Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-68ccn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-13T08:10:56.086Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part Four - Challenges

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 April 2023

Julian Culp
Affiliation:
The American University of Paris, France
Johannes Drerup
Affiliation:
Universität Dortmund
Douglas Yacek
Affiliation:
Universität Dortmund
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Allen, W. H. (1912). Modern philanthropy: A study of efficient appealing and giving. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company.Google Scholar
Arnett, T. (1922). College and university finance. New York: General Education Board.Google Scholar
Arnett, T. (1939) Trends in current receipts and expenditures … of endowed universities and colleges. New York: General Education Board.Google Scholar
Association of American Universities. (2019, November 6). Three leading research universities join the association of American universities [Press Release].Google Scholar
Basken, P. (2021, April 29). US colleges’ billion-dollar question: Is philanthropy worth the cost? Times Higher Education. Available at: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/features/us-colleges-billion-dollar-question-philanthropy-worth-cost (Accessed: December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace: The commercialization of higher education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Bowen, H. R. (1980). The costs of higher education: How much do colleges and universities spend per student and how much should they spend? New York: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Brown, I. J. C. (1926). The meaning of democracy. 2nd ed., Oxford: Richard Cobden-Sanderson.Google Scholar
Bryce, J. (1921) Modern democracies. 2 vols., New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Cabot, P. C., & Larrabee, L. C. (1951). Investing Harvard money. Harvard Alumni Bulletin, 53(12 May), 628–34.Google Scholar
Carey, K. (2019, April 1). The creeping capitalist takeover of higher education. Huffington Post. Available at: https://www.huffpost.com/highline/article/capitalist-takeover-college (accessed: December 20, 2021).Google Scholar
Carey, K. (2020, November 18). What about tackling the causes of student debt? New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/18/upshot/student-debt-forgiveness-biden.html (accessed: December 10, 2021).Google Scholar
Chronicle of Higher Education. (1970, May 4). College endowment funds: Their performance in 1969, p. 8.Google Scholar
Collier, L. (2019). College costs. CQ Researcher. Available at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2019102500 (accessed: 10 December 2021).Google Scholar
Curti, M., & Nash, R. (1965). Philanthropy in the shaping of American higher education. New Brunswick, NJ: Brown Book Company.Google Scholar
Cutlip, S. M. (1965). Fund raising in the United States: Its role in America’s philanthropy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Daniels, R. J. (2021). What universities owe democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deming, C. (1911, March 17). Yale’s Larger Gifts. Yale Alumni Weekly, 634–35.Google Scholar
Dougal, C., Gao, P., Mayew, W. J., & Parsons, C. A. (2016, February 4). What’s in a (school) name? Racial discrimination in higher education bond markets? University of Houston Law Center Institute for Higher Education Law and Governance Publication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drezner, N. D. (2011). Philanthropy and fundraising in American higher education. ASHE Higher Education Report, 37(2), 116.Google Scholar
Duncan, R. F. (1916, November 24). Notebook of the secretary of the Harvard endowment fund.Google Scholar
Eells, W. C. (1935). Endowments in American colleges and universities. School and Society, 41(February, 23), 263–72.Google Scholar
Eells, W. C. (1936). Income from endowments. The Journal of Higher Education, 7(9), 475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrenberg, R. G. (2000). Tuition rising: Why college costs so much. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrenberg, R. G., & Smith, C. L. (2003). The sources and uses of annual giving at selective private research universities and liberal arts colleges. Economics of Education Review, 22(3), 223–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, C. D. (2009). Foreword. In Swensen, D. F., ed., Pioneering portfolio management: An unconventional approach to institutional investment. New York: Free Press, pp. ixxvi.Google Scholar
Fishman, J. J. (2014). What went wrong: Prudent management of endowment funds and imprudent endowment investing policies. Journal of College and University Law, 40(1), 199246.Google Scholar
Freeland, R. M. (1992). Academia’s golden age: Universities in Massachusetts 1945–1975. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (2016). The rise and fall of American growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groll, E. J., & White, W. N. (2010, January 9). Harvard to borrow $480 million to fund capital projects and refinance debt. The Harvard Crimson. Available at: https://www.thecrimson.com/article/2010/1/9/harvard-debt-rating-last (accessed: December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Hadley, A. T. (1902). Annual report of the president of Yale university 1900–1901. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Harris, S. E. (1970). Economics of Harvard. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Haselby, S., & Stoller, M. (2021, May 28). It’s time to break up the Ivy League cartel. Chronicle of Higher Education. Available at: https://www.chronicle.com/article/how-meritocracy-became-trickle-down-education (accessed: December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Hauptman, A. M. (2019, January 17). Bloomberg’s gift and the role of endowments. Inside Higher Education. Available at: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2019/01/17/michael-bloombergs-gift-johns-hopkins-raises-questions-about-role-endowments (accessed: December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Holmes, J. (2009). Prestige, charitable deductions, and other determinants of alumni giving: Evidence from a highly selective liberal arts college. Economics of Education Review, 28(1), 1828.Google Scholar
Holt, G. C. (1917, February 2) The origin of the Yale alumni fund. Yale Alumni Weekly, 529–30.Google Scholar
Humphreys, J. (2010). Educational endowments and the financial crisis: Social costs and systemic risks in the shadow banking system. Boston, MA: Tellus Institute.Google Scholar
Johnson, B. A. (2013). Fundraising and endowment building at a land grant university during the critical period, 1910–1940: The failure of Ohio State. PhD dissertation. The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
Joslyn, H. (2019). Campaign fever: Fundraising drives are getting bigger and more numerous. The Chronicle of Philanthropy, 31(6), 817.Google Scholar
Kimball, B. A. (2014). The first campaign and the paradoxical transformation of fundraising in American higher education, 1915–1925. Teachers College Record, 116(7), 144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimball, B. A. (2015). “Democratizing” fundraising at elite universities: The discursive legitimation of mass giving at Yale and Harvard, 1890–1920. History of Education Quarterly, 55(2), 164–89.Google Scholar
Kimball, B. A., & Iler, S. M. (2023). Wealth, cost, and price in American higher education, A brief history. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
King, S. (1950). A history of the endowment of Amherst college. Amherst, MA: Amherst College.Google Scholar
Klein, A. J. (1930). Survey of land-grant colleges and universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior.Google Scholar
Kuper, S. (2021, April 29). How the middle class became downwardly mobile. Financial Times. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/9101fc2c-c342-4a3b-897a-26c44e6c10cc (accessed: April 25, 2022).Google Scholar
Lamont, T. W. (1917, January 8). Letter to E. B. Dane.Google Scholar
Langfitt, T. W. (1990). The cost of higher education: Lessons to learn from the health care industry. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 22(6), 815.Google Scholar
Lapovsky, L. (2007). Critical endowment policy issues. New Directions for Higher Education, 140, 99110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Looney, A., Wessel, D., & Yilla, K. (2020, January 28). Who owes all that student debt? And who’d benefit if it were forgiven? Policy 2020 Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
McMahon, W. W., & Strein, C. T. (1979). The university as a non-profit discretionary firm. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Munk, N. (2009). Rich Harvard, poor Harvard. Vanity Fair, 51(8), 106.Google Scholar
National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). (2021). Endowment Study 2020.Google Scholar
Nevins, A. (1962). The state universities and democracy. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
New York Times. (1917, January 26). Average Harvard pay $1,840… endowment committee says, p. 10.Google Scholar
New York Times. (1920, February 8). Universities ask over $200,000,000. E1.Google Scholar
Newfield, C. (2003). Ivy and industry: Business and the making of the American university, 1880–1980. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Ohio State University. (2012, October). Ohio State launches $2.5 billion dollar fundraising effort [Published pamphlet].Google Scholar
Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Trans. by A. Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Pinsker, J. (2019, September 3). Why college became so expensive and what that has meant for America’s middle-class families. Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2019/09/college-cost-indebted-zaloom/597181 (accessed April 25, 2022).Google Scholar
Powell, A. (2013, September 21). Harvard kicks off fundraising effort. Harvard Gazette. Available at: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/09/harvard-kicks-off-fundraising-effort (accessed December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Price, C. C., & Edwards, K. (2020). Trends in income from 1975 to 2018. RAND Education and Labor Working Paper. Available at: https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WRA516-1.html (accessed December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Putnam, G. Jr. (1953, May 9). Sound investing: A brief comparison of the financial policies of five eastern universities. Harvard Alumni Bulletin, 55, 628–30.Google Scholar
Redd, K. E. (2015, November, 1–6). Forever funds. Business Officer Magazine,Google Scholar
Ross, E. D. (1942). Democracy’s college: The land-grant movement in the formative stage. Ames, IA: Iowa State College Press.Google Scholar
Ryan, C. R. (2016). Trusting U: Examining university endowment management. Journal of College and University Law, 42(1), 159212.Google Scholar
Sait, E. M. (1929). Democracy. New York: The Century Company.Google Scholar
Saltonstall, R. M. (1917, March). Harvard’s new endowment. Harvard Graduates Magazine, 313–16.Google Scholar
Sattgast, C. R. (1940). The administration of college and university endowments. PhD dissertation. Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
Scutari, M. (2017, April 10). Mega-gifts are rising and alumni giving is shrinking, which means what exactly? Inside Philanthropy. Available at: https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2017/4/10/mega-gifts-universities-fundraising (accessed December 21, 2021).Google Scholar
Seass, A. R. (1937). Endowment income and investments, 1926–35. Washington, DC: The American Council on Education.Google Scholar
Solarzano, L., & Quick, B. E. (1983). Rating the colleges. U.S. News & World Report, 41–43.Google Scholar
Stokes, A. P. (1911, January 20th). Yale’s financial future. Yale Alumni Weekly, 430–31.Google Scholar
Stokes, A. P. (1912). Annual report of the secretary of Yale university 1910–1911. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Stokes, A. P. (1914). Annual report of the secretary of Yale university 1912–1913. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Swensen, D. F. (2009). Pioneering portfolio management: An unconventional approach to institutional investment. Rev. ed., New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Thelin, J. R. (2019). An embarrassment of riches: Admission and ambition in American higher education. Society, 56(4), 329–34.Google Scholar
Trow, M. (1988). American Higher Education. Educational Researcher, 17(3), 1323.Google Scholar
Twentieth Century Fund. (1975). Funds for the future: Report of the task force on college and university endowment policy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Ward, A.N. (1930). Making provision for the college of liberal arts; the small college. Being a revision and enlargement of the article printed December 10, 1929. Westminster, MD: Unknown.Google Scholar
Waldeck, S. E. (2009). The coming showdown over university endowments: Enlisting the donors. Fordham Law Review, 77(4), 1795–836.Google Scholar
Weisbrod, B. A, Ballou, J. P., & Asch, E. D. (2008). Mission and money: Understanding the university. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Welles, C. (1967). University endowments: Revolution comes to the ivory tower. Institutional Investor.Google Scholar
Williams, R. (1985). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. Rev. ed., New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Williamson, J. P. (1993). Funds for the future: College endowment management for the 1990s. 2nd ed., Westport, CT: The Common Fund in cooperation with the American Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and NACUBO.Google Scholar
Wilson, W. (1917). Address of the president April 2, 1917, 65th Congress of the United States, 1st session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Yale Alumni University Fund (1915). Twenty-fifth annual report of the board of directors. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Yale Alumni University Fund (1917). Twenty-seventh annual report of the board of directors. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
Yale Alumni Weekly. (1917, February 2). Alumni make it possible to secure great teachers for Yale, p. 535.Google Scholar
Zaloom, C. (2019) Indebted: How families make college work at any cost. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Zunz, O. (2012). Philanthropy in America: A history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

References

American Academy of Arts & Sciences. (2017). The future of undergraduate education. Available at: https://www.amacad.org/publication/future-undergraduate-education.Google Scholar
American College Health Association (ACHA). (2016). National College Health Assessment II: Spring 2016 Reference Group Executive Summary. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association. Available at: https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/NCHA-II%20SPRING%202016%20US%20REFERENCE%20GROUP%20EXECUTIVE%20SUMMARY.pdf.Google Scholar
Baum, S. (2016). Student debt: Rhetoric and realities of higher education financing. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bok, D. (2008). Our underachieving colleges. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Brighouse, H. (2022a). Taking teaching and learning seriously. Really seriously. In Cahn, S., ed., Academic ethics today: Problems, policies, and prospects for university life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 261–72.Google Scholar
Brighouse, H. (2022b). Deliberative responsibility and civic education in universities and colleges in the US. In Culp, J., Drerup, J., de Groot, I., Schinkel, A. & Yacek, D., eds., Liberal democratic education: A paradigm in crisis. Paderborn: Brill | Mentis, pp. 123.Google Scholar
Brighouse, H., & Swift, A. (2016). Equality, priority, and positional goods. Ethics, 116(3), 471–97.Google Scholar
Butt, D. (2007). On benefiting from injustice. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 37(1), 129–52.Google Scholar
Butt, D. (2014). A doctrine quite new and altogether untenable: Defending the beneficiary pays principle. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 31(4), 336–48.Google Scholar
Dunham, J., & Lawford-Smith, H. (2017). Offsetting race privilege. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy, 11(2), 122.Google Scholar
Goodin, R., & Barry, C. (2014). Benefiting from the wrongdoing of others. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 31(4), 363–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, W.B. (2016). On being a mentor: A guide for higher education faculty. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lawford Smith, H. (2016). Offsetting class privilege. Journal of Practical Ethics, 4(1), 2351.Google Scholar
Martin, C (2021). The right to higher education: A political theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Murphy, L. (2000). Moral demands in nonideal theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Schouten, G. (2022). The case for egalitarian consciousness raising in higher education. Philosophical Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-022-01808-3.Google Scholar
Singer, P. (1972). Famine, affluence, and morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(3), 229–43.Google Scholar
Weithman, P. (2016). Academic friendship. In Brighouse, H. & McPherson, M., eds., The aims of higher education: Problems of morality and justice. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 5273.Google Scholar

References

Appiah, K. A. (2010). The honor code: How moral revolutions happen. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Appiah, K. A. (2014). Experimental philosophy. In Luetge, C., Rusch, H. & Uhl, M., eds., Experimental ethics: Towards an empirical moral philosophy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 725.Google Scholar
Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bialystok, L. (2014). Authenticity and the limits of philosophy. Dialogue, 53(2), 271–98.Google Scholar
Farid-Arbab, S. (2016). Moral empowerment: In quest of a pedagogy. Wilmette, IL: Baha’i Publishing Trust.Google Scholar
Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gazel, J. (2007). Walking the talk: Multiracial discourses, realities, and pedagogy. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(4), 532–50.Google Scholar
Glasgow, J. (2008). On the methodology of the race debate: Conceptual analysis and racial discourse. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 76(2), 333–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1933-1592.2007.00135.x.Google Scholar
Hadot, P. (1995). Philosophy as a way of life. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Jonas, M., & Yacek, D. W. (2019). Nietzsche’s philosophy of education: Rethinking ethics, equality and the good life in a democratic age. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kristjánsson, K. (2020). Learning from friends and terminating friendships: Retrieveing friendship as a moral educational concept. Educational Theory, 70(2), 129–49.Google Scholar
Larmore, C. (2010). The practices of the self. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liao, S., & Huebner, B. (2020). Oppressive things. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 103(1), 92113. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpr.12701.Google Scholar
Mogensen, A. (2017). Racial profiling and cumulative injustice. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 98(2), 452–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpr.12451.Google Scholar
Monroe, K. R. (1996). The heart of altruism: Perceptions of a common humanity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Murdoch, I. (2014). The sovereignty of good. London: Routledge (original work published in 1970).Google Scholar
Muthuswamy, N., Levine, T. R., & Gazel, J. (2006). Interaction-based diversity initiative outcomes: An evaluation of an initiative aimed at bridging the racial divide on a college campus. Communication Education, 55(1), 105–21.Google Scholar
Picciolini, C. (2015). Romantic violence: Memoirs of an American skinhead. Chicago, IL: Goldmill Group.Google Scholar
Ricoeur, P. (1995). Love and justice. Trans. by D. Pellauer, Philosophy & Social Criticism, 21(5/6), 2339.Google Scholar
Saslow, E. (2016, October 15). The white flight of Derek Black. The Washington Post. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/the-white-flight-of-derek-black/2016/10/15/ed5f906a-8f3b-11e6-a6a3-d50061aa9fae_story.html.Google Scholar
Saslow, E. (2018). Rising out of hatred: The awakening of a former white nationalist [eBook ed.]. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
Schwarzenbach, S. A. (1996). On civic friendship. Ethics, 107(1), 97128.Google Scholar
Schwitzgebel, E. (2014). The moral behavior of ethicists and the role of the philosopher. In Luetge, C., Rusch, H. & Uhl, M., eds., Experimental ethics: Towards an empirical moral philosophy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 5964.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1989). Sources of the self: The making of the modern identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1991). The ethics of authenticity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Urmson, J. (1958). Saints and heroes. In Melden, A., ed., Essays in moral philosophy. Washington, DC: University of Washington Press, pp. 198-216.Google Scholar
Warnick, B., Yacek, D., & Robinson, S. (2018). Learning to be moved: The modes of democratic responsiveness. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 25(1), 3146.Google Scholar
Weil, S. (1951). Waiting for God. Trans. by E. Craufurd, New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Weil, S. (1987). Are we struggling for justice? Trans. by M. Barbaras. Philosophical Investigations, 10(1), 110.Google Scholar
Weil, S. (1999). Gravity and grace. Trans. by E. Crawford & M. von der Ruhr, London: Routledge (original work published in 1947).Google Scholar
Williams, B. (2002). Truth and truthfulness: An essay in genealogy. Hoboken, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Wodak, D. (2021). Of witches and white folks. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 104(3), 587605. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpr.12799.Google Scholar
Yacek, D. W. (2019). Should anger be encouraged in the classroom? Political education, closed-mindedness, and civic epiphany. Educational Theory, 69(4), 421–37.Google Scholar
Yacek, D. W. (2021). The transformative classroom: Philosophical foundations and practical applications. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Zagzebski, L. T. (2017). Exemplarist moral theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

References

Adebisi, F. I. (2016). Decolonizing education in Africa: Implementing the right to education by re-appropriating culture and indigeneity. Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, 67(4), 433–51.Google Scholar
Altbach, P., & Kelly, G. (1978) Education and colonialism. London & New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., & Tiffin, H. (Eds.) (1995). The post-colonial studies reader. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Barnes, A. (2018). Christian evangelization and its legacy. In Shanguhyia, M. & Falola, T., eds., The Palgrave handbook of African colonial and postcolonial history. New York: Palgrave, pp. 239–80.Google Scholar
Beetham, D. (2009). Democracy: Universality and diversity. Ethics & Global Politics, 2(4), 284–96.Google Scholar
Bennett, K. (2017). Epistemicide! The tale of a predatory discourse. In Cunico, S. & Munday, J., eds., Translation and Ideology, The Translator, Special Issue 13(2), 151–69.Google Scholar
Brunner, C. (2016). Gewalt weiter denken in der Kolonialität des Wissens. In Ziai, A., ed., Postkoloniale Politikwissenschaft. Theoretische und empirische Zugänge. Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag, Edition Politik, pp. 91108.Google Scholar
Brunner, C. (2020). Epistemische Gewalt. Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag.Google Scholar
Carnoy, M. (1974). Education as cultural imperialism. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Chakrabarty, D. (2000). Provincializing Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Clemens, I. (2020). Decolonizing knowledge: Starting points, consequences and challenges. Foro de Educación, 18(1), 1125. https://doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.733Google Scholar
Code, L., Phillips, D. C., Ruitenberg, C. W., Siegel, H., & Stone, L. (2012). Epistemological diversity: A roundtable. In Ruitenberg, C. W. & Phillips, D. C., eds., Education, culture and epistemological diversity: Mapping a contested terrain. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 121–43.Google Scholar
Culp, J. (2019). Democratic education in a globalized world. A normative theory. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Drerup, J. (2019). Global justice, global citizenship education, and the postcolonial critique. Global Justice: Theory Practice Rhetoric, 12(1), 2754. Available at: https://www.theglobaljusticenetwork.org/index.php/gjn/article/download/230/172.Google Scholar
Ferguson, N. (2012). Empire: How Britain made the modern world. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Gandhi, L. (1998). Postcolonial theory: A critical introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Garbe, S. (2013). Deskolonisierung des Wissens: Zur Kritik der epistemischen Gewalt in der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie. Austrian Studies in Social Anthropology, 1, 117. Available at: https://www.univie.ac.at/alumni.ksa/wp-content/uploads/text-documents/ASSA/ASSA-Journal-2013-01-DeskolonisierungDesWissens.pdf.Google Scholar
Gopal, P. (2020). Insurgent empire: Anticolonial resistance and British dissent. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Horsthemke, K. (2020). The provincialization of epistemology: Knowledge and education in the age of the postcolony. On_education, 3(7), 15.Google Scholar
Keane, J. (2009). The life and death of democracy. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
Keane, J. (2018). Is democracy a universal ideal? In Keane, J., Power and humility: The future of monitory democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 439–70.Google Scholar
Koelble, T., & LiPuma, E. (2008). Democratizing democracy: A postcolonial critique of conventional approaches to the measurement of democracy. Democratization, 15(1), 128.Google Scholar
Kohn, M. (2010). Post-colonial theory. In Bell, D., ed., Ethics and world politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 200–18.Google Scholar
Lazarus, N. (2011). What postcolonial theory doesn’t say. Race & Class, 53(1), 327.Google Scholar
Lebakeng, T. (2004). Towards a relevant higher education epistemology. In Seepe, S., ed., Towards an African identity of higher education. Pretoria: Vista University and Skotaville Media, pp. 109–19.Google Scholar
Levitzky, S., & Ziblatt, D. (2019). How democracies die: What history reveals about our future. New York: Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
LiPuma, E., & Koelble, T. (2009). Deliberative democracy and the politics of traditional leadership in South Africa: A case of despotic domination or democratic deliberation? Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 27(2), 201–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masaka, D. (2018). The prospects of ending epistemicide in Africa: Some thoughts. Journal of Black Studies, 49(3), 284301.Google Scholar
Mignolo, W. (2009). Epistemic disobedience, independent thought and de-colonial freedom. Theory, Culture & Society, 26(7-8), 123.Google Scholar
Mignolo, W. (2011). Geopolitics of sensing and knowing: On (de)coloniality, border thinking and epistemic disobedience. Postcolonial Studies, 14(3), 273–83.Google Scholar
Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. (2018). Epistemic freedom in Africa: Deprovincialization and decolonization. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nussbaum, M. (2010). Not for profit. Why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Parekh, B. (1994). Decolonizing liberalism. In Shtromas, A., ed., The end of “Isms”? Reflections on the fate of ideological politics after communism’s collapse. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 85103.Google Scholar
Piedrahita Rodríguez, J. A. (2020). La descolonización epistemológica y la educación política en Colombia: Hacia una perspectiva ciudadana del Buen Vivir. Foro de Educación, 18(1), 4765. https://doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.720Google Scholar
Pitts, J. (2010). Political theory of empire and imperialism. Annual Review of Political Science, 13, 211–35.Google Scholar
Quintero, P., & Garbe, S. (Eds.) (2013). Kolonialität der Macht. De/Koloniale Konflikte zwischen Theorie und Praxis. Münster: Unrast.Google Scholar
Ramose, M. B. (2004). In search of an African philosophy of education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 18(3), 138–60.Google Scholar
Robinson, A. L. (2019). Colonial rule and its political legacies in Africa. In Cheeseman, N., ed., Oxford encyclopedia of African politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.1346Google Scholar
Runciman, D. (2018). How democracy ends. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
Said, E. (1993). Culture and imperialism. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
Santos, B. D. (2014). Epistemologies of the South: Justice against epistemicide. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Santos, B. D., Nunes, J. A., & Meneses, M. P. (2008). Introduction: Opening up the canon of knowledge and recognition of difference. In Santos, B. D., ed., Another knowledge is possible: Beyond Northern epistemologies. London & New York: Verso, pp. xvixlxii.Google Scholar
Sartori, A. (2006). The British Empire and its liberal mission. The Journal of Modern History, 78(3), 623–42.Google Scholar
Sass, J., & Dryzek, J. (2014). Deliberative cultures. Political Theory, 42 (1), 325.Google Scholar
Sen, A. (1999). Democracy as a universal value. Journal of Democracy, 10(3), 316.Google Scholar
Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In Nelson, C. & Grossberg, L., eds., Marxism and the interpretation of culture. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, pp. 271313.Google Scholar
Stovall, T. (2013). Empires of democracy. In Huggan, G., ed., The Oxford handbook of postcolonial studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/0.1093/oxfordhb/9780199588251.013.0010Google Scholar
Tharoor, S. (2018). Inglorious empire: What the British did to India. London: Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
Young, I. M. (1996). Communication and the other: Beyond deliberative democracy. In Benhabib, S., ed., Democracy and difference: Contesting the boundaries of the political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 120–35.Google Scholar

References

Anselmi, M. (2018). Populism. An introduction. Trans. by Laura Fano Morrisey. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bender, M. C. (2021). “Frankly, we did win this election”: The inside story how Trump lost. New York/Boston: Twelve Books, Grand Central Publishing.Google Scholar
Benoist, A. de (2019). Contre le libéralisme: La société n’est pas un marché. Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
Bentham, J. (1817). Plan of parliamentary reform, in the form of a catechism, with reasons for each article, with an introduction, renewing the necessity of radical, and the inadequacy of moderate, reform. London: R. Hunter.Google Scholar
Bentham, J. (1821). On the liberty of the press and public discussion. London: William Hone.Google Scholar
Bernecker, S., Flowerree, A. K., & Grundmann, T. (Eds.) (2021). The epistemology of fake news. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Boas, G. (2020). Vox populi: Essays in the history of an idea. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Brexel, B. (2004). The populist party. A voice for the farmers in an industrial society. New York: Rosen.Google Scholar
Brühwiler, C. F., & Goktepe, K. (2021). Populism with a Ph.D.: Education levels and populist leaders. Journal of Political Power, 14(3), 449–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/2158379X.2021.1904366.Google Scholar
Carlyle, T. (1855). Latter-day pamphlets. Boston/New York: Philipps, Sampson, and Company; J.C. Derby.Google Scholar
Deneen, P. J. (2018): Why liberalism failed. With a new preface. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Dewey, J. (1916/1985). The middle works 1899–1924, vol. 9: Democracy and education 1916. Ed. by Boydston, J. A.; introduced by S. Hook. Carbondale/Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Drinhausen, K., & Brussee, V. (2021, March 3): China’s social credit system in 2021. From fragmentation toward integration. Merics China Monitor. Available at: https://ccn.unistra.fr/websites/ccn/documentation/Cybersecurite/MERICS_ChinaMonitor_67_Social_Credit_System_final_1.pdf (accessed: December 27, 2021).Google Scholar
Giudici, A. (2021). Seeds of authoritarian opposition: Far-right education politics in post war Europe. European Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 121–42.Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in public. Microstudies of the public order. Harmondsworth/Middlesex: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Habermas, J. (2021). Überlegungen und Hypothesen zu einem erneuten Strukturwandel der politischen Öffentlichkeit. In Seeliger, M. & Sevignani, S., eds., Ein neuer Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit? (Leviathan Sonderband 37), Baden-Baden: Nomos, pp. 470500.Google Scholar
Haitiwaji, G., & Morgat, R. (2021). Rescapée du goulag Chinois. Paris: Editions des Equateurs.Google Scholar
Hersh, E. D. (2015). Hacking the electorate. How campaigns perceive voters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hofstadter, R. (1964, November). The paranoid style in American politics. Harper’s Magazine, 77–86.Google Scholar
Inazu, J. D. (2016). Confident pluralism. Surviving and thriving through deep difference. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Israel, J. (2013). Democratic enlightenment. Philosophy, revolution, and human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Keefer, P., Scartascini, C., & Vlaicu, R. (2021). Trust, populism, and the quality of government. In Bågenholm, A., Bauhr, M., Grimes, M. & Rothstein, B., eds., The Oxford handbook of quality of government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 249–67.Google Scholar
Kosinsky, M. (2019, November 21). In Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 41.Google Scholar
Kreiss, D. (2016). Prototype politics. Technology-intensive campaigning and the data of democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kuhn, S. A. K., Lieb, R., Freeman, D., Andreou, C., & Zander-Schellenberg, T., (2021). Coronavirus conspiracy beliefs in the German-speaking general population: Endorsement rates and links to reasoning biases and paranoia. Psychological Medicine. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291721001124.Google Scholar
Laclau, E. (2005). On populist reason. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Lynch, M. P. (2016). The internet of us: Knowing more and understanding less in the age of big data. New York: Liveright.Google Scholar
Mårdh, A., & Tryggvason, Á. (2017). Democratic education and the mode of populism. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 36, 601–13.Google Scholar
Mason, L. (2018). Uncivil agreement. How politics became our identity. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Möller, K. (Ed.) (2022). Populismus. Ein Reader. Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
Moreau, I., & Holtz, G. (Eds.) (2005). “Parler librement”. La liberté de parole au tournant de XVIe auf XVIIe siècle. Lyon: ENS Editions.Google Scholar
Müller, J.-W. (2016). What is populism? Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Oelkers, J. (2018). Autoritarismus und liberale öffentliche Bildung. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 64(6), 728–48.Google Scholar
Oelkers, J. (2020). Authoritarianism ande in the interwar period. Paedagogica Historica, 56, 572–86.Google Scholar
Peters, M. A., & Besley, T. (2020). The far-right education and violence. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rucker, P., & Leonnig, C. (2021). A very stable genius. Donald J. Trump’s testing of America. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Runciman, D. (2018). Political hypocrisy. The mask of power. From Hobbes to Orwell and beyond. Rev. ed. with a new afterword by the author, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sant, E. (2019). Democratic education: A theoretical review (2006–2017). Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 655–96.Google Scholar
Shils, E. (1954). Populism and the rules of law. In S. Buchanan, et al., eds., University of Chicago Law School conference on jurisprudence and politics, pp. 99107.Google Scholar
Shils, E. (1956). The tournament of secrecy: The background and consequences of American politics. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
Shils, E. (1982). The constitution of society. With a new introduction by the author. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
State Council Information Office (2021). China: Democracy that works. white paper. The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. Available at: www.news.cn/english/2021-12/04/c_1310351231.htm (accessed: December 28, 2021).Google Scholar
Stitzlein, S. M. (2017). American public education and the responsibility of its citizens. Supporting democracy in the age of accountability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Strittmatter, K. (2018). Die Neuerfindung der Diktatur. Wie China den digitalen Überwachungsstatt aufbaut und uns damit herausfordert. 2nd ed., Munich: Piper Verlag.Google Scholar
Sunstein, C. R. (2017). #republic. Divided democracy in the age of social media. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Suthaharan, P., Reed, E. J., Leptourgos, P., et al. (2021). Paranoia and belief updating during the Covid-19 crisis. Human Nature Behavior, 5, 1190–202.Google Scholar
Thalmann, K. (2019). The stigmatization of conspiracy theory since the 1950’s. “A plot to make us look foolish”. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ungar-Sargon, B. (2021). Bad news: How woke media is undermining democracy. New York: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
Van der Geest, I., Jansen, H., & Van Klink, B. (Eds.) (2020). Vox populi: Populism as a rhetorical and democratic challenge. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Van der Linden, S., Panagopoulos, C., Azevedo, F., & Jost, J. T. (2020). The paranoid style in American politics revisited: An ideological asymmetry in conspirational thinking. Political Psychology, 42(1), 3251.Google Scholar
Watson, S., & Barnes, N. (2021). Online educational populism and New Right 2.0 in Australia and England. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 20(22), 208–20. DOI: 10.1080/14767744.2021.1882292 (accessed: December 25, 2021).Google Scholar
Zhang, C. (2019). Right-wing populist discourse on Chinese social media: Identity, otherness, and global imaginaries. Les Cahiers des Cevipol, 3, 231.Google Scholar

References

Adams, A. M., & Emmerich, C. J. (1990). William Penn and the American heritage of religious liberty. Journal of Law and Religion, 8(1–2), 5770.Google Scholar
Alexander, H. (2015). Reimagining liberal education: Affiliation and inquiry in democratic schooling. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Bennett, M. R., & Einolf, C. J. (2017). Religion, altruism, and helping strangers: A multilevel analysis of 126 countries. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 56(2), 323–41.Google Scholar
Berner, A. R. (2017). Pluralism and American public education: No one way to school. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bindewald, B., & Rosenblith, S. (2015). Addressing orthodox challenges in the pluralist classroom. Educational Studies, 51(6), 497509.Google Scholar
Bindewald, B. J., Sanatullova-Allison, E., & Hsiao, Y.-L. (2017). Religion and public education in pluralist, democratic societies: Some lessons from the United States and Canada. Religion & Education, 44(2), 180202.Google Scholar
Black, D. W. (2013). Charter schools, vouchers, and the public good. Wake Forest Law Review, 47(1), 101–43.Google Scholar
Boyer, L. (2022). Rite and man: The sense of the sacred and Christian liturgy. Trans. by M. J. Costelloe, Providence, RI: Cluny Press.Google Scholar
Brinig, M. F., & Garnett, N. S. (2009). Catholic schools, urban neighborhoods, and education reform. Notre Dame Law Review, 85(3), 887954.Google Scholar
Bryk, A. S., Lee, V. E., & Holland, P. B. (1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Burtt, S. (2003). Comprehensive educations and the liberal understanding of autonomy. In McDonough, K. & Feinberg, W., eds., Citizenship and education in liberal-democratic societies: Teaching for cosmopolitan values and collective identities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 179207.Google Scholar
Calhoun, C. (2011). Secularism, citizenship, and the public square. In Calhoun, C., Juergensmeyer, M. & Van Antwerpen, J., eds., Rethinking secularism. Oxford: Oxford University press, pp. 7591.Google Scholar
Callan, E. (1985). McLaughlin on parental rights. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 19(1), 111–18.Google Scholar
Callan, E. (1988). Autonomy and schooling. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
Callan, E. (1997). Creating citizens: Political education and liberal democracy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, D. E. (2008). The civic side of school choice: An empirical analysis of civic education in public and private schools. BYU Law Review, 2008(2), 487523.Google Scholar
Campbell, D. E., & Yonish, S. J. (2003). Religion and volunteering in America. In Smidt, C., ed., Religion as social capital: Producing the common good. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, pp. 87106.Google Scholar
Cavanaugh, W. (2011). Migrations of the holy: God, state, and the political meaning of the church. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.Google Scholar
Clayton, M. (2014). Anti-perfectionist childrearing. In Baggattini, A. & Macleod, C., eds., The nature of children’s well-being: Theory and practice. London: Springer, pp. 123–40.Google Scholar
De Groof, J., van de Donk, W., Lauwers, G., de Goede, P., & Tim Verhappen, T. (2010). Reflections on religion & education in the Netherlands and Flanders. Paper presented at Religion, Beliefs, Philosophical Convictions and Education conference, Bruges, Belgium, December 7–9.Google Scholar
de Tocqueville, A. (1835). Democracy in America. Trans. by H. Reeve, London: Saunders and Otley.Google Scholar
Deneen, P. (2005). Democratic faith. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Franchot, J. (1994). Roads to Rome: The antebellum Protestant encounter with Catholicism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Friedman, M. (2000). John Rawls and the political coercion of unreasonable people. In Davion, V. & Wolf, C., eds., The idea of a political liberalism: Essays on Rawls. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 1633.Google Scholar
Fukuyama, F. (1989). The end of history? The National Interest, 16, 318.Google Scholar
Fukuyama, F. (2010). The “end of history” 20 years later. New Perspectives Quarterly, 27(1), 710.Google Scholar
Giersch, J. (2014). Vouchers for religious schools and the development of democratic values. The Educational Forum, 78(2), 142–49.Google Scholar
Glenn, C. L. (2002). The myth of the common school. Oakland, CA: Institute for Contemporary Studies.Google Scholar
Glenn, C. L. (2005). What the United States can learn from other countries. In Salisbury, D. & Tooley, J., eds., What America can learn from school choice in other countries. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, pp. 7988.Google Scholar
Glenn, C. L. (2011). Contrasting models of state and school: A comparative historical study of parental choice and state control. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Glenn, C. L. (2016). Educating citizens: Who is doing that in the United States? Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 8(1), 5686.Google Scholar
Gregory, B. (2012). The unintended reformation: How a religious revolution secularized society. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Groothuis, D. (2004). On not abolishing faith schools: A response to Michael Hand and Harvey Siegel. Theory and Research in Education, 2(2), 177–88.Google Scholar
Gruenwald, O. (2009). Culture, religion and politics: Why liberal democracy needs God. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 21(1), 124.Google Scholar
Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hand, M. (2003). A philosophical objection to faith schools. Theory and Research in Education, 1(1), 8999.Google Scholar
Hand, M. (2008). What should we teach as controversial? A defense of the epistemic criterion. Educational Theory, 58(2), 213–28.Google Scholar
Horton, J. (2003). Rawls, public reason and the limits of liberal justification. Contemporary Political Theory, 2(1), 523.Google Scholar
Hoverd, W., LeBrun, E., & Van Arragon, L. (2015). Religion and education in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Religion and Diversity Project. Available at: religion_and_education_in_the_provinces_of_quebec_and_ontario_report.pdf (religionanddiversity.ca).Google Scholar
Hughes, C. (2012). Liberal democracy as the end of history: Fukuyama and postmodern challenges. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Jackson, R. (2000). Law, politics and religious education in England and Wales: Some history, some stories and some observations. In Leicester, M., Modgil, C., and Modgil, S., eds., Spiritual and religious education. London: Palmer, pp. 126–48.Google Scholar
James, J. (2010). “Democracy is the Devil’s snare”: Theological certainty and democratic teacher education. Theory and Research in Social Education, 38(4), 618–39.Google Scholar
Jawoniyi, O. (2015). Religious education, critical thinking, rational autonomy, and the child’s right to an open future. Religion & Education, 42(1), 3453.Google Scholar
Jones, A. W. (2017). Before church and state: A study of social order in the sacramental kingdom of St. Louis IX. Steubenville, OH: Emmaus Academic.Google Scholar
Kaestle, C. F. (1972). Common schools before the “common school revival”: New York schooling in the 1790s. History of Education Quarterly, 12(4), 465500.Google Scholar
Kaestle, C. F. (1983). Pillars of the republic: Common schools and American society, 1780–1860. New York: Hill & Wang.Google Scholar
Kerr, D. (2006). Teaching autonomy: The obligations of liberal education in plural societies. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 25(6), 425–56.Google Scholar
Kraynak, R. P. (2001). Christian faith and modern democracy: God and politics in the fallen world. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Kunzman, R. (2005a). Educating for more (and less) than intelligent belief or unbelief: A critique of Noddings’s vision of religion in public schools. In Howe, K., ed., Philosophy of education. Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, pp. 7280.Google Scholar
Kunzman, R. (2005b). Grappling with the good: Talking about religion and morality in public schools. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Kymlicka, W., & Norman, W. (1994). Return of the citizen: A survey of recent work on citizenship theory. Ethics, 104(2), 352–81.Google Scholar
Lam, P.-Y. (2002). As the flocks gather: How religion affects voluntary association participation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(3), 405–22.Google Scholar
Lannie, V. P., & Diethorn, B. C. (1968). For the honor and glory of God: The Philadelphia Bible Riots of 1844. History of Education Quarterly, 8(1), 44106.Google Scholar
Legutko, R. (2018). The demon in democracy: Totalitarian temptations in free societies. New York, Books.Google Scholar
Lester, E. E. (2013). Teaching about religions: A democratic approach for public schools. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Lilla, M., & Myers, J. J. (2007). The stillborn God: Religion, politics, and the modern West. Carnegie Council. Available at: https://media-1.carnegiecouncil.org/import/studio/The_Stillborn_God.pdf.Google Scholar
Loveland, M. T., Sikkink, D., Myers, D. J., & Radcliff, B. (2005). Private prayer and civic involvement. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(1) 114.Google Scholar
Macedo, S. (2003). Diversity and distrust: Civic education in a multicultural democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
March, A. F. (2015). Rethinking the public use of religious reason. In Bailey, T. & Gentile, V., eds., Rawls and religion. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 97132.Google Scholar
Marcus, B. P., Blitzer, J., Brady, Seth et al. (2017). Religious studies companion document. In College, Career & Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies, pp. 9297.Google Scholar
McAvoy, P. (2012). “There are no housewives on Star Trek”: A reexamination of exit rights for the children of insular fundamentalist parents. Educational Theory, 62(5), 535–52.Google Scholar
McConnell, M. W. (2007). Secular reason and the misguided attempt to exclude religious argument from democratic deliberation. Journal of Law, Philosophy and Culture, 1(1), 159–74.Google Scholar
McIntyre, A. (1988). Whose justice? Which rationality? Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Menand, L. (2018, September 3). Francis Fukuyama postpones the end of history. The New Yorker. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/09/03/francis-fukuyama-postpones-the-end-of-history.Google Scholar
Michel, J.-P., Shen, Y. K., Aiden, A. P. et al. (2011). Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science, 331(6014), 176–82.Google Scholar
Moore, D. L. (2007). Overcoming religious illiteracy: A cultural studies approach to the study of religion in secondary education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Moore, D. L. (2015). Diminishing religious literacy: Methodological assumptions and analytical frameworks for promoting the public understanding of religion. In Dinham, A. & Francis, M., eds., Religious literacy in policy and practice. Chicago, IL: Policy Press, pp. 2738.Google Scholar
Neiman, A. (2002). The very (bad) idea of public reason. Philosophy of Education Archive, 135–37.Google Scholar
Noddings, N. (1993). Educating for intelligent belief or unbelief. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Noddings, N. (2005). Beyond belief? In Howe, K., ed., Philosophy of education. Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, pp. 8183.Google Scholar
Nord, W. A., & Haynes, C. C. (1998). Taking religion seriously across the curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervison and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
Pagliarini, M. A. (1999). The pure American woman and the wicked Catholic priest: An analysis of anti-Catholic literature in antebellum America. Religion and American Culture, 9(1), 97128.Google Scholar
Park, J. Z., & Smith, C. (2000). “To whom much has been given…”: Religious capital and community voluntarism among churchgoing Protestants. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39(3) 272–86.Google Scholar
Parker, S. G., & Freathy, R. J. K. (2012). Ethnic diversity, Christian hegemony and the emergence of multi-faith religious education in the 1970s. History of Education, 41(3), 381404.Google Scholar
Prothero, S. (2007). Religious literacy: What every American needs to know – And doesn’t. New York: HarperLuxe.Google Scholar
Putnam, R. D., & Campbell, D. E. (2010). American grace: How religion divides and unites us. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1993). Political liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1997). The idea of public reason revisited. The University of Chicago Law Review, 64(3), 765807.Google Scholar
Reese, W.J. (2007). Changing conceptions of “public” and “private” in American educational history. In Reese, W., ed., History, education, and the schools. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 95112.Google Scholar
Regnerus, M. D., Smith, C., & Sikkink, D. (1998). Who gives to the poor? The influence of religious tradition and political location on the personal generosity of Americans toward the poor. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(3), 481–93.Google Scholar
Reno, R. R. (2019). Return of the strong gods: Nationalism, populism, and the future of the West. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Rousseau, J.-J. (1923). The social contract and discourses. Trans. by G. D. H. Cole, London: J. M. Dent and Sons.Google Scholar
Rousseau, J.-J. (2010). Emile, or on education. Trans. by C. Kelly & A. Bloom, Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press.Google Scholar
Ruiter, S., & De Graaf, N. D. (2006). National context, religiosity and volunteering: Results from 53 countries. American Sociological Review, 71(2), 191210.Google Scholar
Russo, C., & Raniere, N. (2017). School choice: An overview of selected international perspectives. In Fox, R. A. & Buchanan, N. K., eds., The Wiley handbook of school choice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 4656.Google Scholar
Schinkel, A. (2010). Compulsory autonomy‐promoting education. Educational Theory, 60(1), 97116.Google Scholar
Seiple, C. (2012). The essence of exceptionalism: Roger Williams and the birth of religious freedom in America. The Review of Faith & International Affairs, 10(2), 13–9.Google Scholar
Short, G. (2003). Faith schools and indoctrination: A response to Michael Hand. Theory and Research in Education, 1(3), 331–41.Google Scholar
Smidt, C. (1999). Religion and civic engagement: A comparative analysis. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 565(1) 176–92.Google Scholar
Stout, J. (2004). Democracy and tradition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (2007). A secular age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
U.K. Parliament. (2019, February 8). Questions and Answers UIN #218805. Available at: https://questions-statements.parliament.uk/written-questions/detail/2019-02-08/218805.Google Scholar
U.S. Congress. (1934) United States Code: Ordinance of: The Northwest Territorial Government 1934. Available at the Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/item/uscode1934-001000009/.Google Scholar
Vermeule, A. (2017). Liturgy of liberalism. First Things, 269. Available at: https://www.firstthings.com/article/2017/01/liturgy-of-liberalism.Google Scholar
Vermeule, A. (2021). According to truth. In Waldstein, P.E. & Kwasniewski, P.A., eds. Integralism and the common good: Selected essays from The Josias. Brooklyn, NY: Angelico Press, pp. 310–15.Google Scholar
Warnick, B. R. (2012). Rethinking education for autonomy in pluralistic societies. Educational Theory, 64(4), 411–26.Google Scholar
Washington, G. (1790). Letter to Catharine Sawbridge Macaulay Graham. National Archives. Available at: https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0363.Google Scholar
Washington, G. (1811). Washington’s farewell address to the people of the United States. Hudson, NY: William E. Norman.Google Scholar
Weithman, P. J. (2002). Religion and the obligations of citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wightwick, A. (2020, June 23). Catholic schools call for changes to RE in Wales to be scrapped. Wales Online. Available at: https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/education/catholic-schools-religious-education-wales-18470657.Google Scholar
Wilhelm, M. O., Rooney, P. M., & Tempel, E. R. (2007). Changes in religious giving reflect changes in involvement: Age and cohort effects in religious giving, secular giving, and attendance. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46(2), 217–32.Google Scholar
Willaime, J.-P. (2007). Different models for religion and education in Europe. In Jackson, R., Miedema, S., Weisse, W., & Willaime, J. F., eds., Religion and education in Europe: Developments, contexts and debates. New York/Münster: Waxmann, pp. 5766.Google Scholar
Wilson, T. S., & Ryg, M. A. (2015). Becoming autonomous: Nonideal theory and educational autonomy. Educational Theory, 65(2), 127–50.Google Scholar
Wong, B. (2021). Let God and Rawls be friends: On the cooperation between the political liberal government and religious schools in civic education. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 38(5), 774–89.Google Scholar

References

Achen, C., & Bartels, L. (2016). Democracy for realists: Why elections do not produce responsive governments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Althaus, S. (2003). Collective preferences in democratic politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Arlen, G., & Rossi, E. (2022). Is this what democracy looks like? (Never mind epistocracy). Inquiry, 65(1), 114.Google Scholar
Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bell, Daniel. (2016). The China model: Political meritocracy and the limits of democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Bennett, S. (1988). “Know-nothings” revisited: The meaning of political ignorance today. Social Science Quarterly, 69(2), 476–90.Google Scholar
Blanco, F. (2017). Cognitive bias. In Vonk, J. & Shackelford, T., eds., Encyclopedia of animal cognition and behavior. Basel: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1244-1.Google Scholar
Brennan, J. (2016). Against democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Brennan, J. (2022). Giving epistocracy a fair hearing. Inquiry, 65(1), 3549.Google Scholar
Campbell, A., Converse, P., Miller, W. & Stokes, D. (1960) The American voter. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Caplan, B. (2007). The myth of the rational voter: Why democracies choose bad policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Christiano, T. (1996). The rule of the many: Fundamental issues in democratic theory. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Christiano, T. (2008). The constitution of equality: Democractic authority and its limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Clotfelter, C. (2017). Unequal colleges in the age of disparity. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, M. (2019). The availability heuristic, political leaders, and decision making. In Oxford research encyclopedia of politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.1028.Google Scholar
Converse, P. (1964) The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In Apter, D., ed., Ideology and discontent. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
Crawford, C., Gregg, P., Macmillan, L., Vignoles, A., & Wyness, G. (2016). Higher education, career opportunities and intergenerational inequality. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 553–75.Google Scholar
Delli Carpini, M., & Keeter, S. (1996). What Americans know about politics and why it matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Donvaband, S., & Hoskins, B. (2021). Citizenship education for political engagement: A systematic review of controlled trials. Social Sciences, 10(5), 119.Google Scholar
Eatwell, R., & Goodwin, M. (2018). National populism: The revolt against liberal democracy. London: Pelican.Google Scholar
Erisen, C., Lodge, M., & Taber, C. (2014). Affective contagion in effortful political thinking. Political Psychology, 35(2), 187206.Google Scholar
Estlund, D. (2003). Why not epistocracy. In Reshotko, N., ed., Desire, identity, and existence: Essays in honor of T.M. Penner. New York: Academic Printing and Publishing, pp. 5370.Google Scholar
Estlund, D. (2008). Democratic authority: A philosophical framework. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Feddersen, T., Gailmard, S., & Sandroni, A. (2009). A bias toward unselfishness in large elections: Theory and experimental evidence. American Political Science Review, 103, 175–92.Google Scholar
Galston, W. (2018). Anti-pluralism: The populist threat to liberal democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Giesinger, J. (2022). Education as the remedy: the justification of democracy and the epistocratic challenge. In Culp, J., Drerup, J., de Groot, I., Schinkel, A., & Yacek, D., eds., Liberal democratic education: A paradigm in crisis. Paderborn: Brill, pp. 6782.Google Scholar
Goodin, R. (2003). Reflective democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gunn, P. (2019). Against epistocracy. Critical Review, 31(1), 2682.Google Scholar
Gutmann, A., & Thompson, D. (2004). Why deliberative democracy? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hardin, R. (1999). Liberalism, constitutionalism and democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jeffrey, A. (2018). Limited epistocracy and political inclusion. Episteme, 15(4), 412–32.Google Scholar
Kahan, D., Peters, E., Cantrell Dawson, E., & Slovic, P. (2017). Motivated numeracy and enlightened self-government. Behavioural Public Policy, 1(1), 5486.Google Scholar
Lafont, C. (2020) Democracy without shortcuts: A participatory conception of deliberative democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Landa, D., & Pevnick, R. (2020). Representative democracy as defensible epistocracy. American Political Science Review, 114(1), 113.Google Scholar
Landemore, H. (2013). Democratic reason: Politics, collective intelligence, and the rule of the many. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Landemore, H. (2020). Open democracy: Reinventing popular rule for the twenty-first century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Langton, K., & Jennings, M. K. (1968). Political socialization and the high school civics curriculum in the United States. American Political Science Review, 62(3), 852–67.Google Scholar
Lewis-Beck, M., Jacoby, W., Norpoth, H., and Weissberg, H. (2008). The American voter revisited. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Manning, N., & Edwards, K. (2014). Does civic education for young people increase political participation: A systematic review. Educational Review, 66(1), 2245.Google Scholar
Mill, J. S. (1861). Considerations on representative government. London: Parker, Son, and Bourn.Google Scholar
Milliband, D. (2020). Brexit, populism, and the future of British democracy. Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 15, 150–65.Google Scholar
Mutz, D. (2006). Hearing the other side: Deliberative versus participatory democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Niemi, R., & Junn, G. (1998). Civic education: What makes students learn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Page, I. & Shapiro, R. (1992). The rational public and democracy. In Marcus, G. & Hanson, R., eds., Reconsidering the democratic public. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Popkin, S. (1991). The reasoning voter: Communication and persuasion in presidential campaigns. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Reiss, J. (2019). Expertise, agreement, and the nature of social scientific facts or: Against epistocracy. Social Epistemology, 33(2), 183–92.Google Scholar
Roth, K. (2017). The dangerous rise of populism: Global attacks on human rights values. Journal of International Affairs, 70, 7984.Google Scholar
Sniderman, P., Brody, R., & Tetlock, P. (1991). Reasoning and choice: Explorations in political psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Somin, I. (2016). Democracy and political ignorance: Why smaller government is better. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Somin, I. (2022). The promise and peril of epistocracy. Inquiry, 65(1), 2734.Google Scholar
Talisse, R. (2022). The trouble with hooligans. Inquiry, 65(1), 1526.Google Scholar
Wilke, A., & Mata, R. (2012). Cognitive bias. In: Ramachandran, V., ed., Encyclopedia of human behaviour. London/Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Academic Press, pp. 531–35.Google Scholar

References

Bättig, M. B., & Bernauer, T. (2009). National institutions and global public goods: Are democracies more cooperative in climate change policy? International Organization, 63, 281308.Google Scholar
Biesta, G. (2011). The ignorant citizen: Mouffe, Rancière, and the subject of democratic education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 30, 141–53.Google Scholar
Center for Global Development (2022). Developed countries are responsible for 79 percent of historical carbon emissions. Available at: https://www.cgdev.org/media/who-caused-climate-change-historically.Google Scholar
De Bruijn, W., Van Huijkelom, T., & Metze, M. (2013, October 23). Het ministerie van Shell-zaken: De innige samenwerking van Shell en de Nederlandse overheid. De Groene Amsterdammer, 43. Available at: https://www.groene.nl/artikel/het-ministerie-van-shell-zaken.Google Scholar
Di Paola, M., & Jamieson, D. (2018). Climate change and the challenges to democracy. University of Miami Law Review, 72(2), 369424.Google Scholar
Fiorino, D. J. (2018). Can democracy handle climate change? Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Greene, M. (1978). Landscapes of learning. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Hadzigeorgiou, Y. (2012). Fostering a sense of wonder in the science classroom. Research in Science and Education, 42, 9851005.Google Scholar
Jamieson, D. (2020, June 18). Can democracies beat climate change? Politico. Available at: https://www.politico.eu/article/can-democracies-beat-climate-change.Google Scholar
Kaminski, I. (2019, December 20). Dutch supreme court upholds landmark ruling demanding climate action. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/20/dutch-supreme-court-upholds-landmark-ruling-demanding-climate-action.Google Scholar
Kingsnorth, P. (2017). Confessions of a recovering environmentalist. London: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar
Klein, N. (2015). This changes everything. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Laird, S. (2017). Learning to live in the Anthropocene: Our children and ourselves. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 36(3), 265–82.Google Scholar
Leiviskä, A., & Pyy, I. (2021). The unproductiveness of political conflict in education: A Nussbaumian alternative to agonistic citizenship education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 55(4–5), 577–88.Google Scholar
Lindvall, D. (2021). Democracy and the challenge of climate change. Discussion Paper 3/2021. Strömsborg: International IDEA. Available at: https://www.idea.int/publications/catalogue/democracy-and-challenge-climate-change.Google Scholar
Machin, A. (2013). Negotiating cimate change: Radical democracy and the illusion of consensus. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Merry, M. S., & Schinkel, A. (2016). Voting rights for older children and civic education. Public Affairs Quarterly, 30(3), 197213.Google Scholar
Moore, K. D. (2005). The truth of the barnacles: Rachel Carson and the moral significance of wonder. Environmental Ethics, 27(3), 265–77.Google Scholar
Mouffe, C. (2000). The democratic paradox. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Mouffe, C. (2005). On the political. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
NOS (2019a, February 8). Rutte nodigt klimaatspijbelaars uit voor gesprek. NOS Nieuws. Available at: https://nos.nl/artikel/2271061-rutte-nodigt-klimaatspijbelaars-uit-voor-gesprek.Google Scholar
NOS (2019b, February 7). Rutte tegen jongeren: ‘We doen al veel aan klimaat, vraag niet meer’. NOS Nieuws. Available at: https://nos.nl/artikel/2270913-rutte-tegen-jongeren-we-doen-al-veel-aan-klimaat-vraag-niet-meer.Google Scholar
Peters, R. (1970). Ethics & education. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
Sant, E. (2019). Democratic education: A theoretical review. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 655–96.Google Scholar
Schinkel, A. (2021). Wonder and education: On the educational importance of contemplative wonder. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Schinkel, A. (2022). Education in the Anthropocene: A sober assessment. In Drerup, J., Felder, F., Magyar-Haas, V. & Schweiger, G., eds., Creating green citizens: Bildung, Demokratie, und der Klimawandel. Berlin: Springer, pp. 7396.Google Scholar
Sharp, M. (2021, December 2). Climate crisis fuels push to drop voting age to 16. National Observer. Available at: https://www.nationalobserver.com/2021/12/02/news/climate-crisis-fuels-push-drop-voting-age-16.Google Scholar
Shearman, D. J. C., & Smith, J. W. (2007). The climate challenge and the failure of democracy. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2009). Responsibilization. In Wakefield, A. & Fleming, J., eds., The Sage dictionary of policing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 277–8.Google Scholar
Washington, H. (2018). A sense of wonder towards nature: Healing the world through belonging. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Whitehead, A. N. (1962). The aims of education and other essays. London: Ernest Benn.Google Scholar
Zuidervaart, B. (2021, November 15). De lijntjes tussen Shell en het Binnenhof zijn kort. Trouw.Google Scholar

References

Anderson, E. (1999). What is the point of equality? Ethics, 109(2), 287337.Google Scholar
Anderson, E. (2007). Fair opportunity in education: A democratic equality Perspective. Ethics, 117(4), 595622.Google Scholar
Anderson, E. (2020). The epistemology of justice. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 58(1), 629.Google Scholar
Anderson, E. (2021). Epistemic bubbles and authoritarian politics. In Edenberg, E. & Hannon, M., eds., Political epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1129.Google Scholar
Brighouse, H., & Swift, A. (2008). Putting educational equality in its place. Education Finance and Policy, 3(4), 444–66.Google Scholar
Burbules, N. (2022). Promoting critical thinking in anti-critical thinking times: Lessons from COVID Discourse. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 19(1), 510.Google Scholar
Drerup, J. (2022). Kinder, Corona und die Folgen. Eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme. Frankfurt/New York: Campus.Google Scholar
Duschinsky, R., & Collver, J. (2019). “Trust comes from a sense of feeling one’s self understood by another mind”: An interview with Peter Fonagy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 36(3), 224–27.Google Scholar
Duschinksy, R., & Foster, S. (2021). Mentalizing and epistemic trust: The work of Peter Fonagy and colleagues at the Anna Freud Centre. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dwyer, J. G. (2022). Homeschooling by choice and homeschooling by force. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 29(1), 3641.Google Scholar
Engzell, P., Frey, A., & Verhagen, M. (2021). Learning loss due to school closures during the Covid-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17), 17. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2022376118.Google Scholar
Fonagy, P., & Allison, E. (2014): The role of mentalizing and epistemic trust in the therapeutic relationship. Psychotherapy, 51(3), 372–80.Google Scholar
Gheaus, A. (2022). Childhood after COVID: Children’s interests in a flourishing childhood and a more communal childrearing. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 29(1), 6571.Google Scholar
Giesinger, J. (2022). Education as the remedy: The justification of democracy and the epistocratic challgenge. In Culp, J., Drerup, J., de Groot, I., Schinkel, A. & Yacek, D., eds., Liberal democratic education: A paradigm in crisis. Münster: Brill/Mentis, pp. 6781.Google Scholar
Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gutmann, A., & Thompson, D. (2004). Why deliberative democracy? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Habermas, J. (1992). Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Hammerstein, S., König, C., Dreisörner, T., & Frey, A. (2021). Effects of school-related school closures on student achievement – a systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 746289. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.746289.Google Scholar
Levinson, M. (2020). Education ethics during a pandemic. Available at: https://ethics.harvard.edu/files/center-for-ethics/files/17educationalethics2.pdf (accessed: May 25, 2022).Google Scholar
Nguyen, C. T. (2020). Echo chambers and epistemic bubbles. Episteme, 17(2), 141–61.Google Scholar
Nussbaum, M. (2011). Perfectionist liberalism and political liberalism. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 39(1), 345.Google Scholar
Peter, F. (2009). Democratic legitimacy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Peter, F. (2021). Epistemic norms of political deliberation. In Hannon, M. & de Ridder, J., eds., Routledge handbook of political epistemology. New York: Routledge, pp. 395406.Google Scholar
Pettit, P. (2012). Legitimacy and justice in republican perspective. Current Legal Problems, 65, 5982.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Rawls, J. (1993). Political liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

References

Agostinone-Wilson, F. (2005). Fair and balanced to death: Confronting the cult of neutrality in the teacher education classroom. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 3(1), 117.Google Scholar
Appelbaum, B. (2009). Is teaching for social justice a “liberal bias”? Teachers College Record, 111(2), 376408.Google Scholar
Apple, M. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ayers, W., Hunt, J. A., & Quinn, T. (1998). Teaching for social justice. A democracy and education reader. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
Barrett, D. E., Casey, J. E., Visser, R. D., & Headley, K. N. (2012). How do teachers make judgments about ethical and unethical behaviors? Toward the development of a code of conduct for teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 890–98.Google Scholar
Bialystok, L. (2014). Politics without “brainwashing”: A philosophical defence of social justice education. Curriculum Inquiry, 44(3), 413–40.Google Scholar
Camicia, S. P. (2008). Deciding what is a controversial issue: A case study of social studies curriculum controversy. Theory & Research in Social Education, 36(4), 298316.Google Scholar
Clarke, P. T., Anderson, M., & Yoh, A. (2022). “Hey Mom, I missed school today to save the planet!”: Mandatory attendance and student activism – A Canadian perspective. International Journal of Educational Reform, 31(1), 324.Google Scholar
Dearden, R. F. (1981). Controversial issues and the curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 13(1), 3744.Google Scholar
Gardner, P. (1984). Another look at controversial issues and the curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 16(4), 379–85.Google Scholar
Goldston, M. J. D., & Kyzer, P. (2009). Teaching evolution: Narratives with a view from three southern biology teachers in the USA. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 46(7), 762–90.Google Scholar
Gravel, S., & Lefebvre, S. (2012). Impartialité et neutralité autour du programme québécois éthique et culture religieuse. Le programme d’éthique et culture religieuse: l’exigeante conciliation entre le soi, l’autre et le nous, 191–213.Google Scholar
Hand, M. (2007). Should we teach homosexuality as a controversial issue? Theory and Research in Education, 5(1), 6986.Google Scholar
Hand, M. (2008). What should we teach as controversial? A defense of the epistemic criterion. Educational Theory, 58(2), 213–28.Google Scholar
Hand, M., & Levinson, R. (2012). Discussing controversial issues in the classroom. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44(6), 614–29.Google Scholar
Hess, D. E. (2004). Controversies about controversial issues in democratic education. PS: Political Science & Politics, 37(2), 257–61.Google Scholar
Hess, D. E. (2009). Controversy in the classroom: The democratic power of discussion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hess, D. E., & McAvoy, P. (2014). The political classroom: Evidence and ethics in democratic education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Heybach, J. A. (2014). Troubling neutrality: Toward a philosophy of teacher ambiguity. Philosophical Studies in Education, 45, 4354.Google Scholar
Journell, W. (2011a). Teachers’ controversial issue decisions related to race, gender, and religion during the 2008 Presidential Election. Theory & Research in Social Education, 39, 348–92.Google Scholar
Journell, W. (2011b). Teaching politics in secondary education: Analyzing instructional methods from the 2008 Presidential Election. The Social Studies, 102(6), 231–41.Google Scholar
Journell, W. (2011c). The disclosure dilemma in action: A qualitative look at the effect of teacher disclosure on classroom instruction. Journal of Social Studies Research, 35(2), 217–44.Google Scholar
Journell, W. (2012). Ideological homogeneity, school leadership, and political intolerance in secondary education: A study of three high schools during the 2008 Presidential Election. Journal of School Leadership, 22, 569–99.Google Scholar
Journell, W. (2016). Teacher political disclosure as parrhēsia. Teachers College Record, 118(5), 136.Google Scholar
Kazepides, T. (1983) Socialization, initiation and indoctrination. In Kerr, D. H., ed., Philosophy of education 1982: Proceedings of the 38th annual meeting of the philosophy of education society. Normal, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, Illinois State University, pp. 309–18.Google Scholar
Kelly, T. E. (1986). Discussing controversial issues: Four perspectives on the teacher’s role. Theory & Research in Social Education, 14(2), 113–38.Google Scholar
Kelly, D. M., & Brandes, G. M. (2001). Shifting out of “neutral”: Beginning teachers’ struggles with teaching for social justice. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l’education, 437–54.Google Scholar
Loyola High School v. Quebec (Attorney General), 2009 SCC 12. Available at: https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/14703/index.do.Google Scholar
Maxwell, B., & Schwimmer, M. (2016). Seeking the elusive ethical base of teacher professionalism in Canadian codes of ethics. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 468–80.Google Scholar
Maxwell, B., McDonough, K., & Waddington, D. I. (2018). Broaching the subject: Developing law-based principles for teacher free speech in the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 196203.Google Scholar
Moglen, H. (1996). Unveiling the myth of neutrality: Advocacy in the feminist classroom. In Spacks, P. Meyer, ed., Advocacy in the classroom: Problems and possibilities. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 204–12.Google Scholar
Morris, R. W. (2011). Cultivating reflection and understanding: Foundations and orientations of Québec’s Ethics and Religious Culture Program. Religion & Education, 38(3), 188211.Google Scholar
Niemi, N. S., & Niemi, R. G. (2007). Partisanship, participation, and political trust as taught (or not) in high school history and government classes. Theory & Research in Social Education, 35(1), 3261.Google Scholar
Noddings, N. (1993). Educating for intelligent belief or unbelief. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Norman, R. (1975). The neutral teacher? In Brown, S. C., ed., Philosophers discuss education. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 172–87.Google Scholar
Oulton, C., Day, V., Dillon, J., & Grace, M. (2004). Controversial issues – teachers’ attitudes and practices in the context of citizenship education. Oxford review of education, 30(4), 489507.Google Scholar
Parker, W. (2010). Listening to strangers: Classroom discussion in democratic education. Teachers College Record, 112(11), 2815–32.Google Scholar
Payne, K. A., & Journell, W. (2019). “We have those kinds of conversations here…”: Addressing contentious politics with elementary students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 79, 7382.Google Scholar
Peters, R. S. (1965). Education as initiation. In Archambault, R. D., ed., Philosophical analysis and education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 87110.Google Scholar
Reboul, O. (1977). L’endoctrinement. Presses de l’Université de France.Google Scholar
Swalwell, K., & Schweber, S. (2016). Teaching through turmoil: Social studies teachers and local controversial current events. Theory & Research in Social Education, 44(3), 283315.Google Scholar
Tanchuk, N., Rocha, T., & Krus, M. (2021). Is comprehensive liberal social justice education brainwashing? Philosophy of Education, 77(2). doi: 10.47925/77.2.044.Google Scholar
Warnock, M. (1975). The neutral teacher. In Brown, S. C., ed., Philosophers discuss education. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 159–71.Google Scholar
Westheimer, J. (2015). What kind of citizen? Educating our children for the common good. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Zimmerman, J, & Robertson, E. (2017). The case for contention: Teaching controversial issues in American schools. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar