceptual problems in the assessment of creativity. Journal of Personality, 33(3), 309329. doi:10.1111/j.1467–6494.1965.tb01389.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarvin, L., & Subotnik, R. F. (2010). Wisdom from conservatory faculty: Insights on success in music performance. Roeper Review, 32 , 7887. doi:10.1080/02783191003587868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kell, H. J., Lubinski, D., Benbow, C. P., & Steiger, J. H. (2013). Creativity and technical innovation: Spatial ability’s unique role. Psychological Science, 24, 18311836. doi:10.1177/0956797613478615CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClusky, K. W., Baker, P. A., & McCluskey, A. L. A. (2005). Creative problem solving with marginalized populations: Reclaiming lost prizes through in-the-tranches interventions. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49(4), 330341. doi:10.1177/001698620504900406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milgram, R. M., & Hong, E. (1999). Creative out-of-school activities in intellectually gifted adolescents as predictors of their life accomplishment in young adults: A longitudinal study. Creativity Research Journal, 12(2), 7787. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1202_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nusbaum, E., & Silvia, P. (2011). Are intelligence and creativity really so different? Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelligence, 39, 3645. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olszewski-Kubilius, P., Subotnik, R. F., & Worrell, F. C. (2017). The role of domains in the conceptualization of talent. Roeper Review, 39, 5969. doi:10.1080/02783193.2017.1247310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Thomson, D. (2015). Talent development as a framework for gifted education. Gifted Child Today, 38, 4959. doi:10.1177/1076217514556531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, G., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2007). Contrasting intellectual patterns for creativity in the arts and sciences: Tracking intellectually precocious youth over 25 years. Psychological Science, 18, 948952. doi:10.1111/j.1467–9280.2007.02007.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plucker, J. A. (1999). Is the proof in the pudding? Reanalysis of Torrance’s (1958 to present) longitudinal data. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 103114. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1202_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renzulli, J. S., & Reis, S. M. (2014). The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: A how-to guide for talent development (3rd ed.). Waco, TX: Prufrock.Google Scholar
Root-Bernstein, R., & Root-Bernstein, M. (2004). Artistic scientists and scientific artists: The link between polymathy and creativity. In Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., & Singer, J. L. (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 127151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10692–008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaheen, R. (2010). Creativity and education. Creative Education, 1, 166169. doi:10.4236/ce.2010.13026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 158176. doi:10.1521/scpq. Scholar
Stanley, J. C. (1980). On educating the gifted. Educational Researcher, 9(3), 812. doi:10.2307/1175006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starko, A. (2018). Creativity in the classroom: Schools of curious delight. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Abilities are forms of developing expertise. Educational Researcher, 27, 1120. doi:10.3102/0013189X027003011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Subotnik, R. F., Edmiston, A. M., Cook, L., & Ross, M. D. (2010). Mentoring for talent development, creativity, social skills, and insider knowledge: The APA Catalyst Program. Journal of Advanced Academics, 21, 714739. doi:10.1177/1932202x1002100406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Subotnik, R. F., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. (2011). Rethinking giftedness and gifted education: A proposed direction forward based on psychological science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(1) 354. doi:10.1177/1529100611418056CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tirri, K. (2007). Comparison of academically average and gifted students’ self-rated ethical sensitivity. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(6), 587601. doi:10.1080/13803610701786953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tirri, K. (2011). Combining excellence and ethics: Implications for moral education for the gifted. Roeper Review, 33(1), 5964. doi:10.1080/02783193.2011.530207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torrance, E. P. (1974). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms–technical manual. Princeton, NJ: Personal Press.Google Scholar
Torrance, E. P. (1977). Creativity in the classroom: What research says to the teacher. Washington, DC: NEA.Google Scholar
Vuyk, M. A., Krieshok, T. S., & Kerr, B. A. (2016). Openness to experience rather than overexcitabilities: Call it like it is. Gifted Child Quarterly, 60(3), 192211. doi:10.1177/0016986216645407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2005). Creativity and occupational accomplishments among intellectually precocious youths: An age 13 to age 33 longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 484492. doi:10.1037/0022–0663.97.3.484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worrell, F. C., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Subotnik, R. F. (2019). The psychology of high performance: Overarching themes. In Subotnik, R. F., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. C. (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain specific talent (pp. 369385). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/0000120–018CrossRefGoogle Scholar


Baron‐Cohen, S., Campbell, R., Karmiloff‐Smith, A., Grant, J., & Walker, J. (1995). Are children with autism blind to the mentalistic significance of the eyes?. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(4), 379398. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835x.1995.tb00687.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton, E. E., & Wolery, M. (2008). Teaching pretend play to children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28, 109125. doi:10.1177/0271121408318799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton, E. E., & Wolery, M. (2010). Training teachers to promote pretend play in children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 77, 85106. doi:10.1177/001440291007700104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentenuto, A., De Falco, S., & Venuti, P. (2016). Mother-child play: A comparison of autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and typical development. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1829. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01829CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cassidy, S. B. (1984). Prader-Willi syndrome. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 14(1), 555. doi:10.1016/0045-9380(84)90043-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Baird, G., Drew, A., & Cox, A. (2003). Predicting language outcomes in infants with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 38, 265285. doi:10.1080/136820310000104830CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cox, N. S., Alison, J. A., Rasekaba, T., & Holland, A. E. (2012). Telehealth in cystic fibrosis: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 18(2), 7278. doi:10.1258/jtt.2011.110705CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunningham, C. C., Glenn, S. M., Wilkinson, P., & Sloper, P. (1985). Mental ability, symbolic play and receptive and expressive language of young children with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 26(2), 255265. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1985.tb02264.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Falco, S., Esposito, G., Venuti, P., & Bornstein, M. H. (2008). Fathers’ play with their Down syndrome children. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(6), 490502. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01052.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiCarlo, C. F., & Reid, D. H. (2004). Increasing pretend toy play of toddlers with disabilities in an inclusive setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(2), 197207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dimitropoulos, A., Ho, A., & Feldman, B. (2013). Social responsiveness and competence in Prader-Willi syndrome: Direct comparison to autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(1), 103113. doi:10.1007/s10803–012-1547-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dimitropoulos, A., Zyga, O., Doernberg, E. A., & Russ, S. W. (2020). Show me what happens next: Preliminary efficacy of a remote play-based intervention for children with Prader-Willi syndrome. (Electronic publication).Google Scholar
Dimitropoulos, A., Zyga, O., & Russ, S. (2017). Evaluating the feasibility of a play-based telehealth intervention program for children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(9), 28142825. doi:10.1007/s10803–017-3196-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doernberg, E. A., Dimitropoulos, A., & Russ, S. W. (2020). Believing in make-believe: Efficacy of a pretend play intervention for school-aged children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803–020-04547-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
dos Santos, D. M., Lucisano, R. V., & Pfeifer, L. I. (2019). An investigation of the quality of pretend play ability in children with cerebral palsy. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 66(2), 210218. doi:10.1111/1440-1630.12539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenspan, S. I., & Wieder, S. (1997). Developmental patterns and outcomes on infants and children with disorders of relating and communicating: A chart review of 200 cases of children with autistic spectrum diagnoses. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 1, 87141.Google Scholar
Harris, P. L. (2000). The work of the imagination. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Hsieh, H. C. (2012). Effectiveness of adaptive pretend play on affective expression and imagination of children with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 19751983. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.05.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jennett, P. A., Hall, L. A., Hailey, D., Ohinmaa, A., Anderson, C., Thomas, R., … Scott, R. E. (2003). The socio-economic impact of telehealth: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 9(6), 311320. doi:10.1258/135763303771005207CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, W., Bellugi, U., Lai, Z., Chiles, M., Reilly, J., Lincoln, A., & Adolphs, R. (2000). II. Hypersociability in Williams syndrome. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(Supplement), 3046. doi:10.1258/135763303771005207CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasari, C., Freeman, S., & Paparella, T. (2006). Joint attention and symbolic play in young children with autism: A randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(6), 611620. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01567.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasari, C., Gulsrud, A., Freeman, S., Paparella, T., & Hellemann, G. (2012). Longitudinal follow-up of children with autism receiving targeted interventions on joint attention and play. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(5), 487495. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasari, C., Gulsrud, A., Paparella, T., Hellemann, G., & Berry, K. (2015). Randomized comparative efficacy study of parent-mediated interventions for toddlers with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(3), 554563. doi:10.1037/a0039080CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, G. T., Feng, H., Xu, S., & Jin, S. J. (2019). Increasing “object-substitution” symbolic play in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Behavior Modification, 43(1), 82114. doi:10.1177/0145445517739276CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lense, M., & Dykens, E. (2013). Musical learning in children and adults with Williams syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(9), 850860. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01611.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Libby, S., Powell, S., Messer, D., & Jordan, R. (1997). Imitation of pretend play acts by children with autism and Down syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(4), 365383. doi:10.1023/a:1025801304279CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lifter, K., & Bloom, L. (1989). Object knowledge and the emergence of language. Infant Behavior and Development, 12(4), 395423. doi:10.1016/0163-6383(89)90023-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lifter, K., Ellis, J., Cannon, B., & Anderson, S. R. (2005). Developmental specificity in targeting and teaching play activities to children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Early Intervention, 27(4), 247267. doi:10.1177/105381510502700405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lifter, K., Mason, E. J., & Barton, E. E. (2011). Children’s play: Where we have been and where we could go. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 281297. doi:10.1177/1053815111429465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
Ly, T. M., & Hodapp, R. M. (2005). Children with Prader-Willi syndrome vs. Williams syndrome: Indirect effects on parents during a jigsaw puzzle task. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(12), 929939. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00782.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malone, M. D. (1997). Preschoolers’ categorical and sequential toy play: Change over time. Journal of Early Intervention, 21, 4561. doi:10.1177/105381519702100106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mandell, D. S., Barry, C. L., Marcus, S. C., Xie, M., Shea, K., Mullan, K., & Epstein, A. J. (2016). Effects of autism spectrum disorder insurance mandates on the treated prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(9), 887. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1049CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McConnell, S. R. (2002). Interventions to facilitate social interaction for young children with autism: Review of available research and recommendations for educational intervention and future research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(5), 351372. doi:10.1023/a:1020537805154CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGeary, D. D., McGeary, C. A., & Gatchel, R. J. (2012). A comprehensive review of telehealth for pain management: Where we are and the way ahead. Pain Practice, 12(7), 570577. doi:10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00534.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mercer, J. (2015). Examining DIR/Floortime as a treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of research and theory. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(5), 625635. doi:10.1177/1049731515583062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Motti, F., Cicchetti, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1983). From infant affect expression to symbolic play: The coherence of development in Down syndrome children. Child Development, 54(5), 11681175. doi:10.2307/1129672CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Connor, C., & Stagnitti, K. (2011). Play, behaviour, language and social skills: The comparison of a play and a non-play intervention within a specialist school setting. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 12051211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Toole, C., & Chiat, S. (2006). Symbolic functioning and language development in children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 41(2), 155171. doi:10.1080/13682820500221600CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papaeliou, C. F., Fryssira, H., Kodakos, A., Kaila, M., Benaveli, E., Michaelides, K., … Polemikos, N. (2011). Nonverbal communication, play, and language in Greek young children with Williams syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 17(3), 225241. doi:10.1080/09297049.2010.524151CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riguet, C. B., Taylor, N. D., Benaroya, S., & Klein, L. S. (1982). Symbolic play in autistic, Down’s, and normal children of equivalent mental age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11(4), 439448. doi:10.1007/bf01531618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russ, S. W., & Doernberg, E. (2018). Play and creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. & Kaufman, J. C. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 607622). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Russ, S. W., & American Psychological Association. (2014). Pretend play in childhood: Foundation of adult creativity (pp. 4562). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandbank, M., Bottema-Beutel, K., Crowley, S., Cassidy, M., Dunham, K., Feldman, J. I., … Woynaroski, T. G. (2019, Nov. 25). Project AIM: Autism intervention meta-analysis for studies 517 of young children. Psychological Bulletin, 146, 129. doi:10.1037/bul0000215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shire, S. Y., Shih, W., Chang, Y. C., Bracaglia, S., Kodjoe, M., & Kasari, C. (2019). Sustained community implementation of JASPER intervention with toddlers with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(5), 18631875. doi:10.1007/s10803–018-03875-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1999). Change and continuity in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays [Monograph]. Society for Research in Child Development. London: Blackwell.Google ScholarPubMed
Sigman, M., Ruskin, E., Arbelle, S., Corona, R., Dissanayake, C., Espinosa, M., … Robinson, B. F. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, i–139.Google Scholar
Solomon, R., Van Egeren, L. A., Mahoney, G., Huber, M. S. Q., & Zimmerman, P. (2014). PLAY Project Home Consultation Intervention Program for young children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(8), 475485. doi:10.1097/dbp.0000000000000096CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strain, P. S. (1985). Social and non-social determinants of acceptability in handicapped preschool children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 4(4), 4758. doi:10.1177/027112148500400406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strømme, P., Bjømstad, P. G., & Ramstad, K. (2002). Prevalence estimation of Williams syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 17(4), 269271. doi:10.1177/088307380201700406CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thiemann-Bourque, K., Johnson, L. K., & Brady, N. C. (2019). Similarities in functional play and differences in symbolic play of children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 124(1), 7791. doi:10.1352/1944-7558-124.1.77CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ungerer, J., & Sigman, M. (1984). The relation of play and sensorimotor behavior to language in the second year. Child Development, 55, 14481455. doi:10.2307/1130014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Venuti, P., De Falco, S., Esposito, G., & Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Mother–child play: Children with Down syndrome and typical development. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(4), 274288. doi:10.1352/1944-7558-114.4:274-288CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Venuti, P., De Falco, S., Giusti, Z., & Bornstein, M. H. (2008). Play and emotional availability in young children with Down syndrome. Infant Mental Health Journal: Official Publication of The World Association for Infant Mental Health, 29(2), 133152. doi:10.1002/imhj.20168CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vieillevoye, S., & Nader-Grosbois, N. (2008). Self-regulation during pretend play in children with intellectual disability and in normally developing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29(3), 256272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wing, L., Gould, J., Yeates, S. R., & Brierley, L. M. (1977). Symbolic play in severely mentally retarded and in autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18(2), 167178. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1977.tb00426.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zyga, O., & Dimitropoulos, A. (2020). Preliminary characterization of parent–child interaction in pre-schoolers with Prader-Willi syndrome: The relationship between engagement and parental stress. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 125(1), 7684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zyga, O., Russ, S. W., Ievers-Landis, C. E., & Dimitropoulos, A. (2015). Assessment of pretend play in Prader-Willi syndrome: A direct comparison to autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(4), 975987. doi:10.1007/s10803–014-2252-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Barlow, H., & Morgenstern, S. (1950). A dictionary of vocal themes. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
Berry, C. (1981). The Nobel scientists and the origins of scientific achievement. British Journal of Sociology, 32, 381391. doi:10.2307/589284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bliss, W. D. (1970). Birth order of creative writers. Journal of Individual Psychology, 26, 200202.Google ScholarPubMed
Boring, M. D., & Boring, E. G. (1948). Masters and pupils among the American psychologists. American Journal of Psychology, 61, 527534. doi:10.2307/1418317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borowiecki, K. J. (2014). Artistic creativity and extreme events: The heterogeneous impact of war on composers’ production. Poetics, 47, 83105. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2014.10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bramwell, B. S. (1948). Galton’s “Hereditary Genius” and the three following generations since 1869. Eugenics Review, 39, 146153.Google ScholarPubMed
Candolle, A. de, (1873). Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siècles. Genève: Georg.Google Scholar
Carson, S., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2005). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 3750. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassandro, V. J. (1998). Explaining premature mortality across fields of creative endeavor. Journal of Personality, 66, 805833. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cassandro, V. J., & Simonton, D. K. (2010). Versatility, openness to experience, and topical diversity in creative products: An exploratory historiometric analysis of scientists, philosophers, and writers. Journal of Creative Behavior, 44, 118. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.2010.tb01322.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, R. D., & Rice, G. A. (1982). Family constellations and eminence: The birth orders of Nobel Prize winners. Journal of Psychology, 110, 281287. doi:10.1080/00223980.1982.9915350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damian, R. I., & Simonton, D. K. (2014). Diversifying experiences in the development of genius and their impact on creative cognition. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 375393). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Dennis, W. (1955, April). Variations in productivity among creative workers. Scientific Monthly, 80, 277278.Google Scholar
Dennis, W. (1966). Creative productivity between the ages of 20 and 80 years. Journal of Gerontology, 21, 18. doi:10.1093/geronj/21.1.1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenstadt, J. M. (1978). Parental loss and genius. American Psychologist, 33, 211223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ericsson, K. A. (2014). Creative genius: A view from the expert-performance approach. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 321349). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363406. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.100.3.363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feist, G. J. (1993). A structural model of scientific eminence. Psychological Science, 4, 366371. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00583.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feist, G. J. (2006). The development of scientific talent in Westinghouse Finalists and members of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Adult Development, 13, 2335. doi:10.1007/s10804–006-9002-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friis-Olivarius, M., & Christensen, B. T. (2019). Not quite equal odds: Openness to experience moderates the relation between quantity and quality of ideas in divergent production. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 15. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00355CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furnham, A., & Bonnett, C. (1992). British research productivity in psychology 1980–1989: Does the Lotka-Price law apply to university departments as it does to individuals? Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 13331341. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90176-pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galenson, D. W. (2005). Old masters and young geniuses: The two life cycles of artistic creativity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galton, F. (1874). English men of science: Their nature and nurture. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Galton, F. (1883). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
Hass, R. W., & Weisberg, R. W. (2009). Career development in two seminal American songwriters: A test of the equal odds rule. Creativity Research Journal, 21, 183190. doi:10.1080/10400410902855275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hellmanzik, C. (2014). Prominent modern artists: Determinants of creativity. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 564585). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Johnson, W., & Bouchard, T. J. Jr (2014). Genetics of intellectual and personality traits associated with creative genius: Could geniuses be Cosmobian Dragon Kings? In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 269296). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Jones, B. F., Reedy, E. J., & Weinberg, B. A. (2014). Age and scientific genius. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 422450). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. (2000–2001). Genius, lunatics and poets: Mental illness in prize-winning authors. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 20, 305314. doi:10.1080/713842357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. (2003). The cost of the muse: Poets die young. Death Studies, 27, 813822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, J. C. (2005). The door that leads into madness: Eastern European poets and mental illness. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 99103. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C., & Gentile, C. A. (2002). The will, the wit, the judgement: The importance of an early start in productive and successful creative writing. High Ability Studies, 13, 115123. doi:10.1080/1359813022000048770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C., & Sexton, J. D. (2006). Why doesn’t the writing cure help poets? Review of General Psychology, 10, 268282. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.10.3.268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007). Ten years to expertise, many more to greatness: An investigation of modern writers. Journal of Creative Behavior, 41, 114124. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.2007.tb01284.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kell, H. J., & Lubinski, D. (2014). The study of mathematically precocious youth at maturity: Insights into elements of genius. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 397421). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Kozbelt, A. (2008a). Longitudinal hit ratios of classical composers: Reconciling “Darwinian” and expertise acquisition perspectives on lifespan creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2, 221235. doi:10.1037/a0012860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kozbelt, A. (2008b). One-hit wonders in classical music: Evidence and (partial) explanations for an early career peak. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 179195. doi:10.1080/10400410802059952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kozbelt, A. (2014). Musical creativity over the lifespan. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 451472). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lehman, H. C. (1953). Age and achievement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Leung, A. K., Maddux, W. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Chiu, C. (2008). Multicultural experience enhances creativity: The when and how. American Psychologist, 63, 169181. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.63.3.169CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, L., Wang, Y., Sinatra, R., Giles, C. L., Song, C., & Wang, D. (2018). Hot streaks in artistic, cultural, and scientific careers. Nature, 559, 396399. doi:10.1038/s41586–018-0315-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lotka, A. J. (1926). The frequency distribution of scientific productivity. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 16, 317323. doi:10.1016/s0016–0032(26)91166-6Google Scholar
Ludwig, A. M. (1992). Creative achievement and psychopathology: Comparison among professions. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 46, 330356. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.1992.46.3.330CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological Science, 25, 16081618. doi:10.1177/0956797614535810CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCann, S. J. H. (2001). The precocity–longevity hypothesis: Earlier peaks in career achievement predict shorter lives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 14291439. doi:10.1177/01461672012711004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCrae, R. R., & Greenberg, D. M. (2014). Openness to experience. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 222243). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
McCurdy, H. G. (1960). The childhood pattern of genius. Horizon, 2, 3338.Google Scholar
McKay, A. S., & Kaufman, J. C. (2014). Literary geniuses: Their life, work, and death. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 473487). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Newman, J., & Taylor, A. (1994). Family training for political leadership: Birth order of United States state governors and Australian prime ministers. Political Psychology, 15, 435442. doi:10.2307/3791565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. (1968). Birth order and participation in dangerous sports. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 351353. doi:10.1037/h0025573CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Overskeid, G., Grønnerød, C., & Simonton, D. K. (2012). The personality of a nonperson: Gauging the inner Skinner. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 187197. doi:10.1177/1745691611434212CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Price, D. (1986). Little science, big science … and beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Ramey, C. H., & Weisberg, R. W. (2004). The “poetical activity” of Emily Dickinson: A further test of the hypothesis that affective disorders foster creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 173185. doi:10.1080/10400419.2004.9651451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritter, S. M., Damian, R. I., Simonton, D. K., van Baaren, R. B., Strick, M., Derks, J., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2012). Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 961964. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roe, A. (1953). The making of a scientist. New York: Dodd, Mead.Google Scholar
Saad, C. S., Damian, R. I., Benet-Martinez, V., Moons, W. G., & Robins, R. W. (2013). Multiculturalism and creativity: Effects of cultural context, bicultural identity, and cognitive fluency. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 369375. doi:10.1177/1948550612456560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaefer, C. E., & Anastasi, A. (1968). A biographical inventory for identifying creativity in adolescent boys. Journal of Applied Psychology, 58, 4248. doi:10.1037/h0025328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schubert, D. S. P., Wagner, M. E., & Schubert, H. J. P. (1977). Family constellation and creativity: Firstborn predominance among classical music composers. Journal of Psychology, 95, 147149. doi:10.1080/00223980.1977.9915871CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Segal, S. M., Busse, T. V., & Mansfield, R. S. (1980). The relationship of scientific creativity in the biological sciences to predoctoral accomplishments and experiences. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 491502. doi:10.3102/00028312017004491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1975). Age and literary creativity: A cross-cultural and transhistorical survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 6, 259277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1976). Biographical determinants of achieved eminence: A multivariate approach to the Cox data. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 218226. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.33.2.218CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (1977). Creative productivity, age, and stress: A biographical time-series analysis of 10 classical composers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 791804. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.35.11.791CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (1980). Techno-scientific activity and war: A yearly time-series analysis, 1500–1903 A.D. Scientometrics, 2, 251255. doi:10.1007/bf02016346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1983). Intergenerational transfer of individual differences in hereditary monarchs: Genetic, role-modeling, cohort, or sociocultural effects? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 354364. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.44.2.354CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (1984a). Artistic creativity and interpersonal relationships across and within generations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 12731286. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.46.6.1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1984b). Creative productivity and age: A mathematical model based on a two-step cognitive process. Developmental Review, 4, 77111. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(84)90020-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1984c). Genius, creativity, and leadership: Historiometric inquiries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1988). Age and outstanding achievement: What do we know after a century of research? Psychological Bulletin, 104, 251267. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.104.2.251CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (1989). Age and creative productivity: Nonlinear estimation of an information-processing model. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29, 2337. doi:10.2190/u81m-7lwl-xxn4–10t8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (1991). Career landmarks in science: Individual differences and interdisciplinary contrasts. Developmental Psychology, 27, 119130. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1992a). Leaders of American psychology, 1879–1967: Career development, creative output, and professional achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 517. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.62.1.5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1992b). The social context of career success and course for 2,026 scientists and inventors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 452463. doi:10.1177/0146167292184009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychological Review, 104, 6689. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.104.1.66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2000a). Creative development as acquired expertise: Theoretical issues and an empirical test. Developmental Review, 20, 283318. doi:10.1006/drev.1999.0504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2000b). Creativity: Cognitive, developmental, personal, and social aspects. American Psychologist, 55, 151158. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.151CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (2002). Great psychologists and their times: Scientific insights into psychology’s history. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, process, and person perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 475494. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2004). Creativity in science: Chance, logic, genius, and zeitgeist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2007a). Cinema composers: Career trajectories for creative productivity in film music. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1, 160169. doi:10.1037/1931-3896.1.3.160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2007b). Creative life cycles in literature: Poets versus novelists or conceptualists versus experimentalists? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1, 133139. doi:10.1037/1931-3896.1.3.133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2008). Gender differences in birth order and family size among 186 eminent psychologists. Journal of Psychology of Science and Technology, 1, 1522. doi:10.1891/1939-7054.1.1.15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2009). Varieties of (scientific) creativity: A hierarchical model of disposition, development, and achievement. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 441452. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01152.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (2010). Creativity as blind-variation and selective-retention: Combinatorial models of exceptional creativity. Physics of Life Reviews, 7, 156179. doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2010.02.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, D. K. (2011). Creativity and discovery as blind variation: Campbell’s (1960) BVSR model after the half-century mark. Review of General Psychology, 15, 158174. doi:10.1037/a0022912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2012). Creative productivity and aging: An age decrement – or not? In Whitbourne, S. K. & Sliwinski, M. (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of adult development and aging (pp. 477496). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2014a). Creative performance, expertise acquisition, individual-differences, and developmental antecedents: An integrative research agenda. Intelligence, 45, 6673. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.04.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2014b). More method in the mad-genius controversy: A historiometric study of 204 historic creators. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 5361. doi:10.1037/a0035367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2016a). Are pure mathematicians the lyric poets of the sciences? In Casazza, P., Krantz, S. G., & Ruden, R. D. (Eds.), I, mathematician II: Further introspections on the mathematical life (pp. 165174). Bedford, MA: The Consortium for Mathematics and Its Applications.Google Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2016b). Early and late bloomers among classical composers: Were the greatest geniuses also prodigies? In McPherson, G. (Ed.), Musical prodigies: Interpretations from psychology, music education, musicology and ethnomusicology (pp. 185197). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2017a). Big-C versus little-c creativity: Definitions, implications, and inherent educational contradictions. In Beghetto, R. & Sriraman, B. (Eds.), Creative contradictions in education (pp. 319). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2017b). Creative geniuses, polymaths, child prodigies, and autistic savants: The ambivalent function of interests and obsessions. In O’Keefe, P. A. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (Eds.), The science of interests (pp. 175185). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonton, D. K. (2018). Defining creativity: Don’t we also need to define what is not creative? Journal of Creative Behavior, 52, 8090. doi:10.1002/jocb.137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinatra, R., Wang, D., Deville, P., Song, C., & Barabási, A. L. (2016, Nov. 4). Quantifying the evolution of individual scientific impact. Science, 354, aaf5239. doi:10.1126/science.aaf5239CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slater, E., & Meyer, A. (1959). Contributions to a pathography of the musician: 1. Robert Schumann. Confinia Psychiatrica, 2, 6594.Google Scholar
Stewart, L. H. (1977). Birth order and political leadership. In Hermann, M. G. (Ed.), The psychological examination of political leaders (pp. 205236). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Stroebe, W. (2010). The graying of academia: Will it reduce scientific productivity? American Psychologist, 65, 660673. doi:10.1037/a0021086CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sulloway, F. J. (2010). Why siblings are like Darwin’s finches: Birth order, sibling competition, and adaptive divergence within the family. In Buss, D. M. & Hawley, P. H. (Eds.), The evolution of personality and individual differences (pp. 86119). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sulloway, F. J. (2014). Openness to scientific innovation. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 546563). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Sulloway, F. J., & Zweigenhaft, R. L. (2010). Birth order and risk taking in athletics: A meta-analysis and study of major league baseball players. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 402416. doi:10.1177/1088868310361241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teigen, K. H. (1984). A note on the origin of the term “nature and nurture”: Not Shakespeare and Galton, but Mulcaster. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 20, 363364. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(198410)20:4<363::aid-jhbs2300200406>;2-43.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Terry, W. S. (1989). Birth order and prominence in the history of psychology. Psychological Record, 39, 333337. doi:10.1007/bf03395885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vohs, K., Redden, J., & Rahinel, R. (2013). Physical order produces healthy choices, generosity, conventionality, whereas disorder produces creativity. Psychological Science, 24, 18601867. doi:10.1177/0956797613480186CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, R. K. (1931). The versatility of genius. Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 460489. doi:10.1080/00224545.1931.9918987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winner, E. (2014). Child prodigies and adult genius: A weak link. In Simonton, D. K. (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of genius (pp. 297320). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Zuckerman, H. (1977). Scientific elite. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar


Hoffmann, J., & Russ, S. (2016). Fostering pretend play skills and creativity in elementary school girls: A group play intervention. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10(1), 114125. doi:10.1037/aca0000039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sawyer, P. K. (1997). Pretend play as improvisation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Singer, J. (1973). The child’s world of make-believe. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar