Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-2bgxn Total loading time: 1.133 Render date: 2022-11-30T23:10:44.715Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

22 - Task and Syllabus Design for Morphologically Complex Languages

from Part V - Pedagogical Interventions and Approaches

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 June 2019

John W. Schwieter
Affiliation:
Wilfrid Laurier University
Alessandro Benati
Affiliation:
American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Get access

Summary

Like planes that after thousands of hours of careful engineering design can successfully take us to our destination, task design for second or foreign language (L2) use and learning should be able to take learners who do not know or have not mastered a language to successfully and appropriately communicating in it. In this chapter, we reflect on how task design may be carried out when second languages are morphologically complex.

The goals of task design are manifold, and most L2 task designers and researchers would agree on the following facts: firstly, task design should guarantee that the pedagogic tasks used in a classroom slowly but steadily approximate L2 learners to real-life performance (see for example the concept of “target tasks” in Long, 2005; 2015). Secondly, while maintaining a focus on meaning, task goals, and task completion, task design should facilitate the conditions for language processing and language learning to take place through focus on form (Doughty & Williams, 1998; Doughty, 2001), and hence guarantee exposure to rich and meaningful input, the provision of opportunities for interaction, production, and feedback (Gass & Mackey, 2007).

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., …, Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
Arteaga, D., Gess, R., & Herschensohn, J. (2003). Focusing on phonology to teach morphological form in French. The Modern Language Journal, 87(1), 5870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baralt, M., Gilabert, R., & Robinson, P. (2014). Task sequencing and instructed second language learning. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Beljaev, B. V. (Беляев, Б. В.) (1964). Psikhologicheskie voprosy usvoenija leksiki inostrannogo jazyka. (Психологические вопросы усвоения лексики иностранного языка). Moscow: Просвещение.Google Scholar
Beljaev, B. V. (Беляев, Б. В.) (1965). Ocherki po psikhologii obuchenija inostrannyv jazykam (Очерки по психологии обучения иностранным языкам. Издательство «Просвещение»). Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Proizveschenie.Google Scholar
Bygate, M. (2001). Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks. Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp. 2348). Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.Google Scholar
Carroll, S., & Swain, M. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castellví, J. & Markina, E. (2017). Designing a task-based syllabus for morphologically complex languages: The case of Russian as a foreign language. Paper given at the Task-based Language Teaching Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
Cho, M., & Reinders, R. (2013). The effects of aural input enhancement on L2 acquisition. In Bergsleithner, J. M., Frota, S. N., & Yoshioka, J. K. (eds.), Noticing and second language acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt (pp. 133148). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, National Foreign Language Resource Center.Google Scholar
Comer, W. J. (2007). Implementing task-based language teaching from the ground up: Consideration for lesson planning and classroom practice. Russian Language Journal/Русский язык, 57, 181203.Google Scholar
Comer, W.J. (2012). Communicative language teaching and Russian: The current state of the field. In Makarova, V. (ed.), Russian languages studies in North America: New perspectives from theoretical and applied linguistics. London: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
Council of Europe (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (eds.) (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2007). Input, interaction, and output in second language acquisition. In VanPatten, B. & Williams, J. (eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 175199). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Gilabert, R., Manchón, R., & Vasylets, L. (2016). Mode in theoretical and empirical TBLT research: Advancing research agendas. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 117135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Z., Park, E. S., & Combs, C. (2008). Textual enhancement of input: Issues and possibilities. Applied Linguistics, 29(4), 597618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Housen, A., & Simoens, H. (2016). Introduction: Cognitive perspectives on difficulty and complexity in L2 acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38, 163175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, B. (2005). How designers think: The design process demystified. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Lee, S. K., & Huang, H. T. (2008). Visual input enhancement and grammar learning: A meta-analytic review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(3), 307331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leontjev, A. A. (Леонтьев, А. А.) (1970). Nekotorye problemy obuchenija russkomu jazyku kak inostrannomu (Некоторые проблемы обучения русскому языку как иностранному). Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta.Google Scholar
Leow, R. P. (1995). Modality and intake in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17(1), 7989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leow, R. P. (2000). A study of the role of awareness in foreign language behavior. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 557584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leow, R. P. (2015). Explicit learning in the L2 classroom: A student-centered approach. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Long, M. H. (2005). Second language needs analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, M. H. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Long, M. H. (2016). In defense of tasks and TBLT: Nonissues and real issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malicka, A., Gilabert, R., & Norris, J. (2017). From needs analysis to task design: Insights from an English for specific purposes context. Language Teaching Research, 120.
Magnani, M., & Artoni, D. (2015). Teaching learnable grammar in Russian as a second language: A syllabus proposal for case. In Quero Gervilla, E. F., Barros García, B., Kopylova, T. R. (eds.), Trends in Slavic Studies. Moscow: Editorial URSS (pp. 5770).
Michel, M. C. (2017). Complexity, accuracy and fluency in L2 production. In Loewen, S. & Sato, M. (eds.), Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 5068). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oh, S. Y. (2011). Two types of input modification and EFL reading comprehension: Simplification versus elaboration. TESOL Quarterly, 35(1), 6996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palotti, G. (2009). CAF: Defining, refining and differentiating constructs. Applied Linguistics, 30, 590601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palotti, G. (2014). A simple view of linguistic complexity. Second Language Research, 31(1), 117134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Platt, E., & Brooks, F. B. (2002). Task engagement: A turning point in foreign language development. Language Learning, 52, 365400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Révész, A. (2011). Task complexity, focus on L2 constructions, and individual differences: A classroom-based study. The Modern Language Journal, 95, 162181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (1995). Attention, memory and the “noticing” hypothesis. Language Learning, 45, 283331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2001a). Task complexity, cognitive resources, and syllabus design: Atriadic framework for examining task influences on SLA. In Robinson, P. (ed.). Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 287318). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2001b). Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2003). The Cognition Hypothesis, task design and adult task-based language learning. Second Language Studies, 21(2), 45107.Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2007). Task complexity, theory of mind, and intentional reasoning: Effects on L2 speech production, interaction, uptake and perceptions of task difficulty. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 45, 193214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P., & Gilabert, R. (2007). Task complexity, the Cognition Hypothesis and second language learning and performance. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 45(3), 161176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sasayama, S., Malicka, A., & Norris, J. (in press). Cognitive task complexity: A research synthesis and meta-analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Scherba, L. V. (Щерба, Л. В.) (1974a). Prepodavanie inostrannykh jazykov v srednej shkole. Obschie voprosy metodiki (Преподавание иностранных языков в средней школе. Общие вопросы методики). Moscow: Atel’stvo Vusshaja Shkola.Google Scholar
Scherba, L. V. (Щерба, Л. В.) (1974b). O trojakom aspekte jazykovykh javlenij i ob eksperimente v jazykoznanii (О трояком аспекте языковых явлений и об эксперименте в языкознании). In Scherba, L. V. (eds.), Jazykovaja sistema i rechevaja dejatel’nost’ (Щерба Л. В. Языковая система и речевая деятельность). Leningrad: Nauka.Google Scholar
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serafini, E. J., Lake, J. B., & Long, M. H. (2015). Needs analysis for specialized learner populations: Essential methodological improvements. English for Specific Purposes, 40, 1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (2001). Tasks and language performance. In Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (eds), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research, 1, 185211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 257285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive Load Theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sweller, J., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsarfaty, R., Seddah, D., Kübler, S., & Nivre, J. (2013). Parsing morphologically rich languages: Introduction to the special issue. Computational Linguistics, 39, 1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Branden, K. (ed.) (2006). Task-based language teaching: From theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1966). Мышление и речь Издательство. Моsсow: Академия педагогических наук РСФСР.Google Scholar
White, J. (1998). Getting learners’ attention: A typographical input enhancement study. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (eds.), Focus-on-form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 85113). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×