Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 December 2021
Sexual orientation is considered from Savin-Williams’ continuum perspective, and gender and sexual orientation are both conceptualized from a fluid, rather than a categorical viewpoint. A Minority Stress Model is applied to the experience of LGBTQ+ communities, whereby stress reactions relate to concerns about one’s safety, discrimination, oppression, and internalized oppression, among many other negative mental and physical health outcomes. Proximal and distal stressors are presented in conjunction with the Minority Stress Model and applied to several domains illustrating community gaps and interventions in academic, legislative, religious, economic, medical, social, and social-environmental realms. Key policies are presented supporting greater rights for LGBTQ+ communities. Despite these advances, significant gaps remain with regard to responsiveness to the needs of LGBTQ+ communities. A case study highlights adverse effects and policy regarding conversion therapy.