Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-rcd7l Total loading time: 1.039 Render date: 2021-10-19T18:38:35.613Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

33 - Corrective Feedback and Affect

from Part VIII - Individual Differences, Tasks, and Other Language- and Learner-Related Factors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 February 2021

Hossein Nassaji
University of Victoria, British Columbia
Eva Kartchava
Carleton University, Ottawa
Get access


Affect has been one of the most neglected areas in L2 research with the possible exception of language anxiety. This overall lack of scholarly attention to affect appears to be even more evident in corrective feedback (CF) research. This chapter discusses this relatively under-explored area, describing empirical research conducted so far in relation to the role of affective variables in CF-driven L2 learning. Given the scarcity of relevant research and a space limit, the chapter focuses mainly on language anxiety, learner beliefs/attitudes, emotions, and other related issues (e.g., motivation, self-efficacy). The brief overview of research illustrated in this chapter suggests that affect mediates L2 learning processes involving CF, and that learners’ affective states are often influenced by teacher feedback. Findings also indicate that L2 learners experience changes in affective domains, which in turn lead to varying degrees of intra-individual variability in their perceptions of CF. Nevertheless, the current state of affairs does not offer more than a potential link between CF and affective variables, and, of course, is inconclusive in terms of the extent to which these seemingly important affective variables influence the way CF contributes to L2 learning process and overall development.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Akiyama, Y. (2017). Learner beliefs and corrective feedback in telecollaboration: A longitudinal investigation. System, 64, 5873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baralt, M. & Gurzynski-Weiss, L. (2011). Comparing learners’ state anxiety during task-based interaction in computer-mediate and face-to-face communication. Language Teaching Research, 15(2), 201229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barcelos, A. M. F. & Kalaja, P. (2011). Introduction to beliefs about SLA revisited. System, 39(3), 281289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busse, V. (2013). How do students of German perceive feedback practices at university? A motivational exploration. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(4), 406424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Di Loreto, S. & McDonough, K. (2013). The relationship between instructor feedback and ESL student anxiety. TESL Canada Journal, 31(1), 2041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z. & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Egi, T. (2010). Uptake, modified output, and learner perceptions of recasts: Learner responses as language awareness. Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R. (2010). Epilogue: A framework for investigating oral and written corrective feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 335349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandez-Toro, M. & Hurd, S. (2014). A model of factors affecting independent learners’ engagement with feedback on language learning tasks. Distance Education, 35(1), 106125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredricks, J., Blumenfeld, P. C. & Paris, A. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grotjahn, R. (1991). The research programme: Subjective theories. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13(2), 187214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurzynski-Weiss, L. & Baralt, M. (2015). Does type of modified output correspond to learner noticing of feedback? A closer look in face-to-face and computer-mediated task-based interaction. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(6), 13931420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Y. (2017). Mediating and being mediated: Learner beliefs and learner engagement with written corrective feedback. System, 69, 133142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Y. & Hyland, F. (2015). Exploring learner engagement with written corrective feedback in a Chinese tertiary EFL classroom. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 3144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K. (1995). Student affective reactions and the teaching and learning of foreign languages. International Journal of Educational Research, 23(7), 573579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K. (2000). It ain’t over till it’s over: On foreign language anxiety, first language deficits, and the confounding of variables. Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 256259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43(2), 154167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jang, S.-S. (2011). Corrective feedback and language anxiety in L2 processing and achievement. English Teaching, 66(2), 7399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kartchava, E. & Ammar, A. (2014). Learners’ beliefs as mediators of what is noticed and learned in the language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 48(1), 86109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kormos, J. (2012). The role of individual differences in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 390403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, E. J. (2013) Corrective feedback preferences and learner repair among advanced ESL students. System, 41(2), 217230.Google Scholar
Lee, E. J. (2016). Reducing international graduate students’ language anxiety through oral pronunciation corrections. System, 56, 7895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S. (2010). The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 60(2), 309365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipnevich, A. A. & Smith, J. K. (2009). I really need feedback to learn: Students’ perspectives on the effectiveness of the differential feedback messages. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(4), 347367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loewen, S., Li, S., Fei, F., Thompson, A., Nakatsukasa, K., Ahn, S. & Chen, X. (2009). Second language learners’ beliefs about grammar instruction and error correction. Modern Language Journal, 93(1), 91104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loewen, S. & Philp, J. (2006). Recasts in the adult English L2 classroom: Characteristics, explicitness, and effectiveness. Modern Language Journal, 90(4), 536556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R. & Saito, K. (2010). Oral feedback in classroom SLA: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 265302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyster, R., Saito, K. & Sato, M. (2013). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46(1), 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P. D. (1995a). How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 9099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P. D. (1995b). On seeing the forest and the trees: A rejoinder to Sparks and Ganschow. Modern Language Journal, 79(2), 245248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P. D. & Gardener, R. C. (1994a). The effects of induced anxiety on three stages of cognitive processing in computerized vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16(1), 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P. D. & Gardener, R. C. (1994b). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44(2), 283305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P. D. & Gregersen, T. (2012). Affect: The role of language anxiety and other emotions in language learning. In Mercer, S., Ryan, S. & Williams, M. (eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory & practice (pp. 103118). Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackey, A. (2006). Feedback, noticing and instructed second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 27(3), 405430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackey, A. (2012). Input, interaction and corrective feedback in L2 classrooms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mackey, A. & Goo, J. (2007). Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. In Mackey, A. (ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies (pp. 407452). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mahfoodh, O. H. A. (2017). “I feel disappointed”: EFL university students’ emotional responses towards teacher written feedback. Assessing Writing, 31, 5372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nassaji, H. (2016). Interactional feedback in second language teaching and learning: A synthesis and analysis of current research. Language Teaching Research, 20(4), 535562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nassaji, H. & Kartchava, E. (2017). Corrective feedback in second language teaching and learning: Research, theory, applications, implications. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education.Google Scholar
Philp, J. (2003). Constraints on noticing the gap: Nonnative speakers’ noticing of recasts in NS–NNS interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25(1), 99126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pienemann, M., Johnston, M. & Brindley, G. (1988). Constructing an acquisition-based procedure for second language assessment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10(2), 217243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rassaei, E. (2015a). The effects of foreign language anxiety on EFL learners’ perceptions of oral corrective feedback. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 87101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rassaei, E. (2015b). Oral corrective feedback, foreign language anxiety and L2 development. System, 49, 98109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Révész, A. (2011). Task complexity, focus on L2 constructions, and individual differences: A classroom-based study. Modern Language Journal, 95(Supp.), 162181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, J. & Spada, N. (2006). The effectiveness of corrective feedback for the acquisition of L2 grammar: A meta-analysis of the research. In Norris, J. M. & Ortega, L. (eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In Schmidt, R. (ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 163). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulz, R. A. (1996). Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: Students’ and teachers’ views on error correction and the role of grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 343364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulz, R. A. (2001). Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback: USA–Colombia. Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 244258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheen, Y. (2007). The effects of corrective feedback, language aptitude, and learner attitudes on the acquisition of English articles. In Mackey, A. (ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition (pp. 301322). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sheen, Y. (2008). Recasts, language anxiety, modified output, and L2 learning. Language Learning, 58(4), 835874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheen, Y. (2011). Corrective feedback, individual differences and second language learning. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R. L. & Ganschow, L. (1991). Foreign language learning difficulties: Affective or native language aptitude differences? Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R. L. & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language leanring: A response to MacIntyre. Modern Language Journal, 79(2), 235244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L. & Javorsky, J. (2000). Déjà vu all over again: A response to Saito, Horwitz, and Garza. Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 251255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L. & Humbach, N. (2009). Long-term relationships among early first language skills, second language aptitude, second language affect, and later second language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(4), 725755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M. (2013). The inseparability of cognition and emotion in second language learning. Language Teaching, 46(2), 195207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, C. & Liu, Y.-T. (2018). Effects of indirect coded corrective feedback with and without short affective teacher comments on L2 writing performance, learner uptake and motivation. Assessing Writing, 35, 2640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46(2), 327369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waller, L. & Papi, M. (2017). Motivation and feedback: How implicit theories of intelligence predict L2 writers’ motivation and feedback orientation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 35, 5465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, J. (2016). Learners’ oral corrective feedback preferences in relation to their cultural background, proficiency level and types of error. System, 61, 7586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshida, R. (2008). Teachers’ choice and learners’ preference of corrective feedback types. Language Awareness, 17(1), 7893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Z. & Hyland, K. (2018). Student engagement with teacher and automated feedback on L2 writing. Assessing Writing, 36, 90102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, L. J. & Rahimi, M. (2014). EFL learners’ anxiety level and their beliefs about corrective feedback in oral communication classes. System, 42, 429439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats