Published online by Cambridge University Press: 17 May 2022
In this chapter, we sketch out a preliminary account of the normative questions raised by an emerging form of human-machine interaction that we call the “hybrid mind.” By hybrid mind, we consider the direct coupling of the human cognitive system with an artificial cognitive system, so that cognitive processes of the two systems are functionally integrated through bi-directional interactions and mutually adapt to each other. This inquiry is provoked by the development of novel technologies such as closed-loop or adaptive neuroprostheses that can consist of implanted or external components and establish a direct communication pathway between the human brain and an external computing device. This communication pathway is typically mediated and facilitated by artificially intelligent components such as machine learning algorithms. This development represents only the latest step in the evolution of human beings and their technologies, a process that has necessitated a parallel evolution in our moral concepts and practices over time. Our objective as ethicists and legal scholars is to propose a concept of this hybrid mind as an interesting unit of analysis.