Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-dfw9g Total loading time: 1.152 Render date: 2022-08-15T06:59:45.950Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

28 - LGBTQ+ Communities

Confronting Discrimination and Gaps in Community Supports

from Part III - Community Psychology in Action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2021

Caroline S. Clauss-Ehlers
Affiliation:
Long Island University, New York
Get access

Summary

Sexual orientation is considered from Savin-Williams’ continuum perspective, and gender and sexual orientation are both conceptualized from a fluid, rather than a categorical viewpoint. A Minority Stress Model is applied to the experience of LGBTQ+ communities, whereby stress reactions relate to concerns about one’s safety, discrimination, oppression, and internalized oppression, among many other negative mental and physical health outcomes. Proximal and distal stressors are presented in conjunction with the Minority Stress Model and applied to several domains illustrating community gaps and interventions in academic, legislative, religious, economic, medical, social, and social-environmental realms. Key policies are presented supporting greater rights for LGBTQ+ communities. Despite these advances, significant gaps remain with regard to responsiveness to the needs of LGBTQ+ communities. A case study highlights adverse effects and policy regarding conversion therapy.

Type
Chapter
Information
The Cambridge Handbook of Community Psychology
Interdisciplinary and Contextual Perspectives
, pp. 590 - 620
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abrams, Z. (2019, October 25). Taking psychological science to the high court. APA News. www.apa.org/news/apa/2019/lgbt-discrimination-supreme-courtGoogle Scholar
Advocates for Youth. (n.d.). LGBTQ health and rights. https://advocatesforyouth.org/issue/lgbtq-health-and-rights/Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (1973). DSM-II 6th printing change: Elimination of homosexuality as a mental disorder and substitution of the new category sexual orientation disturbance. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2018, November 15). APA reiterates strong opposition to conversion therapy. www.psychiatry.org/newsroom/news-releases/apa-reiterates-strong-opposition-to-conversion-therapyGoogle Scholar
American Psychological Association. (2011). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/guidelinesGoogle Scholar
American Psychological Association. (2015a, April 9). American Psychological Association applauds President Obama’s call to end use of therapies intended to change sexual orientation. APA News. www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/04/therapies-sexual-orientationGoogle Scholar
American Psychological Association. (2015b). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832864. doi.org/10.1037/a0039906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angelique, H. L., & Culley, M. R. (2007). History and theory of community psychology: An international perspective of community psychology in the United States: Returning to political, critical, and ecological roots. In Reich, S. M., Riemer, M., Prilleltensky, I., & Montero, M. (Eds.), International community psychology (pp. 3762). Boston: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bearss, N. (2013). Working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in schools. In Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., Serpell, Z. N., & Weist, M. D. (Eds.), Handbook of culturally responsive school mental health (pp. 89105). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, A., & Itaborahy, L. P. (2015). State-sponsored homophobia: A world survey of laws: Criminalisation, protectionand recognition of same-sex love (10th ed.). ILGA.Google Scholar
Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., Chiriboga, D., Hunter, S. J., Roysircar, G., & Tummala-Narra, P. (2019). APA Multicultural Guidelines executive summary: Ecological approach to context, identity, and intersectionality. American Psychologist, 74(2), 232244. doi.org/10.1037/amp0000382CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
CNN Editorial Research. (2020, June 17). LGBTQ rights milestones fast facts. Retrieved July 12, 2020, from www.cnn.com/2015/06/19/us/lgbt-rights-milestones-fast-facts/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
Cohen, R. D. (2019, January 20). Medical students push for more LGBT health training to address disparities. NPR. www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/01/20/683216767/medical-students-push-for-more-lgbt-health-training-to-address-disparitiesGoogle Scholar
Conley, G. (2020, July 8). CNN Opinion: J.K. Rowling’s bigotry is painful and maddening. www.cnn.com/2020/07/07/opinions/jk-rowling-conversion-therapy-transphobia-conley/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
Craig, S. L., McInroy, L., McCready, L. T., & Alaggia, R. (2015). Media: A catalyst for resilience in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. Journal of LGBT Youth, 12(3), 254275. doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2015.1040193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denato, M., Craig, S., & Smith, M. (2010). The vital role of social workers in community partnerships: The alliance for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 27(5), 323334. doi.org/10.1007/s10560–010-0210-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drescher, J., Schwartz, A., Casoy, F., et al. (2016, June 1). The growing regulation of conversion therapy. Journal of Medical Regulation, 102(2), 712. https://meridian.allenpress.com/jmr/article/102/2/7/80848/The-Growing-Regulation-of-Conversion-TherapyCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Earnshaw, V. A., Reisner, S. L., Juvonen, J., et al. (2017, October 1). LGBTQ bullying: Translating research to action in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 140(4), e20170432. doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-0432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzsimons, T. (2019, November 21). American Medical Association backs nationwide conversion therapy ban. NBC News. www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/american-medical-association-backs-nationwide-conversion-therapy-ban-n1088731Google Scholar
Flores, A., & Park, A. (2018). Examining the relationship between social acceptance of LGBT people and legal inclusion of sexual minorities. Los Angeles: UCLA School of Law Williams Institute.Google Scholar
Flores, C. A., & Sheely-Moore, A. I. (2020, April 14). Relational-cultural theory–based interventions with LGBTQ college students. Journal of College Counseling, 23(1), 7184. doi.org/10.1002/jocc.12150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forenza, B. (2017). Exploring the affirmative role of gay icons in coming out. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6(4), 338347. doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2013). Measuring community connectedness among diverse sexual minority populations. Journal of Sex Research, 49(1), 3649. doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2011.565427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gahagan, J., & Colpitts, E. (2017). Understanding and measuring LGBTQ pathways to health: A scoping review of strengths-based health promotion approaches in LGBTQ health research. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(1), 95121. doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2016.1172893CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gelaude, D. J., Sovine, M. L., Swayzer, R., & Herbst, J. H. (2013). HIV prevention programs delivered by community based organizations to young transgender persons of color: Lessons learned to improve future program implementation. International Journal of Transgenderism, 14(3), 127139. doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2013.824846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gold, M. (2018, June 21). The ABCs of L.G.B.T.Q.I.A.+. The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2018/06/21/style/lgbtq-gender-language.htmlGoogle Scholar
Gowin, M., Taylor, E., Dunnington, J., Alshuwaiyer, G., & Cheney, M. (2017). Needs of a silent minority: Mexican transgender asylum seekers. Health Promotion Practice, 18(3), 332340. doi.org/10.1177/1524839917692750CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., Villenas, C., & Giga, N. M. (2016). From teasing to torment: School climate revisited: A survey of U.S. secondary school students and teachers. GLSEN. www.glsen.org/research/teasing-torment-school-climate-revisited-survey-us-secondaGoogle Scholar
Horn, S., Kosciw, J. G., & Russell, S. (2009). Special issue introduction: New research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: Studying lives in context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(7), 863866. doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9420-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Human Rights Campaign. (2018a). Youth report. www.hrc.org/resources/youth-reportGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Campaign. (2018b, August 1). Stances of faiths on LGBTQ issues: Roman Catholic Church. www.hrc.org/resources/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-roman-catholic-churchGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Campaign. (2018c, August 1). Stances of faiths on LGBTQ issues: Presbyterian Church (USA). www.hrc.org/resources/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-presbyterian-church-usaGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Campaign. (2018d, August 1). Stances of faiths on LGBTQ issues: Reform Judaism. www.hrc.org/resources/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-reform-judaismGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Campaign. (n.d.a) Talking to grandparents and other adult family members. www.hrc.org/resources/transgender-children-and-youth-talking-to-grandparents-and-other-adult-famiGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Campaign. (n.d.b). Faith positions. www.hrc.org/resources/faith-positionsGoogle Scholar
Jenkins, W. (2020, June 22). The Supreme Court reaffirmed LBGT protections against discrimination. How can we ensure those rights are realized? Urban Wire. www.urban.org/urban-wire/supreme-court-reaffirmed-lbgt-protections-against-discrimination-how-can-we-ensure-those-rights-are-realizedGoogle Scholar
Jones, S. W., Sood, A. B., Bearss, N., & Clauss-Ehlers, C. S. (2020). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth and social justice. In Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., Sood, A. B., & Weist, M. D. (Eds.), Social justice for children and young people: International perspectives (pp. 123137). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keith, E., & Gagliano, K. (2018). Lack of trust in law enforcement hinders reporting of LBGTQ crimes. The Center for Public Integrity. https://publicintegrity.org/politics/lack-of-trust-in-law-enforcement-hinders-reporting-of-lbgtq-crimes/Google Scholar
Kim, M., Wilson, L. M., Biery, N., & Frutos, B. (2019). The attitude of medical practices toward LGBTQ older adults before and after intervention. Innovation in Aging, 3(Suppl. 1), S491. doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igz038.1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallory, C., Brown, T. N. T., & Conron, K. J. (2019, June). Conversion therapy and LGBT youth. Williams Institute. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/conversion-therapy-and-lgbt-youth/.Google Scholar
McCandless, S. (2018). LGBT homeless youth and policing. Public Integrity, 20(6), 558570. doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2017.1402738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McConnell, E., Janulis, P., Phillips, G., Truong, R., & Birkett, M. (2018). Multiple minority stress and LGBT community resilience among sexual minority men. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 5(1), 112. doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000265CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mereish, E., & Poteat, V. (2015). A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(3), 425437. doi.org/10.1037/cou0000088CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer, I. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(1), 3856. doi.org/10.2307/2137286CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674697. doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milan, T. (2017, July 16). ‘Queen Sugar’ actor Brian Michael Smith comes out as transgender. NBC News. www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/queen-sugar-actor-brian-michael-smith-comes-out-transgender-n783451Google Scholar
Mills, K. (2015). APA’s role in striking down prohibitions on same-sex marriage. APA Monitor, 46(8), 12.Google Scholar
Minero, E. (2018, April 19). Schools struggle to support LGBTQ students. Edutopia. www.edutopia.org/article/schools-struggle-support-lgbtq-studentsGoogle Scholar
Morandini, J., Blaszczynski, A., Dar-Nimrod, I., & Ross, M. (2015). Minority stress and community connectedness among gay, lesbian and bisexual Australians: A comparison of rural and metropolitan localities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(3), 260266. doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12364CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, E. M. (2013). Contemporary issues in sexual orientation and identity development in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 1(1), 5266. doi.org/10.1177/2167696812469187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Movement Advancement Project. (n.d.). LGBTQ people in the workplace: Demographics, experiences and pathways to equity. www.lgbtmap.org/lgbt-workers-briefGoogle Scholar
National Coalition for the Homeless. (n.d.). LGBT homelessness. https://nationalhomeless.org/issues/lgbt/Google Scholar
National LGBTQ Task Force. (2013, November 14). LGBT workers of color are among the most disadvantaged in the American workforce. www.thetaskforce.org/lgbt-workers-of-color-are-among-the-most-disadvantaged-in-the-american-workforce/Google Scholar
Newcomb, M. E., LaSala, M. C., Bouris, A., et al. (2019, March 7). The influence of families on LGBTQ youth health: A call to action for innovation in research and intervention development. LGBT Health, 6(4), 139145. doi.org/10.1089/lgbt.2018.0157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, K. R., Durwood, L., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities. Pediatrics, 137, e2015323. doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1436CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paceley, M. S. (2015). Social and community support among nonmetropolitan gender and sexual minority youth: A mixed methods study [Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.Google Scholar
Pachankis, J., Clark, K., Burton, C., et al. (2020). Sex, status, competition, and exclusion: Intraminority stress from within the gay community and gay and bisexual men’s mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(3), 713740. doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000282CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, C., Hirsch, J., Philbin, M., & Parker, R. (2018). The urgent need for research and interventions to address family-based stigma and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(4), 383393. doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.05.018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Platt, L., Wolf, J., & Scheitle, C. (2018). Patterns of mental health care utilization among sexual orientation minority groups. Journal of Homosexuality, 65(2), 135153. doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2017.1311552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Politico Staff. (2013, June 26). 26 gay-rights milestones. Politico. www.politico.com/gallery/26-gay-rights-milestones?slide=25Google Scholar
Pride at Work. (2017, July 6). Workplace discrimination. www.prideatwork.org/issues/workplace-discrimination/Google Scholar
Ramgopal, K. (2018, June 22). Only 0.1 percent of elected officials are LGBTQ, new report finds. NBC News. www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/only-0-1-percent-elected-officials-are-lgbtq-new-report-n885871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raynor, S. (2020, February 19). LGBT workplace issues: Why the majority of LGBT workers still hide their identity at work [Blog post]. Everfi. https://everfi.com/blog/workplace-training/lgbt-workplace-issues-hide-their-identity/Google Scholar
Reuters Staff. (2015, April 9). Obama calls for end to conversion therapy for LGBT youth. Scientific American. www.scientificamerican.com/article/obama-calls-for-end-to-conversion-therapy-for-lgbt-youth/Google Scholar
Rubinstein, G. (1995). The decision to remove homosexuality from the DSM: Twenty years later. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(3), 416427. doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.1995.49.3.416CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutherford, K., McIntyre, J., Daley, A., & Ross, L. (2012). Development of expertise in mental health service provision for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. Medical Education, 46(9), 903913. doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04272.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savage, R. (2020, February 26). Nine countries seek to ban gay ‘conversion therapy.’ Thomson Reuters Foundation. https://news.trust.org/item/20200225232358-ooujw/Google Scholar
Savin-Williams, R. C. (2005). The new gay teenager. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savin-Williams, R. C. (2016a). Becoming who I am: Young men on being gay. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savin-Williams, R. C. (2016b). Sexual orientation: Categories or continuum? Commentary on Bailey et al. Psychology Science in the Public Interest: A Journal of the American Psychological Society, 17(2), 3744. doi.org/10.1177/1529100616637618CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savin-Williams, R. C. (2017). Mostly straight: Sexual fluidity among men. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shilo, G., Yossef, I., & Savaya, R. (2016). Religious coping strategies and mental health among religious Jewish gay and bisexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 15511561. doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0567-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegel, D. (2019). Transgender experiences and transphobia in higher education. Sociology Compass, 13(10). doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, C., Cunningham, S., & Freyd, J. (2016). Sexual violence, institutional betrayal, and psychological outcomes for LGB college students. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2(4), 351360. doi.org/10.1037/tps0000094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snapp, S., Watson, R., Russell, S., Diaz, R., & Ryan, C. (2015). Social support networks for LGBT young adults: Low cost strategies for positive adjustment. Family Relations, 64(3), 420430. doi.org/10.1111/fare.12124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Society for Community Research and Action. (n.d.). What is community psychology? www.scra27.org/what-we-do/what-community-psychology/Google Scholar
Soohinda, G., Singh, J. P., Sampath, H., & Dutta, S. (2019). Self-reported sexual orientation, relationships pattern, social connectedness, disclosure, and self-esteem in Indian men who use online gay dating websites. Open Journal of Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, 10(1), 3743. doi.org/10.5958/2394-2061.2019.00010.7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sopelsa, B. (2020, March 4). Virginia becomes 20th state to ban conversion therapy for minors. NBC News. www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/virginia-becomes-20th-state-ban-conversion-therapy-minors-n1148421Google Scholar
Spitzer, R. (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200 participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(5), 403417. doi.org/10.1023/A:1025647527010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitzer, R. (2012). Spitzer reassesses his 2003 study of reparative therapy of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(4), 757. doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9966-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
The Trevor Project. (2019, January 24). Washington, D.C.’s ACT 22-573 becomes first U.S. law to include vulnerable LGBTQ adults in conversion therapy protections. www.thetrevorproject.org/trvr_press/washington-d-c-s-act-22-573-becomes-first-u-s-law-to-include-vulnerable-lgbtq-adults-in-conversion-therapy-protections/Google Scholar
Tomita, T. (2019). Gender-affirming medical interventions and mental health in transgender adults. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 6(2), 182193. doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Totenberg, N. (2020, June 15). Supreme Court delivers major victory to LGBTQ employees. NPR. www.npr.org/2020/06/15/863498848/supreme-court-delivers-major-victory-to-lgbtq-employeesGoogle Scholar
Valentine, S., & Shipherd, J. (2018). A systematic review of social stress and mental health among transgender and gender non-conforming people in the United States. Clinical Psychology Review, 66, 2438. doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2018.03.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, T., Kelman, E., & Cahill, S. (2016, September). What the new Affordable Care Act nondiscrimination rule means for providers and LGBT patients. The Fenway Institute. https://fenwayhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/HHS-ACA-1557-LGBT-Non-Discimination-Brief.pdfGoogle Scholar
Wehse, M., Quinn, A., Legerski, E., & Reeves, B. (2018). Online resources and the transgender community [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater]. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.Google Scholar
White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2015, November 11). Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 222231. doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winderman, K., Martin, C., & Smith, N. (2018). Career indecision among LGB college students: The role of minority stress, perceived social support, and community affiliation. Journal of Career Development, 45(6), 536550. doi.org/10.1177/0894845317722860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yep, I’m gay. (1997, April 14). TIME Magazine [Cover], 149(15).Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×